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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 265
Innate cell profiles during the acute and convalescent phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children

AUTHOR(S)
Melanie R. Neeland; Samantha Bannister; Vanessa Clifford (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Nature Communications volume
Children have mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) confirmed disease (COVID-19) compared to adults and the immunological mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. Here, it is reported acute and convalescent innate immune responses in 48 children and 70 adults infected with, or exposed to, SARS-CoV-2. It has been found clinically that mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is characterised by reduced circulating subsets of monocytes (classical, intermediate, non-classical), dendritic cells and natural killer cells during the acute phase. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-infected adults show reduced proportions of non-classical monocytes only. It has also been observed increased proportions of CD63+ activated neutrophils during the acute phase to SARS-CoV-2 in infected children. Children and adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but negative on PCR testing display increased proportions of low-density neutrophils that have been observed up to 7 weeks post exposure. This study characterises the innate immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection and household exposure in children.
35. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine testing and trials in the pediatric population: biologic, ethical, research, and implementation challenges

AUTHOR(S)
Dan M. Cooper; Behnoush Afghani; Carrie L. Byington

Published: February 2021   Journal: Pediatric Research
As the nation implements SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in adults at an unprecedented scale, it is now essential to focus on the prospect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in pediatric populations. To date, no children younger than 12 years have been enrolled in clinical trials. Key challenges and knowledge gaps that must be addressed include (1) rationale for vaccines in children, (2) possible effects of immune maturation during childhood, (3) ethical concerns, (4) unique needs of children with developmental disorders and chronic conditions, (5) health inequities, and (6) vaccine hesitancy.
Breastfeeding and COVID-19 vaccination: position statement of the Italian scientific societies

AUTHOR(S)
Riccardo Davanzo; Massimo Agosti; Irene Cetin (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (SIMP), the Italian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (SIGO), the Italian Association of Hospital ObstetriciansGynecologists (AOGOI) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) have made an ad hoc consensus statement. Currently, knowledge regarding the administration of COVID-19 vaccine to the breastfeeding mother is limited. Nevertheless, as health benefits of breastfeeding are well demonstrated and since biological plausibility suggests that the health risk for the nursed infant is unlikely, Italian scientific societies conclude that COVID-19 vaccination is compatible with breastfeeding.
Comparison of acute pneumonia caused by SARS-COV-2 and other respiratory viruses in children: a retrospective multi-center cohort study during COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Guang-Li Ren; Xian-Feng Wang; Jun Xu (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Military Medical Research
Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in an adolescent Nigerian girl with COVID-19: a call for vigilance in Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Chizaram Onyeghala; Datonye Alasia; Orezioghene Eyaru (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID
Most reports of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) have come from Europe and North America. The paucity of reports in Africa is in contrast with the demographics of the series in New York, Paris and UK with children of African ancestry accounting for over 40%, of all cases of MIS-C. With the global trend of higher prevalence of MIS-C in children of African ancestry, enhanced surveillance and awareness for this syndrome in children with COVID-19 in Africa are therefore important. A case report of a 12-year old Nigerian girl with MIS-C is presented in line with the WHO global surveillance especially in areas were MIS-C is considered a rarity. This case report stimulates a call for vigilance and expanded effort at surveillance to promote early recognition and diagnosis of MIS-C in Nigeria and Africa. The favourable outcome and experience from this case will create awareness, expand knowledge, and support clinicians in Nigeria and the African continent in their approach to other potential cases.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 16 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: Nigeria
A public health approach for deciding policy on infant feeding and mother–infant contact in the context of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nigel Rollins; Nicole Minckas; Fyezah Jehan (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: The Lancet Global Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concern about the possibility and effects of mother–infant transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through breastfeeding and close contact. The insufficient available evidence has resulted in differing recommendations by health professional associations and national health authorities. This paper presents an approach for deciding public health policy on infant feeding and mother–infant contact in the context of COVID-19, or for future emerging viruses, that balances the risks that are associated with viral infection against child survival, lifelong health, and development, and also maternal health.
Impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study

AUTHOR(S)
Francesca Crovetto; Fàtima Crispi; Elisa Llurba (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
This population-based study aims to describe the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes. Prospective, population-based study including pregnant women consecutively attended at first/second trimester or at delivery at three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG and IgM/IgA) were measured in all participants and nasopharyngeal RT-PCR was performed at delivery.
The critical need for pooled data on COVID-19 in African children: an AFREhealth call for action through multi-country research collaboration

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia A. Sam-Agudu; Helena Rabie; Michel Tshiasuma Pipo (et al.)

Published: February 2021
Globally, there are prevailing knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents; however, these gaps are especially wide in African countries. The availability of robust age-disaggregated data is a critical first step in improving knowledge on disease burden and manifestations of COVID-19 among children. Furthermore, it is essential to improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2 interactions with comorbidities and co-infections such as HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sickle cell disease and malnutrition, which are highly prevalent among children in sub-Saharan Africa.
The role of children in the spread of COVID-19: using household data from Bnei Brak, Israel, to estimate the relative susceptibility and infectivity of children

AUTHOR(S)
Itai Dattner; Yair Goldberg; Guy KatrielI (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Plos One
One of the significant unanswered questions about COVID-19 epidemiology relates to the role of children in transmission. This study uses data on infections within households in order to estimate the susceptibility and infectivity of children compared to those of adults. The data were collected from households in the city of Bnei Brak, Israel, in which all household members were tested for COVID-19 using PCR (637 households, average household size of 5.3). In addition, serological tests were performed on a subset of the individuals in the study.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 19 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: Israel
Maternal and perinatal outcomes related to COVID‐19 and pregnancy: overview of systematic reviews

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Vergara‐Merino; Nicolás Meza; Constanza Couve‐Pérez (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Evidence about COVID‐19 and pregnancy has rapidly increased since December 2019, making it difficult to make rigorous evidence‐based decisions. The objective of this overview of systematic reviews is to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the current evidence on prognosis of COVID‐19 in pregnant women.
Definition and categorization of the timing of mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: February 2021
This scientific brief was prepared based on results of evidence synthesis and a WHO expert consultation. The WHO COVID-19 LENS (Living Evidence Synthesis) working group consolidated available evidence, based on rapid reviews of the literature and results of a living systematic review on pregnancy and COVID-19 (up to October 7, 2020), on potential mechanisms of vertical transmission of infectious pathogens, feasibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, data related to interpretation of positive SARS-CoV-2 virologic and serologic neonatal tests, lessons from diagnosis of other congenital infections, and existing proposed definitions to classify timing of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. WHO convened a multidisciplinary, international panel of experts between October and November 2020 to review the evidence and propose a consensus initial classification system for the timing of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The panel included experts in obstetrics, neonatology, paediatrics, epidemiology, virology, infectious disease, congenital infections, and placental pathology. The selection of the panel ensured geographic representation, gender balance, and no important conflicts of interest, in accordance with WHO standard procedures.
Egyptian school children awareness and precautions in Covid19 pandemic: a cross sectional survey study

AUTHOR(S)
Manal A. Shehata; Ahmed Adel; Ayman F. Armaneous (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Bulletin of the National Research Centre
COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) is showing a wide global spread, and urgent joint international eforts is required to the control of this pandemic, the awareness of people towards infectious viruses still the main factor to limit the widespread of disease. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness and attitude towards COVID-19 among a sample of Egyptian school children, using a web-based questionnaire.
SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children and staff in daycare centres during a nationwide lockdown in France: a cross-sectional, multicentre, seroprevalence study

AUTHOR(S)
Eric Lachassinne; Loïc de Pontual; Marion Caseris

Published: February 2021
The extent to which very young children contribute to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in daycare centres that remained open for key workers' children during a nationwide lockdown in France. Children and staff who attended one of 22 daycare centres during a nationwide lockdown in France (between March 15 and May 9, 2020) were included in this cross-sectional, multicentre, seroprevalence study. Hospital staff not occupationally exposed to patients with COVID-19, or to children, were enrolled in a comparator group. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in children, daycare centre staff, and the comparator group.
COVID-19: knowledge of mode of spread and preventive practices among college adolescents in Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Ann E. Aronu; Awoere T. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Corona virus pandemic (COVID 19) has emerged as the single most important topical issue and poses a challenge to medicine. Adolescent school children are exposed to a varying degree. The study is aimed to determine the knowledge of the mode of spread and preventive practices among college adolescents attending six secondary schools in Enugu metropolis.

The association of viral load and disease severity in children with COVID‐19

AUTHOR(S)
Kubra Aykac; Burcu Ceylan Cura Yayla; Yasemin Ozsurekci (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
It is still not fully understood how to predict the future prognosis of patients at the diagnosis COVID‐19 due to the wide clinical range of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether SARS‐CoV‐2 viral load could predict the clinical course of pediatric patients. It was conducted retrospectively with medical records of pediatric patients who were tested for SARS‐CoV2 between April 12, and October 25, 2020 in the University of Health Sciences, Ankara Educating and Training Hospital and Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 19 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, COVID-19, hospitalization | Countries: Turkey
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.