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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 667
Women’s views on accepting COVID-19 vaccination during and after pregnancy, and for their babies: a multi-methods study in the UK

AUTHOR(S)
Helen Skirrow; Sara Barnett; Sadie Bell (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

COVID-19 vaccines are advised for pregnant women in the United Kingdom (UK) however COVID-19 vaccine uptake among pregnant women is inadequate. An online survey and semi-structured interviews were used to investigate pregnant women’s views on COVID-19 vaccine acceptability for themselves when pregnant, not pregnant and for their babies. One thousand one hundred eighty-one women, aged over 16 years, who had been pregnant since 23rd March 2020, were surveyed between 3rd August–11th October 2020. Ten women were interviewed.

Severe COVID-19 and MIS-C in children & adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Allison M. Blatz; Adrienne G. Randolph

Published: January 2022   Journal: Critical Care Clinics
Severe complications related to COVID-19 occur infrequently in children and adolescents. The two major types of life-threatening complications are acute respiratory failure from acute COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). MIS-C is a post-infectious complication occurring approximately 3-6 weeks after an asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. For both types of complications, supportive ICU care is provided. For MIS-C critical illness, immunomodulation is prescribed to reverse hyperinflammation and its cardiac and other sequelae
Comparison of the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in children and adolescents in a middle-income country: Clinical impact associated with SARS-CoV-2 gamma lineage

AUTHOR(S)
Eduardo A. Oliveira; Ana Cristina Simões e Silva; Maria Christina L. Oliveira (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

To evaluate the severity and clinical outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant in children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. In this observational retrospective cohort study, we performed an analysis of all 21,591 hospitalized patients aged < 20 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection registered in a national database in Brazil. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the predominance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages (WAVE1, n = 11,574 and WAVE2, n = 10,017). The characteristics of interest were age, sex, geographic region, ethnicity, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by competing-risks analysis, using cumulative incidence function. A predictive Fine-Gray competitive risks model was developed based on WAVE1 cohort with temporal validation in WAVE2 cohort.

Parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy: a cross-sectional survey in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Aida Bianco; Giorgia Della Polla; Silvia Angelillo (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines

Understanding parents’ hesitancy against COVID-19 vaccination for their children is useful. A self-administered online survey was conducted among 394 parents with at least one child aged 12–18 years in Italy.

Neonatal outcome among pregnant women with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Azam Amirian; Reza Pakzad; Vajiheh Hasanpour (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine

COVID-19 has raised many concerns about the possible side effects of pregnancy. There is currently no conclusive evidence of the vertical transmission of COVID-19. Accordingly, this paper is a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis investigated neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with COVID-19. PubMed, Web of Science (WoS), EMBASE, ProQuest, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched up to November 2020. The Cochran's Q-test and I2 statistic were applied to assess heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled estimate of the mean, and a meta-regression method was utilized to investigate the factors affecting heterogeneity between studies.

Masking for school-age children with epilepsy: we do have consensus!: masking for children with epilepsy

AUTHOR(S)
Anthony I. Fine; Lily C. Wong-Kisiel; Katherine C. Nickels (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of child neurology

This study was designed to assess current recommendations from child neurologists and epileptologists on masking for school-age children with epilepsy. A 7-item survey was created and sent out to members of the Child Neurology Society and Pediatric Epilepsy Research Consortium in August of 2021 to assess current practice and provider recommendations on masking.

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children in Moscow in 2020: clinical features and impact on circulation of other respiratory viruses

AUTHOR(S)
Alexander S. Yakovlev; Ilmira K. Belyaletdinova; Lyudmila N. Mazankova (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases

The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the circulation of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in hospitalized children. 226 and 864 children admitted to Children's City Clinical Hospital with acute respiratory infection in September-November of 2018 and 2020 in Moscow were tested for respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR and Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Chlamydia pneumoniae using ELISA.

The little jab book: a playbook for COVID-19 vaccination in Nepal
Institution: Save the Children
Published: January 2022

Inspired by The Little Jab Book, this playbook uncovers underlying reasons for vaccine hesitancy in Nepal and includes localized, behavioral science-informed solutions to increase uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. The Busara Center for Behavioral Economics, Common Thread, Save the Children Nepal, and Save the Children’s Center for Utilizing Behavioral Insights for Children (CUBIC) collaborated to conduct quantitative and qualitative research in Province 2 to uncover barriers and enablers to vaccination, and then co-created potential solutions with local and national stakeholders; this research project resulted in 9 behavioral science interventions for parents and health workers in Nepal.

Early experience of COVID-19 vaccine-related adverse events among adolescents and young adults with rheumatic diseases: a single-center study

AUTHOR(S)
Fatih Haslak; Aybuke Gunalp; Memnune Nur Cebi (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases

Considering the concerns regarding the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine safety among pediatric patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) due to a lack of data, an urgent need for studies evaluating safety profiles of vaccines emerged. Among participants vaccinated by CoronaVac inactive SARS-CoV-2 or BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine, healthy children under 18 and patients under 21 with an at least 1-year follow-up period in our department for a childhood-onset rheumatic disease were included into this cross-sectional study.

Scaling the children immunization app (CIMA) to support child refugees and parents in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic: a social capital approach to scale a smartphone application in Zaatari Camp, Jordan

AUTHOR(S)
Yousef S. Khader; Wadih Maalouf; Mohammad Abu Khdair (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Children vaccination is a key intervention for their survival, especially among refugees. Yet, children vaccination registration is done manually in refugees camps and there is no possibility to send reminders to parents to come back on time. This study aimed to boost the parental registration of children’s vaccination records on a Children Immunization app (CIMA) while also availing the parents with useful parenting skills under COVID-19-related stress. It incorporated United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Parenting Skills under COVID-19 information material, through CIMA in Arabic and English languages. 1100 children were recruited in February–March 2021, through a community health promotion dissemination approach. A team of two nurses from the local population and two volunteers (one trained nurse and one trained social worker), from the camp, was formed. They promoted the CIMA app at two clinics and through households visits in Zaatari refugee camp. Qualitative data on impressions and observations of the interactions with the Zaatari camp community were also collected.

The thoughts of parents to vaccinate their children against COVID-19: an assessment of situations that may affect them

AUTHOR(S)
Melike Y. Çelik

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

This study examined what affects parents' thoughts about vaccinating their children. It explored whether parents' attitudes towards the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and their perception of control of COVID-19 were related to their thoughts about vaccinating their children. The sample of this descriptive study consisted of parents (n = 274) with children between the ages of 0–12. To collect data on parents’ thoughts and opinions participants completed the Attitudes Towards COVID-19 Vaccine Scale and the Perception of Control of COVID-19 Scale.

Parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza after the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Emad Salawati; Hassan Alwafi; Mohammed Samannodi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Patient Preference and Adherence
This paper aims to explore the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on caregivers’ willingness to vaccinate their children against influenza in 2021 in Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing this decision. An online survey of 2501 caregivers in Saudi Arabia with children aged 6 months– 18 years was conducted between July 15, 2021, and August 2, 2021. A convenience sample of participants that met the inclusion criteria was used as the study sample. Social Science Package Statistical (SPSS) was used for the statistical analysis. Categorical variables were reported as frequencies and percentages. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables to assess the difference between the variables and the parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza after the COVID-19 pandemic.
Stress, dependence, and COVID-19–related changes in past 30-day marijuana, electronic cigarette, and cigarette use among youth and young adults

AUTHOR(S)
Stephanie L. Clendennen; Kathleen R. Case; Aslesha Sumbe (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Tobacco Use Insights

Studies show smoking and vaping behaviors increase risk of contracting and worse symptoms of COVID-19. This study examines whether past 30-day youth and young adult users of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and cigarettes self-reported changes in their use of these substances due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and cross-sectional associations between perceived stress, nicotine or marijuana dependence, and COVID-19–related changes in use. Participants were 709 past 30-day self-reported substance users from the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance study (TATAMS; mean age = 19; 58% female; 38% Hispanic, 35% white). Multiple logistic regression models assessed cross-sectional associations between perceived stress and dependence and increased, decreased, or sustained past 30-day use of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and cigarettes due to COVID-19 (e.g., “Has your marijuana use changed due to the COVID-19 outbreak?”). Covariates included age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES), dependence (exposure: stress), and stress (exposure: dependence).

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children and young people in households and schools: a meta-analysis of population-based and contact-tracing studies

AUTHOR(S)
Russell Viner; Claire Waddington; Oliver Mytton (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection
The role of children and young people (CYP) in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in household and educational settings remains unclear. This study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of contact-tracing and population-based studies at low risk of bias. It searched 4 electronic databases on 28 July 2021 for contact-tracing studies and population-based studies informative about transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from 0-19 year olds in household or educational settings. It excluded studies at high risk of bias, including from under-ascertainment of asymptomatic infections. It undertook multilevel random effects meta-analyses of secondary attack rates (SAR: contact-tracing studies) and school infection prevalence, and used meta-regression to examine the impact of community SARS-CoV-2 incidence on school infection prevalence.
Students’ age and parental level of education influence COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Zychlinsky Scharff; Mira Paulsen; Paula Schaefer (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Widespread vaccination in pursuit of herd immunity has been recognized as the most promising approach to ending the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The vaccination of children and adolescents has been extensively debated and the first COVID-19 vaccine is now approved in European countries for children aged > 12 years of age. This study investigates vaccination hesitancy in a cohort of German secondary school students. It assessed 903 students between age 9 and 20 in the period between 17 May 2021 and 30 June 2021. 68.3% (n = 617) reported intention to undergo COVID-19 vaccination, while 7% (n = 62) did not want to receive the vaccine and 15% (n = 135) were not yet certain. Age and parental level of education influenced COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Children under the age of 16 as well as students whose parents had lower education levels showed significantly higher vaccine hesitancy.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.