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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 474
Does Covid-19 in children have a milder course than Influenza?

Kamil Yılmaz; Velat Şen; Fesih Aktar (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: The International Journal of Clinical Practice

In December 2019, a novel type of coronavirus infection emerged in the Wuhan province of China and began to spread rapidly. In this study, we aimed to determine the differences between COVID-19 disease and Influenza. This retrospective study included 164 children with COVID-19, as well as 46 children with Influenza. The two groups were compared with respect to clinical and laboratory parameters and the rates of intensive care and mechanical ventilation requirement.

The young age and plant-based diet hypothesis for low SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa

Jack N. Losso; MerryJean N. Losso; Marco Toc (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Since the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), in December 2019, the infection has spread around the globe. Some of the risk factors include social distancing, mask wearing, hand washing with soap, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and dysbiosis. Evidence has shown the incidence of total infection and death rates to be lower in sub-Saharan Africa when compared with North Africa, Europe and North America and many other parts of the world. The higher the metabolic syndrome rate, the higher the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Africa has a lower rate of metabolic syndrome risk than many other continents. This paradox has puzzled several in the biomedical and scientific communities. Published results of research have demonstrated the exciting correlation that the combination of young age of the population coupled with their native plant-based diet has lowered their risk factors. The plant-based diet include whole grains (millet, sorghum), legumes (black-eye peas, dry beans, soybean), vegetables, potato, sweet potato, yams, squash, banana, pumpkin seeds, and moringa leaves, and lower consumption of meat. The plant-based diet results in a different gut microbiota than of most of the rest of the world. This has a significant impact on the survival rate of other populations. The “plant-based diet” results in lower rates of obesity, diabetes and dysbiosis, which could contribute to lower and less severe infections. However, these hypotheses need to be supported by more clinical and biostatistics data.
Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on children with asthma in Jordan: a parental questionnaire

Montaha Al-Iede; Karen Waters; Shereen M Aleidi (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open

This paper aims to evaluate the impact of a 10-week lockdown on children with asthma aged 4–17 years in terms of presentations to the emergency department (ED), frequency of admissions, compliance with medications and changes in pulmonary function testing results. It is a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study using Google Forms to collect parents’ and caregivers’ responses after they consented to participation.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 5 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, infectious disease, respiratory diseases | Countries: Jordan
A co-design of clinical virtual care pathways to engage and support families requiring neonatal intensive care in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (COVES study)

Marsha Campbell-Yeo; Justine Dol; Brianna Richardson (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Neonatal Nursing

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, family presence restrictions in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) were enacted to limit disease transmission. This has resulted in communication challenges, negatively impacting family integrated care. To develop clinical care pathways to ensure optimal neonatal care to support families in response to parental presence restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Vaccination against COVID-19 infection: the need of evidence for diabetic and obese pregnant women

A. Lapolla; M. G. Dalfrà; S. Burlina

Published: June 2021   Journal: Acta Diabetologica

The recent availability of vaccines against COVID-19 has sparked national and international debate on the feasibility of administering them to pregnant and lactating women, given that these vaccines have not been tested to assess their safety and efficacy in such women. As concerns the risks of COVID-induced disease, published data show that pregnant women who develop COVID-19 have fewer symptoms than patients who are not pregnant, but they are more likely to need hospitalization in intensive care, and neonatal morbidity. Aim of the present perspective paper is to analyze the current literature regarding the use of the vaccine against COVID-19 infection, in terms of safety and protection, in high risk pregnant women as those affected by diabetes and obesity. Analysis of literature about vaccination against COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

Austin R. Waters; Deanna Kepka; Joemy M. Ramsay (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: JNCI Cancer Spectrum
The study objective was to identify sociodemographic and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) factors that are associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors. Eligible participants were 18 years or older and were diagnosed with cancer as an AYA (ages 15-39 years) and received services through an AYA cancer program. A total of 342 participants completed a cross-sectional survey.
A tale of two parts of Switzerland: regional differences in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents

Michelle Seiler; Georg Staubli; Julia Hoeffe (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

This study aimed to document the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on regions within a European country. Parents arriving at two pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in North of Switzerland and two in South of Switzerland completed an online survey during the first peak of the pandemic (April–June 2020). They were asked to rate their concern about their children or themselves having COVID-19.

Delivery management of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 positive mothers

Chih Lin; Shih-Ming Chu; Jen-Fu Hsu (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Pediatrics & Neonatology

The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought catastrophic impact on the world since the beginning of December 2019. Extra precautionary measures against COVID-19 during and after delivery are pivotal to ensure the safety of the baby and health care workers. Based on current literature, it is recommended that delivery decisions be discussed between obstetricians and neonatologists prior to delivery, and designated negative pressure delivery rooms should be arranged for COVID person under investigation (PUI). During delivery, a minimal number of experienced staff attending delivery should don personal protective equipment (PPE) and follow the neonatal resuscitation program (NRP). Positive pressure ventilation is best used in a negative pressure room if available. At-risk babies should be transported in an isolette, and tested for COVID-19 in a negative pressure room soon after bathing. Skin-to-skin contact and breast milk feed should continue under certain circumstances. Although newborns with COVID-19 infections often present with symptoms that mimic sepsis and one third of affected patients may demand some form of respiratory support, short-term prognoses are favorable and most recover within two weeks of symptoms onset.

COVID-19 vaccines for children younger than 12 years: are we ready?

Xiaohui Zou; Bin Cao

Published: June 2021
On May 5, 2021, Canada became the first country in the world to approve COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use in children aged 12–15 years; later the same month, the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency also gave the green light to the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents. Children younger than 12 years are the next population who need a safe and efficient COVID-19 vaccine. In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Bihua Han and colleagues reported the results of a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial, which showed that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (CoronaVac) had good safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity in youths aged 3–17 years. This promising result should inspire the ongoing trial of other COVID-19 vaccines in children younger than 12 years.
Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) in healthy children and adolescents: a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial

Bihua Han; Yufei Song; Changgui Li (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
A vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 for children and adolescents will play an important role in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a candidate COVID-19 vaccine, CoronaVac, containing inactivated SARS-CoV-2, in children and adolescents aged 3–17 years.
Covering coughs and sneezes to reduce COVID-19 transmission: does message framing matter?

Dhwani Yagnaraman; Alec Freytag; Allison Zelkowitz

Institution: Save the Children
Published: June 2021
The goal of this research was to utilize behavioural interventions to promote the covering of coughs and sneezes, so as to reduce COVID-19 transmission. The survey covered a wide variety of questions, including daily activities, health and safety choices, perceptions on precautionary measures, and the impact that COVID has had on their lives.  There were two major objectives for this online experiment: 1) To determine the impact of different message framing on respondents’ intentions to cover coughs and sneezes and 2) To understand how COVID-related risks affect daily activities and the precautions being taken to minimize risk.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease prevention, disease transmission, infectious disease | Countries: Viet Nam | Publisher: Save the Children
The relationship between perceived stress, uncertainty emotions and hopelessness regarding pandemics in pregnant women

Gamze Fiskin

Published: June 2021   Journal: The Journal of Community Psychology
The objective of this study was to determine the emotional reactions of pregnant women towards the pandemic and to increase awareness of healthcare professionals on this subject. In this descriptive, cross-sectional, and correlational study, an online questionnaire was applied to 375 pregnant women (n = 375). Data were collected with pregnant information form, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. The mean age of the pregnant women was 29.495 ± 4.301, and the mean gestational week was 27.469 ± 7.971. Pregnant women's levels of perceived stress and intolerance to uncertainty were high. There was a moderate positive correlation between stress and uncertainty levels of the women who stated that they experienced mild hopelessness. It is recommended to identify risky groups and provide the necessary psychological support by health professionals during the pandemic.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on positive airway pressure usage in children with sleep-disordered breathing

Kanokkarn Sunkonkit; Sarah Selvadurai; Giorge Voutsas (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Sleep and Breathing

This study aims to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on non-invasive positive airway pressure (PAP) usage among children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). PAP usage data in children with SDB aged 1 to 18 years old at The Hospital for Sick Children, Canada, were analyzed. The PAP usage data were recorded for 3 months prior to and 3 months following the COVID-19 lockdown in Ontario, Canada. The primary outcomes of interest were (i) percentage of days that PAP was used for ≥ 4 h and (ii) average daily usage of PAP based on days when PAP was used.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, infectious disease | Countries: Canada
Structural racism and risk of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy

Rachel Pope; Prakash Ganesh; Jill Miracle (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Structural racism leads to adverse health outcomes, as highlighted by inequities in COVID-19 infections. We characterized Black/White disparities among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 in Cuyahoga County which has some of the most extreme health disparities in the U.S., such as a rate of Black infant mortality that is three times that of White counterparts. This was a retrospective cohort study using data collected as part of public health surveillance between March 16, 2020 until October 1, 2020. This study aimed to compare Black and Non-Black pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 to understand how the distribution of risk factors may differ by race. Outcomes included age, gestational age at infection, medical co-morbidities, exposure history, socio-economic status, occupation, symptom severity and pregnancy complications.
Sex differences in changes in BMI and blood pressure in Chinese school-aged children during the COVID-19 quarantine

Na Qiu; Hongmei He; Ling Qiao (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Obesity
There may be sex differences in BMI and blood pressure levels in school-age children, especially in the face of lifestyle changes. This study aimed to explore sex differences in changes in BMI and blood pressure in Chinese school-aged children during the COVID-19 quarantine. The cohort study of 445 school-aged children examined the change of BMI and blood pressure during the five-month quarantine. Multivariable Cox regression models were created to identify potential predictors of overweight, obesity, and elevated blood pressure (EBP).
31 - 45 of 474

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.