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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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3751 - 3765 of 4342
Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on activity patterns and weight status among youths in China: the COVID-19 impact on lifestyle change survey (COINLICS)

AUTHOR(S)
Peng Jia; Lei Zhang; Wanqi Yu (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: International Journal of Obesity

Lockdown measures including school closures due to COVID-19 may affect youths’ activity patterns and obesity status. This will be for the first time examined in China in this study on the basis of a large national sample from the COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS). Through an online questionnaire, 10,082 participants from high schools, colleges, and graduate schools, aged 19.8 ± 2.3 years, voluntarily reported their lifestyles and weight status before (January 2020) and after lockdown (April–May 2020).


Physical activity and screen time of children and adolescents before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany: a natural experiment

AUTHOR(S)
Steffen C. E. Schmidt; Bastian Anedda; Alexander Burchartz (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Scientific Reports
The impact of COVID-19 on social life has been drastic and global. However, the different numbers of cases and different actions in different countries have been leading to various interesting yet unexplored effects on human behavior. In the present study, we compare the physical activity and recreational screen time of a representative sample of 1711 4- to 17-year-olds before and during the strictest time of the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany. We found that sports activity declined whereas recreational screen time increased. However, a substantial increase in habitual physical activities leads to an overall increase in physical activity among children and adolescents in Germany. The effects differ in size but not in their direction between age groups and are stable for boys and girls. We conclude from this natural experiment that physical activity among children and adolescents is highly context-driven and mutual and does not act as a functional opposite to recreational screen time.
Psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Juan David Palacio-Ortiz; Juan Pablo Londoño-Herrera; Claudia Patricia Quintero-Cadavid

Published: December 2020   Journal: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría

The Covid-19 pandemic has generated an unprecedented multimodal (health, occupational, economic, and social) crisis, which will impact developing countries. Confinement as a preventive measure is itself a threat that produces a social impact. Pandemic and confinement have become a psychosocial adversity factor that affects families and their children. During the pandemic, children and adolescents with a psychiatric disorder may experience exacerbation of their symptoms. However, little is known about this, since studies on this population during the pandemic are scarce. To review the data available in the current literature on the effect of the pandemic on children and adolescents with a previous psychiatric disorder.

Integrating public health ethics into shared decision-making for children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Angira Patel; Dalia M. Feltman; Erin Talati Paquette

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
This commentary examines how values typically prioritized in public health ethics such as solidarity and justice can be integrated into SDM, where the individual child's best interest and caregiver preferences are often paramount. Additionally, it suggests a framework to integrate public health ethics into the traditional shared decision-making continuum using 4 scenarios that are examined for risks, benefits, settings, and appropriate levels of directiveness.
Measuring COVID-19 related anxiety in parents: psychometric comparison of four different inventories

AUTHOR(S)
Christian Kubb; Heather M. Foran

Published: December 2020   Journal: JMIR Mental Health

The COVID-19 outbreak and the measures to contain the global pandemic can have an impact on the well-being and mental health status of individuals. Parents of young children are particularly at risk for high levels of parental stress due to the current public health crisis, which can impact parenting behaviors and children’s well-being. Although different initial scales have been developed to measure COVID-19–related anxiety, they have not yet been tested sufficiently in parent samples. A brief measure of COVID-19–related anxiety is necessary for both quick assessment in practice and in larger epidemiological studies of parents. The purpose of this study is to compare the distributions, validities, and reliabilities of four different COVID-19 anxiety scales: Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, Pandemic Anxiety Scale, and one subscale of the COVID Stress Scales.

Feeding students during COVID-19—related school closures: a nationwide assessment of initial responses

AUTHOR(S)
Gabriella M. McLoughlin; Sheila Fleischhacker; Amelie A. Hecht (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior

This study aims to conduct a nationwide assessment of child nutrition administrative agencies’ responses to meal service provision during coronavirus disease 2019–related school closures. Systematic coding of government websites (February–May 2020) regarding school meal provision in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia, 5 US territories, and the US Department of Interior Bureau of Indian Education.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 52 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 1120-1130 | Language: English | Topics: Nutrition | Tags: child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, food policies, lockdown, nutrition policy, school attendance | Countries: United States
Eating to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic and body weight change in young adults

AUTHOR(S)
Tyler B. Mason; Jessica Barrington-Trimis; Adam M. Leventhal

Published: December 2020   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Life disruptions caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic are particularly salient for young adults. Some young adults may engage in unhealthy eating practices to cope with social distancing and isolation during the pandemic, which could increase incidental weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of eating to cope with the pandemic with body weight change in young adults before versus after spread of COVID-19.
The role of schools and school-aged children in SARS-CoV-2 transmission

AUTHOR(S)
Stefan Flasche; W. John Edmunds

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Schools form a fundamental part of our society. They are crucial for passing on knowledge and values to younger generations and essential for the mental wellbeing of children and parents alike. Unfortunately, they also present a seemingly excellent environment for the spread of respiratory infections through high-frequency and close contacts in often poorly ventilated environments.  In their assessment of the partial reopening of educational settings in the UK in June and early July, when SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was relatively low, Sharif Ismail and colleagues’ study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases reassuringly found that despite a median of 928 000 children attending educational settings daily, few SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks were identified. Where secondary cases linked to within-school exposure were found, these were more frequently among teaching and administrative staff.
COVID-19: lessons to date from China

AUTHOR(S)
Xiaoxia Lu; Yuhan Xing; Gary Wing-Kin Wong

Published: December 2020   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood
In China, there have been more than 1200 paediatric cases. Most paediatric patients acquire the infection through household contact with infected adults. The disease in children is usually self-limiting and most infected children will recover uneventfully within 7–10 days. Other than symptoms of the respiratory tract, many children may present with gastrointestinal symptoms. Older children are more likely to have asymptomatic infection. Although deaths related to SARS-CoV-2 are rarely reported in the paediatric age group, young children and those with underlying medical conditions are more likely to develop severe illness. Only a small fraction of neonates born to infected mother would acquire the virus by vertical transmission. Because a large proportion of children and adolescents may have asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infection, children are likely to play an important role in community transmission of this infection. Screening of children who have a definitive contact history will facilitate early diagnosis and isolation of all infected children. This review summarises the lessons learned in China with regard to the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 105 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 1146-1150 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child mortality, COVID-19 response, disease transmission | Countries: China
Lessons for child–computer interaction studies following the research challenges during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Natalia Kucirkova; Cecilie Evertsen-Stanghelle; Ingunn Studsrød (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction
The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic has been experienced differently in and within individual countries and thus has had a different impact on the individual researchers in the child–computer interaction studies. There were several challenges that our research group experienced during the pandemic period, with a rapid transition to digital working conditions and a society managing altered living conditions. The changes happened on all levels of the society, and they affected our key participants — children, teachers, designers of children’s digital books and publishers. In this Viewpoint article the lessons learnt from the changes in our study designs and data collection processes due to lockdown and other restrictions related to the pandemic have been highlighted.
Social protection and jobs responses to COVID-19 : a real-time review of country measures

AUTHOR(S)
Ugo Gentilini; Mohamed Almenfi; Pamela Dale

Institution: The World Bank
Published: December 2020
Some key finds from this "living paper" include : As of April 23, 2020, a total of 151 countries (18 more since last week) have planned, introduced or adapted 684 social protection measures in response to COVID-19 (Coronavirus). This is a ten-fold increase in measures since the first edition of this living paper (March 20). New countries include Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Belarus, Bermuda, Brunei, Chad, Grenada, Libya, Montserrat, Nigeria, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, St Maarten, and UAE. Social assistance transfers are the most widely used class of interventions (60 percent of global responses, or 412 measures). These are complemented by significant action in social insurance and labor market-related measures (supply-side measures). Among safety nets, cash transfer programs remain the most widely used safety net intervention by governments. Overall, cash transfers include 222 COVID-related measures representing one-third of total COVID-related social protection programs.
Child marriage in COVID-19 contexts: disruptions, alternative approaches and building programme resilience
Institution: UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund, *UNICEF
Published: December 2020
This brief has been developed jointly by UNFPA and UNICEF regional offices in Eastern and Southern Africa. It provides an overview of child marriage in the region, particularly in the context of COVID-19, as well as an analysis of disruptions to child marriage programmes. The brief also describes alternatives to traditional programmatic work as a means to overcome challenges presented by COVID-19. It proposes a way forward for child marriage programming during the COVID-19 response and recovery phases, as well as outlining implications for future programming, including the need to strengthen programme resilience
Shelter from the storm: the global need for universal social protection in times of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Liliana Marcos Barba; Hilde van Regenmortel; Ellen Ehmke

Institution: Oxfam
Published: December 2020

As 2020 draws to a close, the economic devastation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic shows no sign of abating. Without urgent action, global poverty and inequality will deepen dramatically. Hundreds of millions of people have already lost their jobs, gone further into debt or skipped meals for months. Research by Oxfam and Development Pathways shows that over 2 billion people have had no support from their governments in their time of need. This study shows that none of the social protection support to those who are unemployed, elderly people, children and families provided in low- and middle-income countries has been adequate to meet basic needs. 41% of that government support was only a one-off payment and almost all government support has now stopped. Decades of social policy focused on tiny levels of means-tested support have left most countries completely unprepared for the COVID-19 economic crisis. Yet, countries such as South Africa and Bolivia have shown that a universal approach to social protection is affordable, and that it has a profound impact on reducing inequality and protecting those who need it most.

Impact of Covid-19 on youth in the Lake Chad region

AUTHOR(S)
Josaphat Tchetan Awo

Institution: Plan International
Published: December 2020

The crisis affecting the Lake Chad Basin is one of the most severe humanitarian emergencies in the world, having displaced more than 2.4 million people, half of whom are children. Most are internally-displaced but this number also includes refugees and returnees. With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, people living in humanitarian contexts are particularly vulnerable to the pandemic and will continue to feel the post-pandemic impacts. For people living in areas with weak health systems, disrupted social support networks, and ongoing conflict and instability, the coronavirus is an additional crisis that they have to face and adapt to. Within this population, youth face increased vulnerability. Youth groups however, provide a critical voice for accountability at the community, state/district and national level. In addition, most youth groups tend to be self-led, volunteer-based, internally-funded and informal with little to no structure. As the pandemic continues to wreak havoc on nations’ economies, the pressure for economic survival is heightened for this group who already face bleak employment or income generation prospects. Beyond the impact on youth as individuals, there’s a threat to their ability to contribute to community building through youth groups, as their focus shifts to economic survival. This report seeks to highlight the effects of the pandemic on young people, and how they are facing their future.

Reversing gain: the impact of COVID-19 on education in Syria brief

AUTHOR(S)
Hani Okasheh

Institution: Save the Children
Published: December 2020

The briefing note examines the impediments of access to learning caused by the COVID-19 outbreak in northwest Syria, further compounding issues caused by conflict and years of underinvestment in the education sector in Syria. Save the Children surveyed 489 teachers in northern Syria to try and understand what they see and believe when it comes to the reasons that lead children to drop out of education and what would it take to bring them back.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.