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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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4006 - 4020 of 5209
The impact of COVID‐19 on stress, anxiety, and coping in youth with and without autism and their parents

Blythe A. Corbett; Rachael A. Muscatello; Mark E. Klemencic (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Autism Research
In the wake of COVID‐19, the world has become a more uncertain environment—a breeding ground for stress and anxiety, especially for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined stress, anxiety, and coping in a data‐driven, real‐time assessment of 122 youth with and without ASD and their parents at the height of the COVID‐19 shutdown and three‐months later. Standardized measures were administered to ascertain stress and coping explicitly related to the pandemic (RSQ COVID‐19‐Child [self‐report], Adult [self‐report from the guardian of youth], Parent [report about child]) and anxiety (STAI‐C, STAI‐A).
SARS pandemic exposure impaired early childhood development in China

Yunfei Fan; Huiyu Wang; Qiong Wu (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Social and mental stressors associated with the pandemic of a novel infectious disease, e.g., COVID-19 or SARS may promote long-term effects on child development. However, reports aimed at identifying the relationship between pandemics and child health are limited. A retrospective study was conducted to associate the SARS pandemic in 2003 with development milestones or physical examinations among longitudinal measurements of 14,647 children. Experiencing SARS during childhood was associated with delayed milestones, with hazard ratios of 3.17 (95% confidence intervals CI: 2.71, 3.70), 3.98 (3.50, 4.53), 4.96 (4.48, 5.49), or 5.57 (5.00, 6.20) for walking independently, saying a complete sentence, counting 0–10, and undressing him/herself for urination, respectively. These results suggest relevant impacts from COVID-19 on child development should be investigated.
Modelling the potential impact of mask use in schools and society on COVID-19 control in the UK

J. Panovska-Griffiths; C. C. Kerr; W. Waites (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
As the UK reopened after the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic, crucial questions emerged around the role for ongoing interventions, including test-trace-isolate (TTI) strategies and mandatory masks. This study assessed the importance of masks in secondary schools by evaluating their impact over September 1–October 23, 2020. It showed that, assuming TTI levels from August 2020 and no fundamental changes in the virus’s transmissibility, adoption of masks in secondary schools would have reduced the predicted size of a second wave, but preventing it would have required 68% or 46% of those with symptoms to seek testing (assuming masks’ effective coverage 15% or 30% respectively). With masks in community settings but not secondary schools, the required testing rates increase to 76% and 57%.
Psychosocial impact of Covid-19 outbreak on Italian asthmatic children and their mothers in a post lockdown scenario
Published: April 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Italy was the first European country to fight the Covid-19 outbreak. To limit the transmission of the virus, the Italian Government imposed strict domestic quarantine policies and temporary closure of non-essential businesses and schools from March 10th,2020. Although more and more literature is exploring the impact of the pandemic on non-referred children and families, only a few studies are focused on the psychosocial impact of Covid-19 in chronically ill children and their caregivers. The present study investigates asthma control and children and mothers’ psychological functioning (i.e.: psychological well-being, fear of contagion, and mothers’ Covid-19 related fears) in 45 asthmatic children aged 7-to-14, compared to a control sample. The subjects were administered an online survey after the lockdown (from 28th May to 23rd August 2020).
Physical activity, screen exposure and sleep among students during the pandemic of COVID-19

Yang‑feng Guo; Min‑qi Liao; Wei‑li Cai (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
This study aimed to determine the levels of health-related behaviours (physical activity, screen exposure and sleep status) among Chinese students from primary, secondary and high schools during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as their changes compared with their status before the pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey of 10,933 students was conducted among 10 schools in Guangzhou, China, between 8th and 15th March, 2020. After getting the informed consent from student’s caregivers, an online questionnaire was designed and used to obtain time spending on health-related behaviours during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as the changes compared with 3 months before the pandemic, which was completed by students themselves or their caregivers.
Caregivers’ joint depressive symptoms and preschoolers’ daily routines in Chinese three-generation families: does household chaos matter?

Yongqiang Jiang; Ting He; Xiuyun Lin (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Current Psychology
This study aimed to investigate the associations of parents’ and grandparents’ depressive symptoms with preschoolers’ daily routines in Chinese three-generation families and to determine whether household chaos mediated or moderated the associations. The participants were from 171 urban three-generation families where mothers, fathers, and grandmothers (97 paternal and 74 maternal) were primary caregivers. Mothers, fathers, and grandmothers reported their depressive symptoms at Wave 1; at Wave 2 (during the COVID-19 pandemic), caregivers reported household chaos and child routines.
Influences of digital media use on children and adolescents with ADHD during COVID-19 pandemic

Lan Shuai; Shan He; Hong Zheng (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Globalization and Health

This study aims to explore the influences of digital media use on the core symptoms, emotional state, life events, learning motivation, executive function (EF) and family environment of children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A total of 192 participants aged 8–16 years who met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD were included in the study. Children scoring higher than predetermined cut-off point in self-rating questionnaires for problematic mobile phone use (SQPMPU) or Young’s internet addiction test (IAT), were defined as ADHD with problematic digital media use (PDMU), otherwise were defined as ADHD without PDMU. The differences between the two groups in ADHD symptoms, EF, anxiety and depression, stress from life events, learning motivation and family environment were compared respectively.

Psychological distress and associated factors of the primary caregivers of offspring with eating disorder during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

Lei Zhang; Meng Ting Wu; Lei Guo (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Eating Disorders
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and posed serious challenges in many countries. A number of studies before the COVID-19 pandemic have shown that the primary caregivers of the ED (Eating disorders) patients are subjected to great burden, psychological pressure, and serious emotional problems. This study aimed to investigate the psychological distress level of the primary caregivers of ED offspring during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Parents' willingness to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children in the United States

Serkan Catma; Diana Reindl

Published: April 2021   Journal: Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics
Differences in obtaining a vaccine vary based on a multitude of factors including perceptions of vaccine safety, efficacy and willingness to pay (WTP). This study focuses on parent perceptions toward a vaccine for COVID-19 including their WTP decisions for their children and themselves. A mixed methods design using a cross-sectional survey was used to assess the perceptions of US parents, with children under 18, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was administered online in November 2020 and 584 final responses were collected.
SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and pregnancy-related conditions: concerns, challenges, management and mitigation strategies: a narrative review

Rakesh Kumar; Cut Meurah Yeni; Niken Asri Utami (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health problem. The SARS-CoV-2 triggers hyper-activation of inflammatory and immune responses resulting in cytokine storm and increased inflammatory responses on several organs like lungs, kidneys, intestine, and placenta. Although SARS-CoV-2 affects individuals of all age groups and physiological statuses, immune-compromised individuals such as pregnant women are considered as a highly vulnerable group. This review aims to raise the concerns of high risk of infection, morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in pregnant women and provides critical reviews of pathophysiology and pathobiology of how SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially increases the severity and fatality during pregnancy. This article also provides a discussion of current evidence on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Lastly, guidelines on management, treatment, preventive, and mitigation strategies of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and pregnancy-related conditions such as delivery and breastfeeding are discussed.
COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant and lactating diabetic women

Maria Angela Sculli; Gloria Formoso; Laura Sciacca

Published: April 2021   Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome and adverse outcomes. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 present increased rates of preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks), cesarean delivery and neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit. Comorbidity such as diabetes (pregestational or gestational) or obesity further increased maternal and fetal complications. It is known that diabetic or obese patients with COVID-19 present an unfavorable course and a worse prognosis, with a direct association between worse outcome and suboptimal glycol-metabolic control or body mass index (BMI) levels. Critical COVID-19 infection prevention is important for both mother and fetus. Vaccination during pregnancy is a common practice. Vaccines against COVID-19 are distributed across the world with some population considered to have a priority. Since pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials very little information are available on safety and efficacy of COVD-19 vaccines during pregnancy. However, it is well known the concept of passive immunization of the newborn obtained with transplacental passage of protective antibodies into the fetal/neonatal circulation after maternal infection or vaccination. Moreover, it has been reported that COVID-19 vaccine-induced IgG pass to the neonates through breastmilk. Therefore, maternal vaccination can protect mother, fetus and baby.
COVID-19 and sleep patterns in adolescents and young adults

Laura Ramos Socarras; Jérémie Potvin; Geneviève Forest

Published: April 2021   Journal: Sleep Medicine
In March 2020, the world experienced a global pandemic, which involved the shutdown of schools or a transposition to remote teaching in most countries. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic related lockdown on sleep patterns and sleep quality in adolescents and young adults.
Trying my best: sexual minority adolescents' self-care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Rory P. O'Brien; Luis A. Parra; Julie A. Cederbaum

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in major life disruptions for sexual minority adolescents (SMAs), who already face and cope with pervasive and disproportionate rates of social, behavioral, and mental health challenges. Current research suggests that SMAs are struggling with COVID-19–related shelter in place orders navigating family proximity and dynamics and experiencing isolation from SMA-specific supports. Given identified challenges that may exacerbate known mental health disparities in SMAs, this work explores self-care practices among SMAs during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Disaster management and school nutrition: a qualitative study of emergency feeding during the COVID-19 pandemic

Emily Vaterlaus Patten; Lori Spruance; J. Mitchell Vaterlaus

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

School nutrition programs mitigate child food insecurity across the United States. With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, kindergarten through grade 12 physical school campuses closed, which led to those programs transitioning to emergency feeding. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction has 4 action priorities that guided the assessment of school nutrition employees’ emergency response during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study's aim was to explore the experience of school nutrition employees as they provided emergency feeding services during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate their actions based on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction .

The impact of the COVID-19 life on the Tokyo metropolitan area households with primary school-aged children: a study based on spatial characteristics

Shun Tomikawa; Yukari Niwa; Hwajin Lim (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Urban Management
This study aims to elucidate the effects that staying home due to COVID-19 has had on house holds with primary school-age children living in the central area. To determine the differences in states of mind between people in the central area and people in other areas, have been investigated the changes in their“daily lives”including matters related to school; playing outside; associating with other children;“communication”including communication with family and friends; and the“use of information technologies”that secure communication. Moreover, this study explored households that are satisfied even when they are unable to go out and clarified how children and their parents who live in the central area perceive the current situation. The study results indicate that the risks ofCOVID-19 in large cities have spatial characteristics and increase the burden on households raising children. Particularly in the central area, which has a high population density, the changes children experience are striking. Furthermore, due to the inadequate amount of open space, a strong awareness of the“new normal (avoiding the‘Three Cs’(closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings)”is required.
4006 - 4020 of 5209

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.