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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 37
Advancing girls’ education in light of COVID-19 in East Africa: a synthesis report
Institution: Population Council
Published: November 2021
Over a billion students around the world have been affected by school closures in the past year and a half (March 2020 to August 2021) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The persistence of the pandemic and the severity of the risks posed by the disruption of education necessitate a strong understanding of the present state of girls’ education in East Africa. This study aimed to understand the current problems posed by COVID-19 for girls’ education in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda; identify the gaps in understanding with regard to these problems; and illuminate solutions. The study is based on a rapid desk review of peer-review and grey literature, coupled with nearly 30 key informant interviews with a range of East African organizations working on education and/or gender issues. These methods were complemented by an interactive, participatory workshop during which interviewees and other education stakeholders validated and supplemented the initial study results. Key findings from the study are summarized below
Adolescent girls and COVID-19: Mapping the evidence on interventions

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Blake; Miriam Temin; Tara Abularrage (et al.)

Institution: Population Council
Published: November 2021
With the COVID-19 crisis continuing to evolve, evidence on the effectiveness of short-term emergency-oriented responses and long-term mitigation strategies is expanding but still limited. There are, and will continue to be, substantial evidence gaps on programming to address risk across outcomes of importance to adolescent girls. More evidence is needed to slow the risks posed by the pandemic for this sub-population, which can help guide gender- and age-responsive prevention and impact mitigation investments. Evidence from approaches delivered in other unstable contexts may offer important lessons for decision-making in the current context. Recognizing this, the Population Council conducted a structured review of existing evidence collected prior to the pandemic, across low- and middle-income country contexts (under the auspices of the Adolescent Girls Investment Plan, AGIP1 ).
COVID-19 pandemic: mental health in girls with and without fragile X syndrome

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy L. Jordan; Kristi L. Bartholomay; Cindy Hsin-Yu Lee (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Children and adolescents, who have less developed coping skills, are affected by natural disasters and other traumatic events differently than adults. Emotional and behavioral effects are particularly pronounced during a pandemic-related disaster, when support networks that typically promote healthy coping, such as friends, teachers, and family members, may be less available. Children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are at increased risk for developing anxiety and depression, may be particularly vulnerable to behavioral or emotional difficulties during a pandemic. This study examined the mental health outcomes of school-aged girls with FXS during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated stay-at-home orders.
Impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on inner-city female youth in New York City

AUTHOR(S)
Angela Diaz; Anne Nucci-Sack; Rachel Colon (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

New York City (NYC) was the global epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. A “shelter in place” mandate was issued in March 2020. The effect on vulnerable populations of adolescent and young adult (AYA) females has not been well documented. This study administered a monthly online survey between May and November 2020 to AYA females participating in a longitudinal study at Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center. Surveys asked about death of loved ones, financial impacts, social interactions, exposure to dangerous situations, and mental health impacts. Differences in responses by age, race/ethnicity and living situation were assessed, and compared to data obtained on the same cohort prior to the pandemic.

Anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak and associated factors

AUTHOR(S)
Engin Burak Selçuk; Arzu Çalışkan Demir; Lale Gönenir Erbay (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Outbreaks of infectious diseases have negative effects on mental health. Currently, there is very little information about the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents and associated factors affecting their mental health. The aim of the present study is to determine the severity of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak, and to investigate the associated factors with these symptoms.
Unforeseen effects of COVID-19 on adolescent health

AUTHOR(S)
Mishu Mangla

Published: September 2021   Journal: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India
India is presently in the midst of a major health crisis with the second wave of corona virus spreading at an alarming rate and claiming more lives than ever before. Although the pandemic is affecting the lives of all sections of society, adolescent girls being a vulnerable group are affected in dual manner, not just by the direct effects of the virus but also by many still underrated indirect effects. The present article aims to highlight the indirect yet sinister effects of COVID-19 on physical, mental, social, sexual and reproductive and psychological health and well-being of adolescent girls and other issues like their personal safety, peer support and long-term health issues.
High school students' online learning ineffectiveness in experimental courses during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jon-Chao Hong; Yue Liu; Yinsheng Liu (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, online learning has been adopted in all stages of education. This sudden change from traditional learning to 100% online learning may affect students' learning effectiveness, especially in experimental courses. However, there has been little discussion of experimental courses conducted entirely through online learning. To address this gap, the present study investigated factors affecting high school students' online learning ineffectiveness (OLI) in online experimental courses, particularly online science experimental courses. The role of gender was also explored to understand whether it affects participants' OLI. An ANOVA was conducted to analyze the data from a survey of 347 online learners in high schools.
Tracking the impact of COVID-19 on adolescent girls in Kenya : special edition COVID-19 barometer
Institution: *UNICEF, Shujaaz Inc.
Published: August 2021

One of the objectives of this collaboration is to produce a range of youth-led, data-driven research products, providing insight into the most effective ways to support young people in East Africa. This special edition Barometer is designed to provide a snapshot into the lives of Kenyan girls aged 15-19 (also referred to as adolescent girls) in 2021. This edition of COVID-19 Barometer includes new insights from Shujaaz Inc’s annual national youth survey, which draws on face-to-face interviews with 2,015 young people conducted between December 2020 and January 2021. Drawing on additional qualitative research, the Barometer aims to provide an update on the challenges, lifestyles, priorities and aspirations of adolescent girls, during a turbulent pandemic. This edition focuses on key topics including education, sexual and reproductive health, financial security, mental wellbeing and resilience. We hope it provides a valuable update for organisations working with adolescent girls across Kenya, and inspiration for similar research in East and Southern African countries.

Chinese adolescents’ coping with COVID-19: relationships with emotional maladjustment and parental reactions to negative emotions

AUTHOR(S)
Zeyi Shi; Qian Wang

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
Two hundred and thirteen Chinese adolescents (103 females; mean age = 12.18 years) completed a survey one year before (Wave 1) and five months after the COVID-19 outbreak (Wave 2). Path analysis revealed that after controlling for adolescents’ emotional maladjustment at Wave 1, perceived parental supportive reactions to adolescents’ negative emotions at Wave 1 predicted adolescents’ greater use of approach coping and less use of avoidance coping at Wave 2, which in turn, was associated with less emotional maladjustment at Wave 2; conversely, perceived parental nonsupportive reactions at Wave 1 predicted adolescents’ greater use of avoidance coping at Wave 2, which in turn, was associated with greater emotional maladjustment at Wave 2. The findings were similar for mothers and fathers.
Peer connectedness and pre-existing social reward processing predicts U.S. adolescent girls’ suicidal ideation during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Emily A. Hutchinson; Stefanie L. Sequeira; Jennifer S. Silk (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
There is major concern about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent suicidal ideation (SI) and peer relationships. This study investigated (1) rates of SI and (2) the extent to which peer connectedness and pre-existing neural activation to social reward predicted SI during the initial stay-at-home orders of the pandemic (April–May 2020) in a longitudinal sample of adolescent girls (N = 93; Mage = 15.06; 69% White non-Hispanic). Daily diary and fMRI methods were used to assess peer connectedness and neural activation to social reward, respectively. Nearly 40% of girls endorsed SI during the initial stay-at-home orders. Greater peer connectedness and neural responsivity to anticipated social reward were associated with a reduced odds of SI during the pandemic among girls.
Youth relationships in the era of COVID-19: a mixed-methods study among adolescent girls and young women in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Celia Karp; Caroline Moreau; Grace Sheehy (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Measures to mitigate COVID-19's impact may inhibit development of healthy youth relationships, affecting partnership quality and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. This is a mixed-methods study aiming to understand how COVID-19 affected girls' and young women's relationships in Kenya. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression examined factors associated with relationship quality dynamics and SRH outcomes among 756 partnered adolescents aged 15–24 years. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to explore youth perceptions of how intimate relationships changed during COVID-19.

The COVID-19 pandemic and sustainable life of Korean adolescents: exploring gender differences

AUTHOR(S)
Seunghee Yu; Chung Choe

Published: August 2021   Journal: Sustainability
To ensure that adolescents continue to lead healthy, well-adjusted lives—“sustainable lives”—after the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to examine the latter’s impact on various aspects of their lives compared to the socio-cultural context before the outbreak. This study used national representative data on Korean adolescents to analyze the impact of the pandemic on adolescent life from various perspectives, with a focus on gender differences. Our findings confirm that during the pandemic physical activity and sitting time for study purposes decreased, while sleeping and sitting for purposes other than studying increased, with more pronounced changes among girls. Drinking and smoking decreased and boys experienced greater decreases. The findings also indicated that the pandemic generated positive outcomes for mental health: stress, sadness/despair, and suicidal ideation decreased, which was counterintuitive to our general expectations, with a greater impact seen among girls.
Adolescent well-being amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Are girls struggling more than boys?

AUTHOR(S)
Thorhildur Halldorsdottir; Ingibjorg Eva Thorisdottir; Caine C. A. Meyers (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: JCPP Advances

Differential effects of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated public restrictions on adolescent girls and boys are emerging but have not been elucidated. This study examined gender differences across broad indicators of adolescent well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iceland, and explored potential explanations for these differences. In total, 523 youth (56.5% girls) born in Iceland in 2004 completed measures on mental health problems (depressive symptoms, anger and suicide attempts) and measures designed for this study to assess broad indicators of adolescent well-being (e.g., day-to-day life, academic performance, family and peer relationships, and mental and physical health) and behavioral changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health problems during the pandemic were compared to expected scores based on nationwide ratings of same-aged peers in 2018.

Marrying young: limiting the impact of a crisis on the high prevalence of child marriages in Niger

AUTHOR(S)
Tameshnie Deane

Published: July 2021   Journal: Laws
Child marriage is a harmful and discriminatory global practice, robbing millions of girls of their childhood. Global attention and momentum to end early marriage has increased over the years; however, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected this progress. It has been predicted that over the next decade up to 10–13 million more girls will be at risk of child marriage because of the pandemic. Since Niger has consistently had the highest rate of child marriage in the world, this study will explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child marriages within the west and African region but specifically within Niger. This article will look at past response efforts to other pandemics, specifically Ebola, and show how the girl-child remains disproportionately disadvantaged, especially during pandemics. The article will conclude with recommendations on the importance of incorporating a gender analysis into preparedness and response efforts to eliminate child marriages.
Neural responses to social reward predict depressive symptoms in adolescent girls during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Stefanie L. Sequeira; Jennifer S. Silk; Emily Hutchinson (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

Adolescent depression is increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly related to dramatic social changes. Individual-level factors that contribute to social functioning, such as temperament and neural reactivity to social feedback, may confer risk for or resilience against depressive symptoms during the pandemic. Ninety-three girls (12–17 years) oversampled for high shy/fearful temperament were recruited from a longitudinal study for a follow-up COVID-19 study.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.