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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Comparison of the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in children and adolescents in a middle-income country: Clinical impact associated with SARS-CoV-2 gamma lineage

Eduardo A. Oliveira; Ana Cristina Simões e Silva; Maria Christina L. Oliveira (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

To evaluate the severity and clinical outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant in children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. In this observational retrospective cohort study, we performed an analysis of all 21,591 hospitalized patients aged < 20 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection registered in a national database in Brazil. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the predominance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages (WAVE1, n = 11,574 and WAVE2, n = 10,017). The characteristics of interest were age, sex, geographic region, ethnicity, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by competing-risks analysis, using cumulative incidence function. A predictive Fine-Gray competitive risks model was developed based on WAVE1 cohort with temporal validation in WAVE2 cohort.

Assessing changes to adolescent health-promoting behaviors following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-methods exploration of the role of within-person combinations of trait perfectionism

Melissa Blackburn; Tabitha Methot-Jones; Danielle S. Molnar (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Personality and individual differences
The current work provides a multi-methods exploration of how within-person subtypes of self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) were related to shifts in health-promoting behaviors among adolescents following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Study One tested the 2 × 2 and tripartite models of perfectionism through a quantitative test of how such subtypes predicted changes in health behaviors pre-pandemic to intra-pandemic among 202 adolescents (M = 17.86, SD = 1.421). Results indicated that the combination of high SOP/high SPP was linked to the most maladaptive changes to health-promoting behaviors, supporting the tripartite model. Study Two aimed to contextualize these findings by analyzing semi-structured interviews with 31 adolescent self-identified perfectionists (M = 15.97, SD = 1.991) during the initial lockdown mandate.
Early experience of COVID-19 vaccine-related adverse events among adolescents and young adults with rheumatic diseases: a single-center study

Fatih Haslak; Aybuke Gunalp; Memnune Nur Cebi (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases

Considering the concerns regarding the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine safety among pediatric patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) due to a lack of data, an urgent need for studies evaluating safety profiles of vaccines emerged. Among participants vaccinated by CoronaVac inactive SARS-CoV-2 or BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine, healthy children under 18 and patients under 21 with an at least 1-year follow-up period in our department for a childhood-onset rheumatic disease were included into this cross-sectional study.

Psychological distress and experiences of adolescents and young adults with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional survey

Camille Glidden; Kaitlyn Howden; Razvan G. Romanescu (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Psycho-Oncology

This study investigated prevalence of psychological distress, factors associated with distress, and experiences of Adolescents and Young Adults (AYAs) with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also compared distress in this group to previously surveyed Canadian AYAs with cancer in 2018 by the Young Adults with Cancer in their Prime (YACPRIME) study. A cross-sectional, online, self-administered survey of AYAs diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age was conducted. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Associations between variables and high psychological distress (K10 ≥ 25), and comparison of prevalence of psychological distress with the YACPRIME study were done using multivariable logistic regression. Summative qualitative content analysis analyzed participant experiences during this pandemic.

Combatting sedentary behaviors by delivering remote physical exercise in children and adolescents with obesity in the COVID-19 era: a narrative review

Matteo Vandoni; Roberto Codella; Roberto Pippi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Nutrients
The coexistence of childhood obesity (or its risk) and COVID-19 pandemic put children and adolescents in greater risk to develop respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In fact, the restrictions introduced to limit the spread of the virus had detrimental effects on various lifestyle components, especially in young population. This resulted in augmented levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors and a reduced time spent in play outdoors or sport practices. Contrariwise, the increased use of technology led clinicians, teachers, and trainers to maintain relations with obese children/adolescents so as to reduce sedentary behaviors and the associated health risks. This narrative review aims to describe the role of Telehealth and Tele-exercise as useful tools in the management of pediatric obesity during COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth and Tele-exercise were effective in promoting self-monitoring and behavioral changes, including adherence to exercise training programs in children and adolescents. Moreover, tele-exercise platforms such as applications or exergames allowed flexible scheduling, limiting the infection risks.
Stress, dependence, and COVID-19–related changes in past 30-day marijuana, electronic cigarette, and cigarette use among youth and young adults

Stephanie L. Clendennen; Kathleen R. Case; Aslesha Sumbe (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Tobacco Use Insights

Studies show smoking and vaping behaviors increase risk of contracting and worse symptoms of COVID-19. This study examines whether past 30-day youth and young adult users of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and cigarettes self-reported changes in their use of these substances due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and cross-sectional associations between perceived stress, nicotine or marijuana dependence, and COVID-19–related changes in use. Participants were 709 past 30-day self-reported substance users from the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance study (TATAMS; mean age = 19; 58% female; 38% Hispanic, 35% white). Multiple logistic regression models assessed cross-sectional associations between perceived stress and dependence and increased, decreased, or sustained past 30-day use of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and cigarettes due to COVID-19 (e.g., “Has your marijuana use changed due to the COVID-19 outbreak?”). Covariates included age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES), dependence (exposure: stress), and stress (exposure: dependence).

Decreased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in children and adolescents during the Delta variant emergence

Efrén Murillo-Zamora; Xóchitl Trujillo; Miguel Huerta (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Public Health

This study aims to evaluate factors associated with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in children (<10 years old) and adolescents (10 - 19 years old) before (March 2020 - April 2021) and during (May - July 2021) the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant emergence. A retrospective and nationwide cohort study was conducted in Mexico. Data from 26,961 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (IC) were used to evaluate the association of the evaluated exposures with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Acceptance of childhood and adolescent vaccination against COVID-19 in France: a national cross-sectional study in May 2021

Pierre Verger; Patrick Peretti-Watel; Amandine Gagneux-Brunon (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The French health authorities extended vaccination against COVID-19 to adolescents in June 2021, during the epidemic resurgence linked to the delta variant and because of insufficient vaccination coverage to ensure collective protection. In May 2021, a national online cross-sectional survey of 2533 adults was conducted in France to study their attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines and their acceptance of child/adolescent vaccination according to targeted age groups (<6 years; 6–11; 12–17) and its determinants. This study applied a multi-model averaged logistic regression for each of these age groups to study the determinants of favorability to vaccination. Among the respondents, 62.7% (1597) accepted COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents, 48.3% (1223) for children aged 6–11 years, and only 31% (783) for children under 6 years.
Concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic among justice-involved and low-income youth

Caitlin Cavanagh; Isabelle Clough; April Gile Thomas

Published: December 2021   Journal: Juvenile and Family Court Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused immense change and stress among adolescents. Yet, little is known about youths’ concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This is particularly true among youth who have been highly impacted by the pandemic—namely, justice system-involved youth, low-income youth, and youth who consider themselves to be low status. Youth from the community, youth on probation, and incarcerated youth completed a survey describing their concerns related to COVID-19 across three concern domains: economic, social concerns, and COVID-19 itself.
Finnish late adolescents’ physical activity during COVID-19 spring 2020 lockdown

Kwok Ng; Pasi Koski; Nelli Lyyra (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

Physical activity (PA) is recognised as one of the leading and effective strategies to prevent non-communicable diseases that boosts the immune system to fight against diseases. Closures of schools, sport clubs and facilities because of COVID-19 reduced the opportunities to participate in PA. This study aimed to examine physical activity levels of late adolescents, the contexts to be physical active and its changes during the spring 2020 lockdown. A national representative sample of late adolescents in general upper secondary school (n = 2408, females = 64%, mean age = 17.2y, SD = 0.63) completed self-report online surveys on PA behaviours between March and June 2020. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates with PA, and decision tree analyses to ascertain the perceived changes on PA during lockdown based on sport club aspirations and levels of PA.

Guardians’ willingness to vaccinate their teenagers against COVID-19 in China: a national cross-sectional survey

Jian Wu; Lipei Zhao; Meiyun Wang (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

To investigate Chinese guardians’ willingness to vaccinate teenagers (WVT) against COVID-19, this study conducted a national wide survey in 31 provinces in mainland China. It involved 16133 guardians from 31 provinces in Chinese Mainland from August 6th to 9th, 2021. The question “Are you willing to vaccinate teenagers of COVID-19 vaccine?” was designed to capture WVT. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for potential factors of WVT were estimated using multiple logistic regression models.

Smartphone and social media use contributed to individual tendencies towards social media addiction in Italian adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Davide Marengo; Matteo Angelo Fabris; Claudio Longobardi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Addictive Behaviors

Adolescents in remote education during the COVID-19 pandemic had few opportunities to socialize in person, resulting in a significant rise in the use of social networks or instant messaging applications. However, excessive use may promote addictive tendencies towards these platforms, with negative consequences for adolescents’ well-being. This study investigated the prevalence of smartphone and social media application use in early-to-late adolescents in remote education. It examined the relative impact of different social media applications on self-reported tendencies toward social media addiction. The sample consisted of 765 Italian adolescents (Age: M = 14.11 ± 2.2; 401 females) who reported on use of the smartphone, social media applications, namely WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, TikTok, Instagram, Snapchat, Telegram, Messenger, and YouTube.

Self-reported changes in cannabis vaping among US adolescents and young adults early in the COVID-19 pandemic

Nhung Nguyen; Shivani Mathur Gaih; Bonnie Halpern-Felshe

Published: December 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
Cannabis vaping may increase susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and related outcomes; however, little is known about the impact of the pandemic on cannabis vaping among US young populations. This study examined self-reported changes in cannabis vaping since the pandemic and factors associated with changes. A national, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4,351 US adolescents and young adults (13–24 years old) in May 2020. Of those, 1,553 participants who reported ever vaping cannabis were included in the analytic sample.
Amid the Covid-19 pandemic childhood obesity is still an epidemic - Spotlight on obesity's multifactorial determinants

Katya Saliba; Sarah Cuschieri

Published: December 2021   Journal: Health Sciences Review

Childhood obesity is a global epidemic and a chronic disease. Multifactorial determinants have long been linked with childhood obesity. These have been challenged with the onset of COVID-19 and the associated mitigation measures. The study aimed to re-highlight these determinants while exploring the effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on these pre-existing childhood obesity determinants, while providing evidence that may be beneficial for the post-Covid-19 recovery plan. A PubMed literature search (2016-2021) using the keywords, “childhood obesity”, “gender”, “sex”, “obesity in youth”, “obesity in adolescents”, “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV2” was performed.

Social stigma related to COVID-19 disease described by primary and secondary school teachers and adolescents living with HIV in Western Kenya

Ashley Chory; Winstone Nyandiko; Celestine Ashimosi (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Understanding community members' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus and the prevalence of associated stigma are critical steps for increasing accurate public health knowledge, encouraging uptake of preventative or mitigating health behaviors, and ultimately bringing the COVID-19 pandemic under control. This study conducted a one-time, phone-based assessment to assess the presence of perceived COVID-19 community stigma reported by Kenyan primary and secondary school teachers, as well as adolescents living with HIV. Participants were previously enrolled in an ongoing, cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the impact of multi-media teacher training on teachers' negative attitudes and beliefs around HIV. The SAFI Stigma Questionnaire, a validated tool to assess HIV-related stigma in this setting, was adapted to ask questions regarding the stigma and discrimination experienced or perceived during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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