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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 230
The impact of COVID-19 on adolescent psychiatric inpatient admissions

AUTHOR(S)
Leah Reece; Deanna P. Sams

Published: July 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
COVID-19 has disrupted the lives of individuals and families across the globe. For many, the impacts of this global pandemic have been insurmountable and have resulted in significant stressors. Although medical advances have allowed individuals to slowly begin to restore their sense of normalcy, COVID-19 has resulted in unprecedented mental health impacts for many, especially children and adolescents. The present study examines whether stressors related to COVID-19 and whether subsequent quarantine/isolation were possible contributors to psychiatric crises that led to adolescent psychiatric inpatient admissions.
Impacts of the COVID-19 control measures on widening educational inequalities

AUTHOR(S)
Merike Darmody; Emer Smyth; Helen Russell

Published: July 2021   Journal: Young
COVID-19 has resulted in a global public health crisis. Measures adopted by governments across the world to reduce transmission have resulted in the closure of educational institutions and workplaces and reduced social interaction. The aim of the article is to reflect on the consequences of the COVID-19 global pandemic for the lives of young people from different social groups, with a special focus on education. It is a desk-based review of empirical research that has emerged in the wake of COVID-19 that has explored the impact of the control measures adopted, resulting in ‘learning loss’ and the widening of the ‘learning gap’ among students. The review shows that rather than utilizing the current situation to tackle pre-existing social inequalities in education, current debates often narrowly focus on immediate rather than long-term measures. The article calls for a broader research agenda on the short- and long-term compensatory measures needed to re-engage students, especially those from more disadvantaged backgrounds.
School bullying before and during COVID-19: results from a population-based randomized design

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy Vaillancourt; Heather Brittain; Amanda Krygsman (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Aggressive Behavior
This reesearch examined the impact of COVID-19 on bullying prevalence rates in a sample of 6578 Canadian students in Grades 4 to 12. To account for school changes associated with the pandemic, students were randomized at the school level into two conditions: (1) the pre-COVID-19 condition, assessing bullying prevalence rates retrospectively before the pandemic, and (2) the current condition, assessing rates during the pandemic.
Students attending school remotely suffer socially, emotionally, and academically

AUTHOR(S)
Angela L. Duckworth; Tim Kautz; Amy Defnet

Published: July 2021   Journal: Educational Researcher
What is the social, emotional, and academic impact of attending school remotely rather than in person? We address this issue using survey data collected from N = 6,576 high school students in a large, diverse school district that allowed families to choose either format in fall 2020. Controlling for baseline measures of well-being collected 1 month before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as demographics, high school students who attended school remotely reported lower levels of social, emotional, and academic well-being (effect size [ES] = 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07 standard deviations, respectively) than classmates who attended school in person—differences that were consistent across gender, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status subgroups but significantly wider among 10th–12th graders than ninth graders.
#COVID#BACKTOSCHOOL: Qualitative study based on the voice of Portuguese adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Cátia Branquinho; Anabela Caetano Santos; Lúcia Ramiro (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Community Psychology
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the exponential increase in cases, educational institutions worldwide were forced to close, making way for digital learning. After a period of confinement and an online teaching methodology, a new school year has begun. However, this new school year included the application of a wide range of measures that transformed the educative setting. The present study aimed to understand the health consequences for adolescents and young adults (AYA) during the back to school period after the COVID-19 lockdown. This mixed-method study included 304 participants between 16 and 24 years old (M = 18.4, SD = 2.12), female (71.1%), Portuguese (90.8%) and students (85.2%).
Reimagining youth justice: how the dual crises of COVID-19 and racial injustice inform judicial policymaking and reform

AUTHOR(S)
Alysha Gagnon; Samahria Alpern

Published: July 2021   Journal: Juvenile and Family Court Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic and the rejuvenated movement for racial justice in 2020 have presented an opportunity to reimagine the roles, practices, and policies of juvenile and family court systems actors. In order to capture contemporary ideas about judicial practice and policy reforms, semi-structured interviews were conducted with Hon. Edwina Mendelson, Deputy Chief Administrative Judge for the Office of Justice Initiatives in New York State, and Hon. Steven Teske, Chief Judge of the Juvenile Court of Clayton County, Georgia. These interviews yielded several recommendations for judicial reform in youth justice (e.g., implement court-wide procedural justice practices, improve accessibility using technology). These recommendations can be used by systems actors across the country, particularly those interested in adapting their courtroom practices for a post-pandemic world.
Transitioning to adulthood from residential childcare during COVID-19: Experiences of young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorder in South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Wendy M. Mupaku; Adrian D. van Breda; Berni Kelly

Published: July 2021   Journal: British Journal of Learning Disabilities
This study focuses on young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism who, due to child welfare concerns, have grown up in children's residential care and are now transitioning out of care at the age of 18 years towards young adulthood. This transition is termed “care leaving” and the young people in transition “care leavers”. The care leaving transition can be particularly difficult for young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism. These challenges can be magnified in a time of a global crisis like COVID-19, which has resulted in countries being on lockdown and care leavers’ transitions being curtailed. Many mental health problems have emerged due to the COVID-19 outbreak and resultant lockdown that may negatively impact on the care leaving transition of young people with intellectual disabilities.
The effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on adolescents with an eating disorder and identifying factors predicting disordered eating behaviour

AUTHOR(S)
Sinem Akgül; Devrim Akdemir; Kevser Nalbant (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Early Intervention in Psychiatry

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on adolescents with eating disorders (ED) and identify factors predicting ED behaviour.This study took place during an age-stratified lockdown for those under 20 years in Turkey. Participants completed a survey developed to evaluate the effects of the lockdown on ED behaviour, well-being and quality of life (QoL) and additionally the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), and scales for depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive behaviour. The relationship between the EDE-Q-global score and other variables related to ED was examined. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the predictive power of these variables on ED behaviour.

Pandemic did not lead to decrease in alcohol and marijuana use by youth

AUTHOR(S)
Gary Enos

Published: July 2021   Journal: Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly
Despite seeing a historic decline in youths' perceived availability of alcohol and marijuana during last year's peak of COVID-19 restrictions, use of these substances did not show a corresponding drop, newly released data indicates. The study's lead author told ADAW that the findings were so surprising to him that he had to set them aside for a time to try to process what he was seeing.
Neural responses to social reward predict depressive symptoms in adolescent girls during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Stefanie L. Sequeira; Jennifer S. Silk; Emily Hutchinson (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

Adolescent depression is increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly related to dramatic social changes. Individual-level factors that contribute to social functioning, such as temperament and neural reactivity to social feedback, may confer risk for or resilience against depressive symptoms during the pandemic. Ninety-three girls (12–17 years) oversampled for high shy/fearful temperament were recruited from a longitudinal study for a follow-up COVID-19 study. During the parent study (2016–2018), participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task eliciting neural activity to performance-related social feedback. Depressive symptoms were assessed during the parent study and COVID-19 follow-up (April–May 2020).

Children and adolescent mental health in a time of COVID-19: a forgotten priority

AUTHOR(S)
Agnes Binagwaho; Joyeuse Senga

Published: July 2021   Journal: Annals of Global Health
Globally, 10–20% of children and adolescents experience mental health conditions, but most of them do not receive the appropriate care when it is needed. The COVID-19 deaths and prevention measures, such as the lockdowns, economic downturns, and school closures, have affected many communities physically, mentally, and economically and significantly impacted the already-neglected children and adolescents’ mental health. As a result, evidence has shown that many children and adolescents are experiencing psychological effects such as depression and anxiety without adequate support. The consequences of not addressing the mental health conditions in children and adolescents extend through adulthood and restrict them from reaching their full potential. The effects of COVID-19 on children and adolescents’ mental health highlight the urgent need for multisectoral home-grown solutions to provide early diagnosis and treatment and educate caregivers on home-based interventions and community outreach initiatives to address children and adolescents’ mental health challenges during this pandemic and beyond.
Sleep, anxiety, and academic performance: a study of adolescents from public high schools in China

AUTHOR(S)
Xiaoning Zhang; Dagmara Dimitriou; Elizabeth J. Halstead

Published: July 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Sleep is essential for optimal learning across the developmental pathways. This study aimed to (1) explore whether school start and end times and screen time influenced sleep disturbances in adolescents during the lockdown in China and (2) investigate if sleep disturbances at night and sleep-related impairment (daytime fatigue) influenced adolescents' academic performance and anxiety levels. Ninety-nine adolescents aged 15–17 years old were recruited from two public schools in Baishan City Jilin Province, China. An online questionnaire was distributed including questions on adolescents' demographics, screen time habits, academic performance, anxiety level, sleep disturbances, and sleep-related impairment.

Smartphone use and addiction during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: cohort study on 184 Italian children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Gregorio Serra; Lucia Lo Scalzo; Mario Giuffrè (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
The lives of many children and adolescents are today increasingly influenced by new technological devices, including smartphones. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic occurred in a time of outstanding scientific progress and global digitalization. Young people had relevant adverse psychological and behavioral effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly related to infection control measures, which led them to spend more time at home and with major use of technological tools. The goal this study proposes is to evaluate health and social outcomes of smartphone overuse among Italian children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, analyzing patterns and aims of utilization, as well as the eventual presence and degree of addiction.
Depressive symptoms among adolescents: testing vulnerability-stress and protective models in the context of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy R. G. Gladstone; Jennifer A. J. Schwartz; Patrick Pössel (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
Adolescents who experience negative life events may be at risk for depression, particularly those with psychosocial vulnerabilities. This study investigates longitudinally the impact of vulnerability/protective factors on the relation between a large-scale negative life event, the COVID-19 pandemic, and depressive symptoms. Adolescents (N = 228, Mage = 14.5 years, 53% female, 73% white) self-reported depressive symptoms 2–4 months before the pandemic (Time 1), and again 2 months following stay-at-home orders (Time 2). At T2, adolescents also completed measures of vulnerability, protective factors, and COVID-19-related distress. Depressive symptoms increased at T2, and COVID-19 distress interacted with resilience and negative cognitive style in predicting increases in T2 depression. Focusing on vulnerability and protective factors in adolescents distressed by large scale negative life events appears crucial.
Responding to COVID-19 threats to trial conduct: lessons learned from a feasibility trial of a psychological intervention for South African adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Bronwyn Myers; Claire van der Westhuizen; Megan Pool

Published: July 2021   Journal: Trials
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed challenges to the conduct of clinical trials. Strategies for overcoming common challenges to non-COVID-19 trial continuation have been reported, but this literature is limited to pharmacological intervention trials from high-income settings. The purpose of this paper is to expand the literature to include a low- and middle-income country perspective. It describes the challenges posed by COVID-19 for a randomised feasibility trial of a psychological intervention for adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa, and lessons learned when implementing strategies to facilitate trial continuation in this context.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.