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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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346 - 360 of 382
COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Li Jiang; Kun Tang; Mike Levin (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus continues to spread worldwide, there have been increasing reports from Europe, North America, Asia, and Latin America describing children and adolescents with COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory conditions. However, the association between multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and COVID-19 is still unknown. This article reviews the epidemiology, causes, clinical features, and current treatment protocols for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents associated with COVID-19. It also discusses the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for COVID-19-induced inflammatory processes, which can lead to organ damage in paediatric patients who are severely ill. These insights provide evidence for the need to develop a clear case definition and treatment protocol for this new condition and also shed light on future therapeutic interventions and the potential for vaccine development.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 20 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 276-288 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, respiratory diseases
Why is COVID-19 less severe in children?: a review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the age-related difference in severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections

AUTHOR(S)
Petra Zimmermann; Nigel Curtis

Published: October 2020   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review discusses proposed hypotheses for the age-related difference in severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Factors proposed to explain the difference in severity of COVID-19 in children and adults include those that put adults at higher risk and those that protect children. The former include: (1) age-related increase in endothelial damage and changes in clotting function; (2) higher density, increased affinity and different distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors and transmembrane serine protease 2; (3) pre-existing coronavirus antibodies (including antibody-dependent enhancement) and T cells; (4) immunosenescence and inflammaging, including the effects of chronic cytomegalovirus infection; (5) a higher prevalence of comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and (6) lower levels of vitamin D. Factors that might protect children include: (1) differences in innate and adaptive immunity; (2) more frequent recurrent and concurrent infections; (3) pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses; (4) differences in microbiota; (5) higher levels of melatonin; (6) protective off-target effects of live vaccines and (7) lower intensity of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

Cite this research | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission
A daily diary study on adolescents’ mood, empathy, and prosocial behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Suzanne van de Groep; Kiki Zanolie; Kayla H. Green (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: PloS one
Adolescence is a formative phase for social development. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated regulations have led to many changes in adolescents’ lives, including limited opportunities for social interactions. The current exploratory study investigated the effect of the first weeks of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on Dutch adolescents’ mood, empathy, and prosocial behavior.
Beyond the disease: contextualized implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for children and young people living in Eastern and Southern Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Kaymarlin Govender; Richard Gregory Cowden; Patrick Nyamaruze (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created extraordinary challenges and prompted remarkable social changes around the world. The effects of COVID-19 and the public health control measures that have been implemented to mitigate its impact are likely to be accompanied by a unique set of consequences for specific subpopulations living in low-income countries that have fragile health systems and pervasive social-structural vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the implications of COVID-19 and related public health interventions for children and young people living in Eastern and Southern Africa. Actionable prevention, care, and health promotion initiatives are proposed to attenuate the negative effects of the pandemic and government-enforced movement restrictions on children and young people.
Risk and protective factors for prospective changes in adolescent mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Natasha R. Magson; Justin Y. A. Freeman; Ronald M. Rapee (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
The restrictions put in place to contain the COVID-19 virus have led to widespread social isolation, impacting mental health worldwide. These restrictions may be particularly difficult for adolescents, who rely heavily on their peer connections for emotional support. However, there has been no longitudinal research examining the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents. This study addresses this gap by investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents mental health, and moderators of change, as well as assessing the factors perceived as causing the most distress.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in children in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Masood Sadiq; Omeir Ali Aziz; Uzma Kazmi (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The knowledge of COVID-19 is evolving with new aspects of the disease continuing to emerge. Children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age constitute 10·6% of the total reported confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Pakistan as of July 8, 2020, with a mortality of 0·3% for those aged 10 years or younger and 0·5% for those aged 11–20 years. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS) is being reported primarily from Europe and the USA. Many of these children meet the criteria for complete or incomplete Kawasaki disease, but different clinical presentations of this inflammatory disorder are being reported. The ethnic origin of reported cases show that Black, Hispanic, and Asian children might be disproportionally affected. Similarly, unlike Kawasaki disease, these cases have occurred in older children and adolescents.
When adolescents are in school during COVID-19: coordination between school-based health centers and education is key

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Anderson; Simon Haeder; Kelli Caseman (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Schools and School-based Health Centers (SBHC) play complementary roles in adolescent’s lives. The intersection between health care, notably SBHCs, and education has never seemed as pronounced as during the COVID-19 pandemic. Amidst the rapidly changing landscapes for both education and healthcare lie ample opportunities for better alignment of strategies to ensure that, once children return to the classroom (whether in person or virtual), all have access to a comprehensive, culturally appropriate, affordable healthcare delivery systems. This study provides recommendations related to SBHCs that could benefit adolescent health during the return to school. 
The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on internet use and escapism in adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Blossom Fernandes; Urmi Nanda Biswas; Roseann Tan-Mansukhani (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Revista de Psicología Clínica con Niños y Adolescentes

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on everyday functioning, considerable measures being taken to reduce the spread of the virus. Schools and social avenues have been placed on prolonged lockdowns, with people continuing to maintain physical distance. Adolescents and young people have had to endure significant stress alongside dealing with developmental characteristics. Amidst all of this, studies report an increase in gaming addiction and internet use with detrimental impact on psychosocial well-being. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of lockdown on internet use in adolescents, comparing their habits from before the pandemic. Furthermore, this research aimed to investigate the relationship between gaming addiction, internet use and COVID-19 worries. Adolescents from several countries (e.g., India, Malaysia, Mexico and the UK) completed online questionnaires, shared via social media and youth networks. These measures included questions on internet, social media, gaming, depression, loneliness, escapism and COVID-19. Results show that adolescents generally have increased their use of social media sites and streaming services.

COVID-19 impact on behaviors across the 24-hour day in children and adolescents: physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren C. Bates; Gabriel Zieff; Kathleen Stanford (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Children (Basel)
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, social restrictions to contain the spread of the virus have disrupted behaviors across the 24-h day including physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep among children (5–12 years old) and adolescents (13–17 years old). Preliminary evidence reports significant decreases in physical activity, increases in sedentary behavior, and disrupted sleep schedules/sleep quality in children and adolescents. This commentary discusses the impact of COVID-19-related restrictions on behaviors across the 24-h day in children and adolescents. Furthermore, we suggest recommendations through the lens of a socio-ecological model to provide strategies for lasting behavior change to insure the health and well-being of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A rapid review investigating the potential impact of a pandemic on the mental health of young people aged 12–25 years

AUTHOR(S)
A. O’Reilly; M. Tibbs; A. Booth (et al.)

Published: September 2020
In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic. Adolescence and early adulthood are peak times for the onset of mental health difficulties. Exposure to a pandemic during this vulnerable developmental period places young people at significant risk of negative psychological experiences. The objective of this research was to summarise existing evidence on the potential impact of a pandemic on the mental health of 12–25 year olds. A rapid review of the published peer-reviewed literature, published between 1985 and 2020, using PsycINFO (Proquest) and Medline (Proquest) was conducted. Narrative synthesis was used across studies to identify key themes and concepts.
Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents compared with adults

AUTHOR(S)
Russell M. Viner; Oliver T. Mytton; Chris Bonell (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

In this systematic review and meta-analysis including 32 studies, children and adolescents younger than 20 years had 44% lower odds of secondary infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared with adults 20 years and older; this finding was most marked in those younger than 10 to 14 years. Data were insufficient to conclude whether transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children is lower than by adults. Preliminary evidence suggests that children have a lower susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with adults, but the role that children and adolescents play in transmission of this virus remains unclear.

Contextualizing parental/familial influence on physical activity in adolescents before and during COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Gilic; Ljerka Ostojic; Marin Corluka (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Children
Parental and familial factors influence numerous aspects of adolescents’ lives, including their physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in PAL which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to evaluate influence of sociodemographic and parental/familial factors on PAL levels before and during pandemic in adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The sample included 688 adolescents (15–18 years of age; 322 females) who were tested on two occasions: in January 2020 (baseline; before the COVID-19 pandemic) and in April 2020 (follow-up; during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown).
Health-related behaviors among school-aged children and adolescents during the Spanish Covid-19 confinement

AUTHOR(S)
Rubén López-Bueno; Guillermo F. López-Sánchez; José A. Casajús (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) world pandemic, affected countries such as Spain enacted measures comprising compulsory confinement as well as restrictions regarding free movement. Such measures likely influence children's and adolescents' lifestyles. Our study aimed to investigate the impact that the Covid-19 confinement has on health-related behaviors among Spanish children and adolescents. An online survey was administered to 516 parents to collect data about 860 children and adolescents (49.2% girls) aged between 3 and 16 years in relation to physical activity, screen exposure, sleep time, and fruit and vegetable consumption during the Covid-19 confinement.
Anxiety in older adolescents at the time of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Pietro Smirni; Gioacchino Lavanco; Daniela Smirni

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine
The current study investigated the state of anxiety and emotional awareness in a sample of healthy older adolescents, 84 females and 64 males, aged 17 to 19, during the pandemic lockdown, using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and the Italian Emotion Awareness Questionnaire. An unexpected anxious phenomenology was found, affecting anxiety and the ideo-affective domain, while somatic symptomatology appeared to be less severe. The highest anxiety symptoms were breathing difficulties. These findings supported the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic may be a risk condition for an increased state of anxiety in older adolescents and suggested the need to provide (1) an effective, empathic communication system with direct participation of older adolescents, (2) a psychological counseling service for the stress management of adolescents.
COVID-19 pandemic: the impact on vulnerable children and young people in Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin Jones; Susan Woolfenden; Sandra Pengilly (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
This article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of children and young people (CYP) during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups were identified: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing financial hardship; within the child protection system; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP. Recommendations for action are required at the level of governments, health professionals and researchers and include enhancing access to health and social supports, prioritising vulnerable CYP in resuming health activity and elevating the voice of CYP in designing the response.
This
article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of CYP during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate
additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups
were identied: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing nancial hardship; within the child protection sys-
tem; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP.
346 - 360 of 382

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.