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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 341
Adolescent girls and COVID-19: Mapping the evidence on interventions

Sarah Blake; Miriam Temin; Tara Abularrage (et al.)

Institution: Population Council
Published: November 2021
With the COVID-19 crisis continuing to evolve, evidence on the effectiveness of short-term emergency-oriented responses and long-term mitigation strategies is expanding but still limited. There are, and will continue to be, substantial evidence gaps on programming to address risk across outcomes of importance to adolescent girls. More evidence is needed to slow the risks posed by the pandemic for this sub-population, which can help guide gender- and age-responsive prevention and impact mitigation investments. Evidence from approaches delivered in other unstable contexts may offer important lessons for decision-making in the current context. Recognizing this, the Population Council conducted a structured review of existing evidence collected prior to the pandemic, across low- and middle-income country contexts (under the auspices of the Adolescent Girls Investment Plan, AGIP1 ).
Vaccinating adolescents against SARS-CoV-2 in England: a risk–benefit analysis

Deepti Gurdasani; Samir Bhatt; Anthony Costello (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

This paper aims to offer a quantitative risk–benefit analysis of two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among adolescents in England.Following the risk–benefit analysis methodology carried out by the US Centers for Disease Control, we calculated historical rates of hospital admission, Intensive Care Unit admission and death for ascertained SARS-CoV-2 cases in children aged 12–17 in England. We then used these rates alongside a range of estimates for incidence of long COVID, vaccine efficacy and vaccine-induced myocarditis, to estimate hospital and Intensive Care Unit admissions, deaths and cases of long COVID over a period of 16 weeks under assumptions of high and low case incidence.

To be or not to be vaccinated against COVID-19 – The adolescents’ perspective – A mixed-methods study in Sweden

S. Nilsson; J. Mattson; M. Berghammer (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Vaccine: X
Vaccination of the population seems to be an important strategy in halting the COVID-19 pandemic in both local and global society. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish adolescents’ willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and its association with sociodemographic and other possible factors. A survey was distributed in Sweden between 7 July and 8 November 2020. The main qualitative question concerned adolescents’ thoughts on vaccination against COVID-19 and evaluated whether the adolescents would like to be vaccinated when a COVID-19 vaccine is made available. In total, 702 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 responded to the questionnaire. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used.
Narrative review: COVID-19 and pediatric anxiety

Kevin Walsh; William J. Furey; Narpinder Malhi

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychiatric Research
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has brought focus to the effects of anxiety on children. This study aimed to review the existing literature regarding the impact of the pandemic on pediatric anxiety. This review analyzed the existing literature between the open-sourced collection on PubMed inputting “anxiety disorder in children during pandemic” and “pediatric anxiety OR child anxiety AND COVID” and that of the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry using the keywords “social anxiety AND COVID.” This yielded 149 + 312 (461) entries and 68 articles were selected. Anxiety was found to have a prevalence of 18.9–23.87% in children during the COVID-19 pandemic whereas adolescent populations demonstrated a prevalence of 15.4–39.9%. Female gender was the most studied risk factor and physical activity was the most documented preventative factor. This review supported the notion that the COVID-19 pandemic is a major contributor to anxiety in the pediatric population.
The association between insecurity and subjective well-being among youth during the COVID-19 outbreak: a moderated mediation model

Fangfang Wen; Hanxue Ye; Bin Zuo (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Sudden and unpredictable changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have profoundly threatened the psychological well-being and increased insecurity among adolescents worldwide. At a critical developmental stage, the well-being of the youth is more vulnerable to adverse environments. This study constructed a moderated mediation model to explore the buffering factors between insecurity and subjective well-being of the youth during the pandemic. During the COVID-19 outbreak in June 2020, data of 5,503 Chinese youth (15–29 years old) were collected via an online questionnaire. Subjective well-being, insecurity, self-control, and hope were measured, and the moderated mediation model was analyzed.

Substance-related coping behaviours among youth during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic

Isabella Romano; Karen A. Patte; Margaret de Groh (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Addictive Behaviors Reports
As impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to unfold, research is needed to understand how school-aged youth are coping with COVID-19-related changes and disruptions to daily life. Among a sample of Canadian youth, our objective was to examine the mental health factors associated with using substances to cope with COVID-19-related changes, taking account of expected sex differences.
Analysis of food habits during pandemic in a Polish population-based sample of primary school adolescents: diet and activity of youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) study

Aleksandra Kołota; Dominika Głąbska

Published: October 2021   Journal: Nutrients
The improper dietary behaviors of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, which are associated with lockdowns and reduced physical activity, are a complex problem, potentially resulting in increased risk of diet-related diseases, including overweight and obesity and their consequences. The aim of the study was to assess the food habits during the COVID-19 pandemic and to define their association with physical activity and body mass changes in a Polish population of primary school adolescents within the Diet and Activity of Youth During COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study was conducted in June 2020 in a national cohort of 1334 primary school students aged 10–16 years, recruited based on a stratified random sampling of schools (sampling counties from voivodeships and schools from counties). The Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) was used to assess food habits, associated with food purchase, preparation, and consumption, which in the studied group were analyzed separately for the period before (retrospective data) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (prospective data). The recognizable physical activity changes and recognizable body mass changes were also assessed (retrospective data) and respondents were classified as those declaring that their physical activity and body mass decreased, remained stable, or increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Adolescents’ mental health status and influential factors amid the Coronavirus disease pandemic

Stella Angelina; Andree Kurniawan; Fransisca Handy Agung (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: CEGH Home
The preventive measure of Coronavirus Disease pandemic, such as nationwide lockdown, might lead to stress, depression, and anxiety, prominently in adolescents. Many factors were indicated to influence its severity. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of COVID-19-related mental health problems in adolescents and the associated factors. This cross-sectional study gathered 2018 adolescents throughout Indonesia from April 22nd-28th 2020. The questionnaire was spread through social media and included Kessler-10 Psychological Distress scale and closed-ended questions about the risk and protective factors. The results were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Logistic Regression.
Resilience of adolescents, though weakened during pandemic-related lockdown, serves as a protection against depression and sleep problems

Huangqi Jiang; Wenle Yu; Danhua Lin (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Adolescents facing adversities are susceptible to depression and sleep problems. Resilience is an important protective mechanism for coping with adversity. During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents faced hardships including being pulled from their schools and being unable to socialize with friends during mandated lockdowns. There were three aims in this study. First, it sought to test whether Chinese adolescents’ resilience was strengthened, maintained, or weakened during the COVID-19 lockdown. Second, it sought to test whether adolescents’ resilience predicted depressive symptoms and in turn, sleep problems. Third, it sought to examine the role social support may play. In a partially-longitudinal survey study, it demonstrated via a within-subject t-test and its Bayesian equivalent that Chinese adolescents’ resilience weakened during the lockdown compared with before the pandemic.
Chronotypes, sleep problems and trauma reactions in adolescents with anxiety disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

Halit Necmi Uçar; Özlem Çiçek Zekey; Merve Kuz (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Chronobiology International
This study aims to investigate the relationship between chronotype preferences/sleep problems and trauma symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak of adolescents diagnosed with Anxiety Disorder (AD) in the pre-COVID-19 period. The sample of this study consisted of 71 adolescents with AD. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Children’s Event Impact Scale (CRIES-13); sleep habits were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); and chronotype was evaluated using the Children’s Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ). The CRIES-13 arousal scores and PSQI sleep latency scores were significantly higher in the eveningness type group compared with the non-eveningness type group. The CRIES-13 arousal scores of adolescents with AD were related to the CCQ and PSQI scores. In linear regression analysis, sleep problems were found to be an associated factor on the CRIES-13 scores.
Children and adolescents’ lived experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jacqueline M. Swank; Jo Lauren Weaver; Alena Prikhidko (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Family Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic affected people across the life span, including children and adolescents. This study focuses on exploring the lived experiences of children and adolescents in the United States during the pandemic. 12 children and adolescents have been interviewed in April 2020 and four themes were identified: (a) change in school environment, (b) connection, (c) creative celebrations, and (d) hope. Limitations, recommendations for future research, and implications for counseling are discussed.
Insights into adolescents' substance use in a low–middle-income country during the COVID-19 pandemic

Lee Thung Sen; Kristiana Siste; Enjeline Hanaf (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown have been a significant life event for many individuals, particularly adolescents. The immense psychological pressure could drive risky behavior, e.g., substance use, while lockdown might lead to decreased use. This study aimed to observe the change in substance use among adolescents in Indonesia and the moderating variables to consumption during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This study utilized an online survey from April 28, 2020 to June 30, 2020. The hyperlink was disseminated to school administrators and parenting groups through social media and direct messages. A total of 2,932 adolescents (17.4 ± 2.24 and 78.7% females) submitted valid responses. The survey was comprised of a sociodemographic section, substance use details, and psychometric sections, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Cigarette Dependence Scale 12 (CDS-12), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).

Using heartfulness meditation and brainwave entrainment to improve teenage mental wellbeing

Ghazal Suhani Yadav; Francisco José Cidral-Filho; Ranjani B. Iyer

Published: October 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Teenagers are highly susceptible to mental health issues and this problem has been exacerbated by the quarantine restrictions of COVID-19. This study evaluated the use of Heartfulness Meditation and Audio Brainwave Entrainment to help teenagers cope with mental health issues. It used 30-min Heartfulness meditation and 15-min brainwave entrainment sessions with binaural beats and isochronic tones three times a week for 4 weeks. Using a pretest-posttest methodology, participants were asked to complete a survey battery including the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index, Perceived Stress Scale, Patient Health Question-9, Profile of Mood States, and Cambridge Brain Health assessment. Participants (n = 40) were divided into four experimental groups: the control group (n = 9), Audio Brainwave Entrainment group (n = 9), Heartfulness Meditation group (n = 10), and a combined group (n = 12), for a 4-week intervention. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests. The singular Audio Brainwave Entrainment group did not see statistically significant improvements, nor did any of the intervention groups for brain health (p > 0.05). This study, however, proved the efficacy of a 4-week Heartfulness Meditation program to regulate overall mood (p = 0.00132), stress levels (p = 0.0089), state depression (POMS; p = 0.0037), and anger (p = 0.002). Results also suggest adding Audio Brainwave Entrainment to Heartfulness Meditation may improve sleep quality (p = 0.0377) and stress levels (p = 0.00016).
Adolescents’ physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study of mothers’ perspectives

Fitria Dwi Andriyani; Stuart J. H. Biddle; Katrien De Cocker

Published: October 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

Socio-behavioural adaptations during the COVID-19 pandemic may have significantly affected adolescents’ lifestyle. This study aimed to explore possible reasons affecting changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Indonesian adolescents during the pandemic based on mothers’ perspectives. This research recruited parents (n = 20) from the Yogyakarta region of Indonesia (July–August 2020) using purposive and snowball sampling. Individual interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and anonymised. Data were imported into NVivo software for a reflexive thematic analysis.

Changes in alienation in physical education classes, school happiness, and expectations of a future healthy life after the COVID-19 pandemic in Korean adolescents

Seung-Man Lee; Jung-In Yoo; Hyun-Su Youn

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study aims to investigate the changes in the structural relationship between alienation in physical education (PE) classes, school happiness, and future healthy life expectations in Korean adolescents after the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from Korean adolescents using different scales. The collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis, reliability analysis, validity analysis, independent t test, and path analysis.
16 - 30 of 341

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.