Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   300     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
16 - 30 of 300
Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on substance use among middle school and high school students: a natural experiment

Jonathan K. Noel; Samantha R. Rosenthal; Samantha K. Borden (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Public Health Reports
Research on COVID-19’s effect on substance use is mixed, and few studies have focused on adolescents. This study assessed whether implementation of the COVID-19 lockdown affected substance use and changed perceptions of psychoactive substance availability in middle and high school students. It assessed self-reported use and perceived availability of alcohol, tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, marijuana, synthetic marijuana, nonprescribed prescription drugs, and illicit drugs (heroin, inhalants) among middle and high school respondents aged 11-18 years to the Rhode Island Student Survey (N = 17 751). An administrative pause because of COVID-19 lockdowns allowed us to divide results into surveys completed before (January through March 2020; n = 13 259) and after (November 2020 through May 2021; n = 4492) the lockdown implementation. The study determined the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender/sexual orientation, middle/high school level, and city/town classification.
The change in children's subjective relational social cohesion with family and friends during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multinational analysis

Oliver Nahkur; Dagmar Kutsar

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Sociology
As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, social-distancing measures have been implemented worldwide, including school closures. Previous studies indicated that children's relational social cohesion with family (RSC-Fa) and friends (RSC-Fr) may have decreased during the pandemic, but some children described that positive experiences were gained from the confinement measures of social distancing. Mostly, these studies are qualitative or capture a single country and have an exploratory character. Using data collected in 2021 of more than 20,000 children primarily aged 9–13 years as part of the International Children's Worlds COVID-19 Supplement Survey from 18 countries (Germany, Turkey, Bangladesh, Italy, Albania, Romania, Chile, Wales, Taiwan, Belgium, Algeria, Israel, Russia, South Korea, Indonesia, Estonia, Finland, and Spain), this study aimed to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected children's RSC-Fa and RSC-Fr and explore the role of relational factors. RSC-Fa and RSC-Fr are measured through satisfaction in relationships with family members and friends before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. This study employed descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis.
The impact of exposure to cigarette advertising and promotion on youth smoking behavior in Malang Regency (Indonesia) during the COVID-19 pandemic

Kharismatul Laili; Suci Puspita Ratih; Rara Warih Gayatri (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Health in Africa

The prevalence of teen smokers has increased during the Covid-19 pandemic. Smoking behavior occurs due to exposure to advertising and the promotion of cigarettes. This quantitative research was conducted using cross-sectional approach. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationship between advertising exposure and cigarette promotion on adolescent smoking behavior in Malang Regency during the pandemic using the chi-square test. Random sampling on students from several high schools or equal degree in the Kepanjen District was done with a total of 145 respondents.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 13 | Issue: S2 | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, behavioural change, COVID-19 response, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Indonesia
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food habits and neophobia in children in the framework of the family context and parents' behaviors: a study in an Italian central region

Annalisa Di Nucci; Umberto Scognamiglio; Federica Grant (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Nutrition

This paper aims to evaluate whether changes in lifestyle and eating habits resulting from the Covid-19 emergency have influenced the post-pandemic level of food neophobia and in children living in an Italian central region.  A sample of 99 children took part in a retrospective assessment carried out with a self-administrated questionnaire. Pre and post-pandemic evaluation of eating habits, physical activity, and lifestyle indicators was carried out. Food neophobia was evaluated following the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). Descriptive statistics were produced. A contingency analysis was performed to check associations between variables.

Mindful feeding: associations with COVID-19 related parent stress and child eating behavior

Merina Varghese; Adelyn Sherrard; Michael Vang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Appetite
Parent perceived stress has been associated with child obesogenic eating, as parents who are stressed may be less responsive to their children during mealtimes (Gemmill et al., 2013). More recently, mindfulness-based interventions have successfully reduced people's stress levels. However, less is known regarding the role of mindfulness in the child feeding context. In this study, 249 parents of children between the ages of 3 and 12 completed a 20-minute online study to examine the associations among COVID-19 related parent stress (hereby referred to as parent stress), mindful feeding, and child obesogenic eating (i.e., food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, and desire to drink).
Instagram, risky drinking and main health effects in Spanish adolescents in the COVID-19 pandemic. a qualitative study

Lorena Tarriño-Concejero; Rocio de Diego-Cordero; Maria Ángeles García-Carpintero Muñoz

Published: November 2022   Journal: Public Health Nursing

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between Instagram, alcohol consumption and the impact on adolescent health during the COVID-19 pandemic. A qualitative study was carried out with 13 focus groups, involving 38 interviews. The fieldwork was conducted between January and December 2021 using a semi-structured script with three main categories. The research was carried out by a team specialized in adolescent risks and qualitative research.

Self-reported changes in sleep patterns and behavior in children and adolescents during COVID-19

Kathrin Bothe; Manuel Schabus; Esther-Sevil Eigl (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns worldwide forced children and adolescents to change and adapt their lives to an unprecedented situation. Using an online survey, we investigated whether they showed changes in sleep quality and other related factors due to this event. Between February 21st, 2021 and April 19th, 2021, a total of 2,290 Austrian children and adolescents (6–18 years) reported their sleep habits and quality of sleep as well as physical activity, daylight exposure and usage of media devices during and, retrospectively, before the pandemic.
Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on changes in nutritional status and physical activities of school-age children: a scoping review

Fajar Ari Nugroho; Annisa Nafilata Ruchaina; Angga Galih Luhur Wicaksono

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal Gizi Pangan

This study's objective is to review the consequence of the COVID-19 epidemic on physical activities, sedentary  lifestyles,  screen  time,  and  changes  in  the  nutritional  status  of  school-age  children.  The outcomes  of  this  study  are  intended  to  be  applicable  to  obesity  management  in  children.  This  study reviewed  full-text  articles  and  open-access  publications  on  the  sedentary  lifestyle  of  children  during the pandemic. and the data were analyzed using cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional designs. The results of reviewing 17 articles show that school-age children’s physical activities and nutritional status have  decreased,  but  their  sedentary  lifestyle  and  screen  time  have  increased  due  to  social  restrictions  during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children’s decreased physical activities are caused by the absence of a comparable replacement mechanism as that before the pandemic. Meanwhile, the increasingly sedentary  lifestyle highly influences children’s physical and mental health. Screen time has also increased and is unavoidable during the pandemic because children’s activities were limited and their learning systems are switched to online learning; as a result, their supporting sedentary lifestyle increases while physical activities decrease. These factors have changed the nutritional status of children during the pandemic.

Impact of early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexually transmitted infection screening claims among adolescent females in a pediatric accountable care organization in Ohio, United States

Laura Hart; Fareeda W. Haamid; Cynthia Holland-Hall (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) decreased during the early months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Less is known about the extent to which screening of asymptomatic adolescents for STIs was specifically affected. Our aim was to describe the impacts of early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on asymptomatic STI screening and overall STI testing among adolescent females aged 13 to 19. We hypothesized that screening would decrease more than overall testing. This study evaluated claims data from a pediatric accountable care organization responsible for approximately 40,000 adolescent females. It assessed rates of asymptomatic screening and overall testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea in this population, comparing the early pandemic to pre-pandemic levels.

Psychosocial and pandemic determinants of psychoactive substance use by adolescents aged 14-15. Mokotów study 2020

Krzysztof Jan Bobrowski; Krzysztof Ostaszewski; Agnieszka Pisarska (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
Psychosocial factors determining the use of psychoactive substances by adolescents have been identified in numerous empirical studies conducted over the past few decades. Specific features of the peer environment like contacts with substance users, prevalence of use in the peer environment or experiencing direct peer pressure towards substance use are indicated to be of particular importance. Features of the family environment, particularly parental support and control and features of the school environment like school bonding are important. Numerous studies have shown that the group of strongest factors include subjective norms and normative beliefs about use, expectations about the effects of alcohol and individual, temperamental and personality characteristics, such as sensation-seeking, impulsivity, self-control and sense of coherence. The Mokotów study presented in this paper, while primarily focused on monitoring changes in the prevalence of risk behaviours and other mental health problems also takes into account the possibility of analysing, as described above, the many strong determinants of various problems in the study population of adolescents.
Implications of time and space factors related with youth substance use prevention: a conceptual review and case study of the Icelandic prevention model being implemented in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

Tanya Halsall; Kianna Mahmoud; Srividya N. Iyer (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
This research examines the implementation of the Icelandic Prevention Model (IPM) in Canada to identify opportunities revealed by the COVID-19 pandemic to re-design our social eco-system to promote wellbeing. This paper has two objectives: 1) to provide a conceptual review of research that applies the bioecological model to youth substance use prevention with a focus on the concepts of time and physical space use and 2) to describe a case study that examines the implementation of the IPM in Canada within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Study data were collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews with key stakeholders involved in implementing the IPM.
The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in children in Saudi Arabia: a mixed-methods study

Khlood Baghlaf; Dania Bormah; Anwar Hakami (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Nutrients
In 2020, there seems to have been a global shift in lifestyle and eating habits with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ensuing lockdowns implemented by national governments. This study assessed the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on SSBs consumption among healthy 6–11 years old children in Saudi Arabia; This is a mixed-methods study, incorporating a quantitative component, which was a validated Arabic online questionnaire completed by parents, and a qualitative component, involving structured interviews with 10 selected parents using a criterion sampling method.
The development and pandemic‐related adaptation of a resilience program for native middle‐school youth: a case study

Cedric Woods; BoRam Kim; Deirdre Calvert (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Public Health Nursing
As of 2017, American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) had the highest prevalence of illicit drug use of any ethnic group in the United States, with 17.6% of the population aged 12 and older reporting using illicit drugs in the last month. Studies have shown the positive correlation between a history of trauma and substance use disorder. In fact, the majority of youth in treatment for substance misuse reported a history of trauma. Intergenerational trauma, systematic discrimination, and displacement are downstream effects of colonization, and experiences of racism often define the life experiences of AI/ANs who use substances. This paper describes the process of designing a developmentally and culturally appropriate primary prevention supplement for an evidence-based program to prevent substance use and increase cultural identity among AI/AN youth.
Topic model analysis of attitudes of mothers with infants and toddlers toward travel before and after the COVID-19 pandemic

Tadanari Taniguchi; Ryozo Kitajima; Shinji Sakamoto (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Global Tourism Research Online
It is important for creating a travel-friendly environment to consider old people and young children, who have many issues when traveling. In this study, the attitudes of mothers with infants and toddlers toward travel before and after the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using data from mamari, which is a smartphone application for mothers to solve and share questions and concerns about pregnancy, childbirth, and childcare. Latent Dirichlet allocation topic models were constructed for the data, which were user question sentences written in Japanese. Thus, the attitudes of mothers toward travel were investigated using the topic model analysis.
Physical fitness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results of annual national physical fitness surveillance among 16,647,699 Japanese children and adolescents between 2013 and 2021

Tetsuhiro Kidokoro; Grant R. Tomkinson; Justin J. Lang (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Sport and Health Science

The primary aim was to examine the temporal trends in physical fitness (PF) for Japanese children and adolescents before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The secondary aim was to estimate the concurrent trends in body size (measured as body mass and height) and movement behaviors (exercise, screen, and sleep time). Census PF data for children in Grade 5 (aged 10–11 years) and adolescents in Grade 8 (aged 13–14 years) were obtained for the years 2013–2021 from the National Survey of Physical Fitness, Athletic Performance, and Exercise Habits in Japan (n = 16,647,699). PF and body size were objectively measured, and movement behaviors were self-reported. Using sample-weighted linear regression, temporal trends in mean PF were calculated before the pandemic (2013–2019) and during the pandemic (2019–2021) with adjustments for age, sex, body size, and exercise time.

16 - 30 of 300

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.