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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 85
Short report: vaccine attitudes in the age of COVID-19 for a population of children with mitochondrial disease

AUTHOR(S)
Eliza Gordon-Lipkina; Christopher Steven Marcumb; Shannon Kruk (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Children with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to morbidity associated with COVID-19. This paper aims to understand attitudes toward routine childhood vaccinations versus the COVID-19 vaccine in a population of families affected by mitochondrial disease (MtD), a form of developmental disability. An online survey was administered via several advocacy groups for children with MtD.

Examining the relationship between discrimination, access to material resources, and black children's behavioral functioning during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nneka Ibekwe-Okafor; Jacqueline Sims; Sihong Liu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how longstanding systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children's behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing).
Risk and protective factors to early childhood development during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Priscila Costa; Evelyn Forni; Isabella Amato (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP

This study aimed to analyze the risk and protective factors to the development of children under three years of age during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out in three early childhood education centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in October 2020. The data were collected with an online questionnaire. Risk and protection factors were measured with the Primeira Infância Para Adultos Saudáveis (Early Childhood For Healthy Adults) instrument and the children's development status was measured using the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments – CREDI.

Prospective associations between pandemic-related adversity, harsh parenting, and the development of prosociality across middle to late childhood

AUTHOR(S)
Nila Shakiba; Samantha Perlstein; Tralucia Powell (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Developmental Psychology.
Parenting behaviors and children’s prosociality (i.e., voluntary behaviors intended to benefit others) are linked across development. Contextual risk and environmental stressors may undermine parenting behaviors known to promote children’s prosocial behavior. The COVID-19 pandemic provides a unique context in which to examine how stress and contextual risk disrupt parenting practices and the development of children’s prosociality over time. To explore the associations between pandemic-related adversity, parenting practices, and child prosocial behavior, we used survey data from 303 families (child Mage = 6.43; 51.4% female, 48.6% male; 65.7% White) who participated in a three-wave longitudinal study during the first year of the pandemic. Families were recruited from two northeastern cities in the United States.
Social communication skill attainment in babies born during the COVID-19 pandemic: a birth cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Susan Byrne; Hailey Sledge; Ruth Franklin (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic was managed with sustained mass lockdowns to prevent spread of COVID-19 infection. Babies born during the early stages of the pandemic missed the opportunity of meeting a normal social circle of people outside the family home. This study compared 10 parentally reported developmental milestones at 12-month assessment in a cohort of 309 babies born at the onset of the pandemic (CORAL cohort) and 1629 babies from a historical birth cohort (BASELINE cohort recruited between 2008 and 2011).

Parenting and adjustment problems among preschoolers during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jamie M. Ostrov; Dianna Murray-Close; Kristin J. Perry (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
A critical area of developmental science explores factors that confer risk or protection as young children and their families experience stressful circumstances related to sociohistorical events. This study contributes to this important area by assessing relations between family context and child adjustment as children transitioned from preschool to home learning during COVID-19, and whether children higher in stress levels, indexed by morning basal cortisol, were more strongly affected. Parents of 74 children (Mage = 53.56 months, SDage = 3.68 months) completed reports spanning the home learning transition; children’s pre-COVID-19 transition salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Path analyses were used to test the preregistered study aims. Significant interactions were decomposed using simple slopes and Preacher’s Regions of Significance (ROS) method. Across the COVID-19 transition to home-based school, children with higher morning basal cortisol experienced the sharpest increase in anger when exposed to harsh/inconsistent parenting contexts. Importantly, these effects held when controlling for household chaos, socioeconomic resources, and supportive parenting. Parallel models with supportive parenting were also tested and are discussed. This study is one of the first to test and provide support for biological sensitivity to context theory within the context of a natural experiment like COVID-19.
Implementation supplementary feeding program and infant and young child feeding counseling as a stunting prevention program during pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Tasya Sabila Febriyati; Dewi Marhaeni Diah Herawati; Gina Megawati

Published: August 2022   Journal: Jurnal Kesehatan Prima

Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) as an effort to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic itself hasan impact on stunting prevention program carried out by Public Health Centers (Puskesmas), including the Supplementary Feeding Program (PMT) and Infant and Young Child Feeding Counseling (PMBA) and this condition occurs in various regions in Indonesia, including Bandung. This study aimed to examine the implementation of PMT and PMBA counseling program during the COVID-19 pandemic in the working area of the Buahbatu Public Health Center as one of the public health centers with the highest stunting number in Bandung. This study using the mixed methods concurrent embedded method, in this study quantitative data were used to determine percentage of PMT and PMBA counseling coverage before the COVID-19 pandemic (2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (in 2020) as supporting qualitative data done with in-depth interviews.

The COVID‐19 pandemic, mask‐wearing, and emotion recognition during late‐childhood

AUTHOR(S)
Maia Chester; Rista C. Plate; Tralucia Powell (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Social Development
Face masks are an effective and important tool to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including among children. However, occluding parts of the face can impact emotion recognition, which is fundamental to effective social interactions. Social distancing, stress, and changes to routines because of the pandemic have also altered the social landscape of children, with implications for social development. To better understand how social input and context impact emotion recognition, the current study investigated emotion recognition in children (7–12 years old, N = 131) using images of both masked and unmasked emotional faces.
Teachers' perceived impact of COVID-19 on early child development in urban China: evidence from a national survey study

AUTHOR(S)
Chuchu Zheng; Yongping Yu; Yi Hou

Published: August 2022   Journal: Early Child Development and Care
This national survey study aimed to explore the teachers' perceived impact of COVID-19 on the development of preschoolers in urban China. 22,466 preschool teachers were randomly sampled from 11 provinces of urban China and surveyed online. First, descriptive statistics found that the teachers perceived the highest improvement in preschoolers' social skills and interpersonal relationships, whereas the least improvements in emotion and psychological health. Second, latent profile analysis generated three profiles: (1) Low Level; (2) Medium Level; and (3) High Level. Among the patterns of demographic factors, those in the profile with development stagnation or regression were most likely to be younger children in Western China public preschools.
Stunting among kindergarten children in China in the context of COVID-19: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Xueyan Ma; Xiangzheng Yang; Hongzhi Yin (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

The impact of COVID-19 has most likely increased the prevalence of stunting. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of stunting among kindergarten children in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Longgang District, Shenzhen, China, and its risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify children from 11 sub districts of 481 kindergartens in the Longgang District of Shenzhen City from May to July 2021. In the context of COVID-19, an online survey was conducted to gather demographic information, height, birth information, and lifestyle. The prevalence of stunting was calculated, and the risk factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression with three stepwise models.

Presence at a distance: video chat supports intergenerational sensitivity and positive infant affect during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Ellen Roche; Joscelin Rocha-Hidalgo; Douglas Piper (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Infancy
COVID-19 disrupted infant contact with people beyond the immediate family. Because grandparents faced higher COVID-19 risks due to age, many used video chat instead of interacting with their infant grandchildren in person. This is a semi-naturalistic, longitudinal study with 48 families, each of whom submitted a series of video chats and surveys, and most (n = 40) also submitted a video of an in-person interaction. Families were mostly highly-educated, White/Caucasian, and lived between 1 and 2700 miles apart.
Examining children's questions and parents' responses about COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Burcu Ünlütabak; İlayda Velioğlu

Published: July 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on both adults’ and children’s everyday lives. Conversations about biological processes such as viruses, illness, and health have started to occur more frequently in daily interactions. Although there are many guidelines for parents about how to talk to their children about the coronavirus, only a few studies have examined what children are curious about the coronavirus and how they make sense of the changes in their everyday lives. This study addresses this need by examining children’s questions and parents’ responses about the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Turkish sociocultural context. Using an online survey, it asked 184 parents of 3- to 12-year-olds to report their children’s questions about coronavirus and their answers to these questions. It analyzed children’s questions and parents’ responses using qualitative and quantitative analyses (Menendez et al., 2021).
Changes in early childhood social behavior during the Covid 19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Zikra Zikra; Afdal Afdal; Indah Sukmawati (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research
Social behavior is voluntary behavior that benefits others including actions such as calming someone down, helping, and sharing. From an early age, social behavior skills need to be developed in early childhood as a foundation for the ability to interact with the wider environment. However, some changes in social behavior occurred in early childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted content analysis to assess changes in early childhood social behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic. All articles found in sciencedirect (n = 13,743) and scholar (n = 165000) from 2020 to July 2021 were reviewed to identify conceptual and empirical changes that focus on changes in social behavior in early childhood. A total of 40 articles were identified and examined for themes.
Youth as researchers: exploring the impact of COVID-19 on youth; global policy brief
Institution: UNESCO
Published: June 2022

The Youth As Researchers (YAR) initiative is a youth development programme, designed to ensure, support,  and  advance  youth  voices.  It  provides  training  and  mentoring  that  supports  youth  to  design  and  conduct  social  research,  with  a  view  to  informing  policy-making,  programme  design  and future research.The  initiative  was  first  conceived  by  the  UNESCO  Chair  on  Children,  Youth  and  Civic  Engagement  (Ireland), as a model to engage vulnerable youth in re-designing their own futures. It is premised on the  belief  that  no-one  knows  better  than  young  people  themselves  about  their  problems,  and  the  solutions that will work for them. It gained traction in the current context, as UNESCO’s Member States are looking for innovative ways to address the challenges youth are facing. In engaging with the Social and Human Science Sector, and with UNESCO’s field offices, the youth-led research agenda delivered a strong message on the need to underpin policy decisions with scientific facts, and to ensure civil society is consulted on the issues at hand.

Applicability of the guide for monitoring child development as a telehealth delivered intervention during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ezgi Ozalp Akin; Aysen Akbas; Sidika Canan Atasoy (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Early intervention delivered through telehealth is critically needed during crises, particularly for children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to determine the applicability of the international Guide for Monitoring Child Development (GMCD) intervention delivered through telehealth during the COVID-19 lockdown in Turkey. Using a mixed-methods longitudinal design, this research recruited children with developmental difficulties aged 0–42 months with an appointment during the first lockdown at Ankara University Developmental Pediatrics Division and seen face-to-face only once before. Developmental pediatricians applied the GMCD intervention during a single telephone call. As a novel intervention component, caregivers were asked to record and send back videos of the child's development when there were doubts about the child's functioning. Caregivers were called 1 year later by blinded independent researchers and a semi-structured interview on applicability was conducted. Applicability of the caregiver recorded video component of the intervention was assessed by a blinded observer using the GMCD Video Observation Tool.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.