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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Short report: vaccine attitudes in the age of COVID-19 for a population of children with mitochondrial disease

AUTHOR(S)
Eliza Gordon-Lipkina; Christopher Steven Marcumb; Shannon Kruk (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Children with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to morbidity associated with COVID-19. This paper aims to understand attitudes toward routine childhood vaccinations versus the COVID-19 vaccine in a population of families affected by mitochondrial disease (MtD), a form of developmental disability. An online survey was administered via several advocacy groups for children with MtD.

Caregiver and clinician experience with virtual services for children and youth with complex needs during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Theall; Kim Arbeau; Ajit Ninan (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
During the COVID-19 pandemic, support services for children and youth quickly shifted to virtual means. To continue delivering essential, trauma-informed, specialized services, the center transitioned to providing most services by phone/video conference. A quality improvement project using survey methods was conducted to determine if virtual delivery was timely and satisfactory for inpatient and outpatient care.
Eating disorders: the role of the family in development and maintenance of children's problems in the pandemic period

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Rosaria Juli; Rebecca Juli; Giada Juli (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Psychiatria Danubina

According to data released by the Ministry of Health in 2021 in Italy about three million young people suffer from eating disorders with onset before the age of 13 and the number tends to be increasing. This work aims to understand if and to what extent the areas of family functioning are related to the way of eating of adolescents in the period of restriction due to COVID-19. In particular, which dimensions of family functioning can be correlated with dysfunctional eating habits. The group that took part in the study was composed of 154 non clinical subjects, of which 124 females, 27 males and 3 non-binary gender subjects. The tests used were the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Binge Eating Scale, in addition a personal data sheet was used containing the details of the subjects who participated anonymously, recruited at the university of Italy. The data have some limitations, first of all the low number of the sample and the online modality in compiling the tests.

Examining the relationship between discrimination, access to material resources, and black children's behavioral functioning during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nneka Ibekwe-Okafor; Jacqueline Sims; Sihong Liu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how longstanding systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children's behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing).
Parental health beliefs, intention, and strategies about covid-19 vaccine for their children: a cross-sectional analysis from five Arab countries in the Middle East

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Haider Mohammed; Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan; Abdulrasool M. Wayyes (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The issue around vaccination of children has brought divergent opinions among the populations across the globe and among the Arab population. There has been a low response rate to the calls for vaccination of children and this is reflective of the sentiments which parents may have towards their children being vaccinated. This study aims to explore the parents’ health beliefs, intentions, and strategies towards the COVID-19 vaccine for their children among Arab population. A cross-sectional study using an online survey from October to December 2021, was carried out in five Arab countries in the Middle East. A reliable health belief model (HBM) including five domains: severity, susceptibility, benefits, barriers and cues to action, was adopted. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed for data analysis.

Willingness and attitudes of parents of children under the age of 12 about the COVID- 19 vaccine in Taif city

AUTHOR(S)
Ayman A. Atalla; Jamal Faydh; Saad Althuwaybi (et al.)

Published: October 2022

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2), is currently a global pandemic with the highest number of people affected in the modern era; only a small proportion of children have been infected with COVID-19. Most of them were asymptomatic or only had mild symptoms. Both direct and indirect advantages will result from an effective and a safe COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy is a potential threat to global public health. Parental attitudes to-wards the vaccines play a key role in the success of the herd immunity for COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the parents’ willingness and attitudes about the COVID- 19 vaccine in Taif city in K.S.A. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 384 parents. The data collection tool was an online questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic data of parents and children, and questions for assessment of parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine. All data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 22. The committee is accredited by the National Committee for Bioethics with No. (HAO-02-T-105) and the proposal fulfills the requirements of Taif Uni-versity and accordingly ethical approval was granted.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 30 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 59-66 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a primary school setting with and without public health measures using real-world contact data: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Lixiang Yan; Stella Talic; Holly Wild (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Global Health

Stringent public health measures have been shown to influence the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within school environments. We investigated the potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a primary school setting with and without public health measures, using fine-grained physical positioning traces captured before the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately 172.63 million position data from 98 students and six teachers from an open-plan primary school were used to predict a potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in primary school settings.

Parents' intention for their children to receive COVID-19 vaccine: implications for vaccination program in Macao

AUTHOR(S)
Un I Choi; Yimin Pang; Yu Zheng (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

The decision about vaccinating children is subject to their parents' decision. To inform strategies that support full vaccination coverage, it is important to understand the parents' vaccination attitude and tendency to act. This study aims to investigate the intention and the factors affecting parents' decision-making about vaccinating their children. A cross-sectional, self-administered online questionnaire was completed by parents of children aged 3–12 yeas in Macao between 7 March and 17 April 2022. The survey tool was informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) which composes of the variable “intention” and three TPB constructs (Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control). Respondents rated their level of agreement on the construct statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine if the TPB constructs were predictors of parents' intention.

Risk and protective factors to early childhood development during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Priscila Costa; Evelyn Forni; Isabella Amato (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP

This study aimed to analyze the risk and protective factors to the development of children under three years of age during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out in three early childhood education centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in October 2020. The data were collected with an online questionnaire. Risk and protection factors were measured with the Primeira Infância Para Adultos Saudáveis (Early Childhood For Healthy Adults) instrument and the children's development status was measured using the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments – CREDI.

Pediatric healthcare professionals' opinions, attitudes, and vaccine hesitancy toward personal and children's COVID-19 vaccination

AUTHOR(S)
Filiz Tubaş; Ayşe Şener Taplak; Sena Berra Tatar

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Surgery and Medicine
Pediatric healthcare professionals are at the forefront of both facilitating an increase vaccine acceptability and reduction in vaccine hesitancy and play a vital role in eliminating vaccine hesitancy of families. In this context, it was thought that the individual pediatric healthcare professional’s vaccine hesitancy could affect successful administration of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. This study aimed to determine the opinions and attitudes of pediatricians and pediatric nurses toward the COVID-19 vaccination and the reasons for vaccine hesitancy. The study also aimed to identify their views and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in children.  The survey was carried out as a cross-sectional study between February and May 2021. The study sample consisted of 83 pediatricians and 79 pediatric nurses. Necessary permission was obtained before the study began. Data were collected using questionnaires that had been prepared by researchers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and a chi-squared test.
Lessons from the health policies for children during the pandemic in Japan

AUTHOR(S)
Naohisa Shobako

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
It is everyone's desire to seek the sound growth of children through food education and there is a critical need for fostering an environment for this purpose. Health policies are important for this support. To the present, the Japanese society has been greatly disrupted by COVID-19 pandemic. “Stay at home”, “mokusyoku (silent eating)”, and mask wearing were encouraged in nationwide campaigns as public health measures to combat COVID-19. There are some papers reporting negative effects of “stay at home” and lockdowns such as weight gain, decrease in physical activities and change in eating habits. In Japan, while benefits and advantages of food education during mealtime were previously well studied, the “mokusyoku” rule may directly run counter to this food education. Moreover, there are several reports showing that nutrients might contribute to prevention of infectious diseases. Japanese children were also encouraged to wear masks all day long. The results of the clinical research, especially randomized control trials, show limited protective effect of masks. On the other hand, negative outcomes of the masks were reported in various scenes. This review focuses on these topics and arousing reconsideration for a better environment for children.
Seeing as an act of hearing: making Visible children's experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic through participatory animation

AUTHOR(S)
Helen Lomax; Kate Smith

Published: October 2022   Journal: Sociological Research Online
Our Voices’ is an animation co-created with children aged 9–11 during the 2020–2021 global pandemic. A short, stop-start animation of children’s visual, audio and textual representations of their experiences offers a visceral account of the pandemic in England from their perspectives. In making available the animation in this inaugural issue of ‘Beyond the Text’, this study has two key aims. The first is to enable children, who have been barely seen and little heard during the pandemic, to voice their experiences in accordance with their aspirations. The second is to reflect upon the process of transforming creative data made by and with children into an animation that is representative of children’s diverse experiences and acknowledges their contributions in ways which enable audiences to engage through ‘seeing’.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 559-568 | Language: English | Topics: Education, Health | Tags: child education, child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, social distance
The impact of asthma on COVID-19 disease severity in children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Emily Robbins; Steven Daoud; Seleshi Demissie (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Asthma

Atopy and allergic asthma have been found to be protective against coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in adults but have not been studied in children. This study aimed to identify whether children and adolescents with asthma had less severe disease and lower morbidity from COVID-19 than their counterparts without asthma. This was a retrospective chart review from March 1, 2020, through January 31, 2021. Charts were eligible for inclusion if patients were over 6 years of age and below 20 years of age and tested positive for COVID-19 by PCR or antigen testing or were COVID-19 antibody positive when they presented to the emergency department (ED). Patients were grouped according to disease severity and divided into two groups, those with asthma and those without. A total of 1,585 patients were included—1,492 without asthma and 93 with asthma.

What do arts-based methods do? A story of (what is) art and online research with children during a pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Julie Spray; Hannah Fechtel; Jean Hunleth

Published: October 2022   Journal: Sociological Research Online
This comic draws viewers behind the final product and into the process of arts-based research. Specifically, it focuses on research produced over Zoom during the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on a study of asthma caregiving, it illustrates how a 10-year-old study participant, Becca, and researcher Hannah connected in embodied, sensory and material-spatial ways across digital space through the making and unmaking of art forms using simple sensory-sculptural materials (pipe cleaners, play-doh, balloons). The study considers what arts-based methods do: for the participant, the researcher, their relationship, and ethical knowledge production. And it shows what research processes can look like as unpredictable, messy and patient communing.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | Issue: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, internet, lockdown, social distance, teleworking | Countries: Ireland
Effects of varying pandemic restrictions on the health-related behaviours of Australian children

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren Robinson; Mary-Anne Measey; Daryl Efron (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

This study aimed to explore the effects of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions varying in severity and duration on health-related behaviours in children aged 5–17 years. It used data from the Royal Children's Hospital National Child Health Poll, an online cross-sectional survey of Australian caregivers. The survey assessed 1222 caregivers' perceived changes in health-related behaviours (physical activity, sleep, screen-time, diet, outdoor activity, family and peer connectedness) of 2011 children aged 5–17 years in a typical week from June to September 2020 (when jurisdictions experienced varying restriction severity and duration) compared to retrospective reports of behaviour before March 2020 (pre-pandemic). To compare the effects of varying restriction severity in Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and other states and territories on health-related behaviours binary logistic regression was used, adjusting for caregiver demographics and weighted to reflect Australia's parent population.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.