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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 241
Immune determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Petter Brodin

Published: January 2021   Journal: Nature Medicine
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is mild to moderate in the majority of previously healthy individuals, but can cause life-threatening disease or persistent debilitating symptoms in some cases. The most important determinant of disease severity is age, with individuals over 65 years having the greatest risk of requiring intensive care, and men are more susceptible than women. In contrast to other respiratory viral infections, young children seem to be less severely affected. It is now clear that mild to severe acute infection is not the only outcome of COVID-19, and long-lasting symptoms are also possible. In contrast to severe acute COVID-19, such ‘long COVID’ is seemingly more likely in women than in men. Also, postinfectious hyperinflammatory disease has been described as an additional outcome after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here I discuss our current understanding of the immunological determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity and relate this to known immune-system differences between young and old people and between men and women, and other factors associated with different disease presentations and severity.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | No. of pages: 28-33 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease control, disease transmission, COVID-19
Preparing care leavers with short- and long-term interventions to face challenges of the pandemic of Covid-19 in Asia

AUTHOR(S)
Purnima K. Jindal; Manoj Kumar Suryawanshi; Rajeev Kumar

Published: January 2021   Journal: Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond
COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented human and health crisis and has been affecting lives in many forms. What seemed to be a health crisis eventually became a major ongoing global economic crisis. Sector-wide disruptions are threatening both short- and long-term livelihoods and well-being of millions of youth around the globe, especially youth from vulnerable communities. Business closures threatened the operations and soundness of the enterprises resulting in layoffs and wage losses, affecting a major chunk of youth including the young care leavers of alternative care programmes in Asia. This called for customised interventions and support for such young care leavers. Immediate actions were needed for managing their mental health, for maintaining education continuity and for reskilling of such young care leavers to prepare them to cope with the pandemic. This article is based on the learning and experiences of SOS Children’s Villages responses to supporting nearly 1,500 care leavers in various Asian countries.
The obligation of parents with COVID‐19 positivity to stay separated from their children

AUTHOR(S)
Melike Yavaş Çelik

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

The aim of this study was to examine the experience of parents with coronavirus disease 2019 which demanded they separate from their children. Designed as a descriptive and qualitative study; the interviews were guided by a questionnaire developed by researchers in light of the relevant literature.

The deconditioning effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on unaffected healthy children

AUTHOR(S)
Jefrey D. Dayton; Kelley Ford; Sheila J. Carroll (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Pediatric Cardiology
The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating direct consequences on the health of affected patients. It has also had a significant impact on the ability of unaffected children to be physically active. This study evaluated the effect of deconditioning from social distancing and school shutdowns implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic on the cardiovascular fitness of healthy unaffected children.
School closure during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: impact on children’s sleep

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Teik Chung Lim; Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy; Ramkumar Aishworiya (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Sleep Medicine

To evaluate the sleep habits of school-going children before and during school closure in the national lockdown period (called ‘Circuit Breaker’ or CB in Singapore) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional, anonymous, online, population-based survey questionnaire was administered to parents aged 21 years and above with children aged between 3 and 16 years attending pre-school, primary or secondary school (equivalent to kindergarten, middle and-high school) and residing in Singapore. Sleep duration in relation to various daily activities including academic activities, physical exercise, and screen time was evaluated pre-CB and during CB.

Relationship between parenting practices and children's screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Aslihan Ozturk Eyimaya; Aylin Yalçin Irmak

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

This study investigates the relationship between parenting practices and children's screen time following the COVID-19 outbreak. The population of the present cross-sectional study was the parents of children studying in three randomly-selected schools in the western, eastern and central regions of Turkey. The study data were collected between May 15 and 31, 2020, using a descriptive questionnaire form and the Parenting Practices Scale applied to 1115 parents of children between 6 and 13 years of age. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 software package, and with descriptive, correlation and multiple regression analyses.

Longitudinal symptom dynamics of COVID-19 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Barak Mizrahi; Smadar Shilo; Hagai Rossman (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, obtaining information on symptoms dynamics is of essence. Here, we extracted data from primary-care electronic health records and nationwide distributed surveys to assess the longitudinal dynamics of symptoms prior to and throughout SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information was available for 206,377 individuals, including 2471 positive cases. The two datasources were discordant, with survey data capturing most of the symptoms more sensitively. The most prevalent symptoms included fever, cough and fatigue. Loss of taste and smell 3 weeks prior to testing, either self-reported or recorded by physicians, were the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19. Additional discriminative symptoms included self-reported headache and fatigue and a documentation of syncope, rhinorrhea and fever. Children had a significantly shorter disease duration. Several symptoms were reported weeks after recovery. By a unique integration of two datasources, our study shed light on the longitudinal course of symptoms experienced by cases in primary care.
Comparison of the characteristics, morbidity, and mortality of COVID-19 and seasonal influenza: a nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Lionel Piroth; Jonathan Cottenet; Anne-Sophie Mariet (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
To date, influenza epidemics have been considered suitable for use as a model for the COVID-19 epidemic, given that they are respiratory diseases with similar modes of transmission. However, data directly comparing the two diseases are scarce. This study did a nationwide retrospective cohort study using the French national administrative database (PMSI), which includes discharge summaries for all hospital admissions in France. All patients hospitalised for COVID-19 from March 1 to April 30, 2020, and all patients hospitalised for influenza between Dec 1, 2018, and Feb 28, 2019, were included.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, COVID-19, epidemiology, hospitalization | Countries: France
SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings: a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of infection clusters and outbreaks in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sharif A. Ismail; Vanessa Saliba; Jamie Lopez Bernal (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Understanding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission in educational settings is crucial for ensuring the safety of staff and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study estimated he rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks among staff and students in educational settings during the summer half-term (June–July, 2020) in England. In this prospective, cross-sectional analysis, Public Health England initiated enhanced national surveillance in educational settings in England that had reopened after the first national lockdown, from June 1 to July 17, 2020.
Attitudes towards vaccines and intention to vaccinate against COVID-19: implications for public health communications

AUTHOR(S)
Elise Paul; Andrew Steptoe; Daisy Fancourt

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Negative attitudes towards vaccines and an uncertainty or unwillingness to receive vaccinations are major barriers to managing the COVID-19 pandemic in the long-term. Predictors of four domains of negative attitudes towards vaccines were estimated and groups most at risk of uncertainty and unwillingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in a large sample of UK adults were identified. Data were cross-sectional and from 32,361 adults in the UCL COVID-19 Social Study. Ordinary least squares regression analyses examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors on four types of negative vaccine attitudes: mistrust of vaccine benefit, worries about unforeseen effects, concerns about commercial profiteering, and preference for natural immunity. Multinomial regression examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors, negative vaccine attitudes, and prior vaccine behaviour on uncertainty and unwillingness to be vaccinated for COVID-19.
Neuroimaging manifestations in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multinational, multicentre collaborative study

AUTHOR(S)
Camilla E. Lindan; Kshitij Mankad; Dipak Ram (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The CNS manifestations of COVID-19 in children have primarily been described in case reports, which limit the ability to appreciate the full spectrum of the disease in paediatric patients. This study aimed to identify enough cases that could be evaluated in aggregate to better understand the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 in the paediatric population. An international call for cases of children with encephalopathy related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and abnormal neuroimaging findings was made. Clinical history and associated plasma and cerebrospinal fluid data were requested. These data were reviewed by a central neuroradiology panel, a child neurologist, and a paediatric infectious diseases expert. The children were categorised on the basis of their time of probable exposure to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, cases were excluded when a direct link to SARS-CoV-2 infection could not be established or an established alternate diagnostic cause could be hypothesised. The accepted referral centre imaging data, from ten countries, were remotely reviewed by a central panel of five paediatric neuroradiologists and a consensus opinion obtained on the imaging findings.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, multi-country
Risk communication & community engagement (RCCE) Somalia COVID-19 rapid assessment survey report
Institution: Save the Children
Published: December 2020

Save the Children Somalia conducted a rapid assessment covering the entirety of Somalia between the 13th to 16th of April, 2020. The findings of the assessment will inform the defining and prioritizing of the RCCE strategy and key communication and community engagement plan; including contextualized key messages tailored to circumstances of vulnerable communities, defining key actions/activities, and tailor and test materials. Ultimately, the exercise will increase the effectiveness of our communication activities and therefore the impact of the overall response. Furthermore, meaningful participatory engagement and adapting messages to the local context and audience is also proven to lead to stronger ownership, buy-in, and commitment, as well as maintaining/increasing access, and strengthening the organization’s integrity and reputation. 

Systematic review of reviews of symptoms and signs of COVID-19 in children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Russell M. Viner; Joseph Lloyd Ward; Lee D. Hudson (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood
This article aims to undertake a systematic review of reviews of the prevalence of symptoms and signs of COVID-19 in those aged under 20 years. Narrative systematic review of reviews. PubMed, medRxiv, Europe PMC and COVID-19 Living Evidence Database were searched on 9 October 2020.
Exploring parental responses to social and safety needs of school-age children during COVID-19 pandemic in Ogun State, Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Omolade O. Akinsanya; Olusegun S. Olaniyi; Peter O. Oshinyadi

Published: December 2020   Journal: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
The corona virus has emerged as a dreaded disease globally, and it is no longer a news that the virus is a killer disease. It has paralyzed individual and nations’ economic activities due to the governments’ orders made to curtail its spread. Based on this, the researchers explored parental responses to social and safety needs of their school children during the pandemic in Ogun State, Nigeria. Four research questions were raised, and a questionnaire titled “COVID-19 Pandemic and Parental Response to School Children Survey” (online) was used to elicit data from 5,340 respondents. The data collected were analyzed using frequency count, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Analysis of Variance.
Racial and ethnic differences in parental attitudes and concerns about school reopening during the COVID-19 pandemic — United States, July 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Leah K. Gilbert; Tara W. Strine; Leigh E. Szucs (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Families and school districts face challenges balancing COVID-19 mitigation and school reopening. Among parents of school-aged children who participated in an Internet panel survey, racial and ethnic minority parents were more concerned about some aspects of school reopening, such as compliance with mitigation measures, safety, and their child contracting or bringing home COVID-19, than were non-Hispanic White parents. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in parental attitudes and concerns about school reopening can inform communication and mitigation strategies and highlights the importance of considering risks for severe COVID-19 and family resource needs when developing options for school attendance during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.