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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 602
Parents’ attitudes toward children’s vaccination as a marker of trust in health systems

AUTHOR(S)
Orna Tal; Yifat Ne’eman; Rotem Sadia (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Children’s vaccination is a major goal in health-care systems worldwide; nevertheless, disparities in vaccination coverage expose socio-demographic accessibility gaps, unawareness, physicians’ disapproval and parents’ incomplete adherence reflecting insufficient public-provider trust. This study aimed to analyze parents’ attitude toward children’s vaccination in correlation with trust among stakeholders. A total of 1031 parents replied to a “snowball” questionnaire; 72% reported high trust in their physician, 42% trusted the authorities, 11% trusted internet groups. Among minorities, parents who fully vaccinate their children were younger, live in urban areas, eat all kinds of foods and trust the authorities, similar to the general population. Low adherence to children’s vaccination was correlated with trusting internet groups.
Maternal level of awareness and predictors of willingness to vaccinate children against COVID 19; a multi-center study

AUTHOR(S)
Awoere T. Chinawa; Josephat M. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Several controversies surround mothers’ willingness to vaccinate against the COVID-19 pandemic especially when mortality is not frequently reported in children. This study aimed to ascertain the willingness of mothers of children attending two institutions in Southeast Nigeria to accept the COVID-19 vaccine and factors that may be associated with their choices.This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 577 mothers who presented with their children in two tertiary health institutions in southeast Nigeria.

Evaluation of a graduated exposure procedure to teach extended mask wearing in various settings to children with autism

AUTHOR(S)
Hallie M. Ertel; David A. Wilder; Ansley C. Hodges

Published: October 2021   Journal: Behavior Modification
During the COVID-19 outbreak, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommended that everyone 2 years and older wear a face mask while in a community setting. However, children with autism may be reluctant to wear a mask, particularly for extended durations. The current study implemented a graduated exposure procedure to teach mask wearing for a minimum of 1 hour in an early intensive behavioral (EIBI) intervention clinic to three children diagnosed with autism. It subsequently probed mask wearing, and if necessary implemented the graduated exposure procedure, in each participant’s home and in a mock physician’s office. Finally, it collected probe data on mask wearing in another community setting and 1 month post-treatment maintenance data in the EIBI clinic. During baseline, participants wore masks for 0 second to 5 minutes. After treatment, all participants wore the mask for at least 1 hour in each setting, with maintenance probes indicating 4 to 5 hour mask tolerance.
Children’s conceptions of coronavirus

AUTHOR(S)
Fotini Bonoti; Vasilia Christidou; Penelope Papadopoulou

Published: October 2021   Journal: Public Understanding of Science
The present study aimed to examine children’s conceptions of coronavirus as denoted in their verbal descriptions and drawings and whether these vary as a function of children’s age and the mode of expression. Data were collected in Greece during spring 2020 and 344 children aged 4 to 10 years were first asked to verbally describe coronavirus and then to produce a drawing of it. Content analysis of data revealed the following main themes: (a) Coronavirus, (b) Medical, (c) Psychological, and (d) Social. Results showed that children from an early age present a remarkable level of understanding of coronavirus and the COVID-19 disease as a multidimensional construct, which can be designated not only through characteristics of the Sars-Cov-2 but also through its medical, social, and psychological consequences on people’s lives. Moreover, children were found to emphasize different aspects of this construct depending on their age and the mode of expression.
The effect of COVID-19 on anxiety levels of children with CF and healthy peers

AUTHOR(S)
Muruvvet Yanaz; Cansu Yilmaz Yegit; Almala Pinar Ergenekon (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Pediatrics International

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease causing recurrent respiratory tract infections. Viral respiratory tract infections are more severe in CF. The first case of COVID-19 was seen in Turkey on March 11, 2020 and nationwide school closure and lockdown were implemented. School closure and home confinement might have adverse effects on children’s physical and mental health. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on psychological reactions of CF patients and healthy controls. This is a controlled cross-sectional study including 7-18 year-old children with CF. The survey included questions regarding family environment and peer relations, self care and psychological reactions to COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was applied to children via telephone call under parental supervision.

Providing children with COVID-19 vaccinations is challenging due to lack of data and wide-ranging parental acceptance

AUTHOR(S)
Jiatong She; lanqin Liu; Wenjun Liu

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Vaccines are vital to ending the COVID-19 pandemic and we reviewed the data on vaccinating children, and including them in clinical trials, as most of the activity has focused on adults. English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Elsevier Scopus, Web of Science, CNKI and CQVIP were searched, along with websites such as the World Health Organization and the University of Oxford.

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on access to treatment for children with cancer in India and treating center practices

AUTHOR(S)
Jyotsna Sharma; Amita Mahajan; Sameer Bakhshi (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Cancer

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led the Indian government to announce a nationwide lockdown on March 23, 2020. This study aimed to explore the impact of the pandemic on the accessibility of care for children with cancer and to view strategies adopted by hospitals for service delivery. Weekly average of childhood cancer (≤18 years) patient registrations during pre-lockdown period (January 1 to March 23, 2020) were compared with post-lockdown period (March 24 to May 31, 2020). The effect on the scheduled treatment was investigated for post-lockdown period. A survey of health care providers was conducted to determine centers' adopted strategies.

Covid-19, children, clinical trials and compassion: the ethical case for using innovative or compassionate treatments.

AUTHOR(S)
V. Larcher; A. Caplan; J. Brierley

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Safe, effective SARS-CoV-2 treatment has not yet been determined, though some drugs have favourable mortality and morbidity benefits in specific situations. No treatments have been explicitly tested in children, who are, therefore, once again therapeutic orphans. We echo calls to enrol patients, including children, into trials but note children recruited to date have been additions to adult studies. Few were recruited during the initial pandemic despite the emergence of PIMS-TS/MIS-C, which surely demanding paediatric-specific research.

Parent perceptions of pediatric oncology care during the COVID-19 pandemic: an Australian study

AUTHOR(S)
Maria C. McCarthy; Jessica Beamish; Catherine M. Bauld (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer

This study examined parents’ perceptions of their child's oncology care during a period of significant COVID-19 restrictions in Australia. Parents of children, 0–18 years, receiving hospital-based cancer treatment, completed a survey examining their COVID-19 exposure and impact, information and knowledge, and perception of their child's medical care. Recruitment occurred between October and November 2020.

Prevalence and impact of the use of electronic gadgets on the health of children in secondary schools in Bangladesh: a cross‐sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
S. M. Mahbubur Rashid; Jannatul Mawah; Ema Banik (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Health Science Reports

Use of technological gadgets has rapidly been increasing among adolescents, which may result in health issues and technology addiction. This study focuses on the prevalence of usage of technological gadgets and health-related complications among secondary school-going children of Bangladesh. A total of 1803 secondary school students from 21 different districts of Bangladesh participated in the study. The children were asked questions relating to their access to electronic gadgets, time spent on outdoor activities, and whether they experienced any health-complications as an after-effect of the usage. A binary logistic regression model was adapted considering time spent on gadgets as an independent variable and health problems (physical and mental) as the dependent variable.

The role of telemedicine in child and adolescent healthcare in India

AUTHOR(S)
Preeti M. Galagali; Sreyoshi Ghosh; Hemant Bhargav

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Pediatrics Reports

This study highlights the evolution and use of telemedicine in child and adolescent healthcare in India, in pre and post pandemic eras. The latest research endorses telemedicine as a successful strategy in resource-limited settings to provide accessible and equitable healthcare. Telemedicine was initiated in India in 2001. The pandemic restrictions resulted in an increase in its use. The national telemedicine and telepsychiatry guidelines facilitated and enabled its widespread use. Telehealth was used by private and public health establishments, in urban, rural, and remote areas. It was used for triaging cases; managing and monitoring COVID patients in home isolation, in non-COVID medical and psychiatric care, and follow-up; continuing medical education; and health promotion strategies like teleyoga.

Physical and mental health impact of COVID-19 on children, adolescents, and their families: The Collaborative Outcome study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times - Children and Adolescents (COH-FIT-C&A)

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Solmi; Christoph U. Correll

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered daily routines and family functioning, led to closing schools, and dramatically limited social interactions worldwide. Measuring its impact on mental health of vulnerable children and adolescents is crucial. The Collaborative Outcome study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT – www.coh-fit.com) is an on-line anonymous survey, available in 30 languages, involving >220 investigators from 49 countries supported by national/international professional associations. COH-FIT has thee waves (until the pandemic is declared over by the WHO, and 6-18 months plus 24-36 months after its end). In addition to adults, COH-FIT also includes adolescents (age 14-17 years), and children (age 6-13 years), recruited via non-probability/snowball and representative sampling and assessed via self-rating and parental rating.

Likelihood of COVID-19 vaccination among primary school students in Hong Kong

AUTHOR(S)
Kin On Kwok; Kin-Kit Li; Wan In Wei (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may pose a lower risk of transmission to children than to adults, and schools have contributed little to infection among parents, many countries nevertheless implemented school closure. Following the emergence of the δ variant, which is more transmissible and globally dominant, the percentage of primary school-aged children testing positive has been increasing. Progressively, the circumstances have become more favourable to recommend vaccination of children because of the increased burden on children resulting from the new variants and the supporting evidence from the ongoing vaccine trials among school-aged children. The rollout of COVID-19 vaccines for children is an important step in reopening schools safely. Understanding parental intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 will help inform broad strategies to maximize immunization rates among children. This study was conducted in Hong Kong, a densely populated travel hub in southeast China where residents average 12.5 daily contacts

Hand hygiene and mask-wearing behaviors and related factors during COVID 19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in students

AUTHOR(S)
Gülsün Ayran; Semra Köse; Arzu Sarıalioğlu (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

The research was conducted to determine the hand hygiene and mask-wearing behaviors and related factors of secondary school students in the COVID-19 pandemic process. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 02–April 022021 with 1284 students who continued their secondary education in a province in the east of Turkey. The data were collected face-to-face through the Descriptive Characteristics Form, the Mask-Wearing Behavior Form, and the Hand Hygiene Behavior Form. Percentage, mean, t-test in independent groups, Mann Whitney U test and Multiple Regression analysis were used in the evaluation of the data. Ethical principles were observed at all stages of the study.

COVID-19 pandemic shifts in food-related parenting practices within an ethnically/racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of families of preschool-aged children

AUTHOR(S)
K. A. Loth; Z. Jib J. Wolfson; J. M. Berge (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Appetite
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on food parenting practices used by parents of young children. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) was used to evaluate parents’ use of coercive, indulgent, structured, and autonomy supportive food parenting practices before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among a diverse racial/ethnic sample (n = 72) of parents of preschool-aged children. The impact of parent and child mood/behavior on use of specific food parenting practices was also evaluated during both time periods.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.