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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 301
Smartphone use and addiction during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: cohort study on 184 Italian children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Gregorio Serra; Lucia Lo Scalzo; Mario Giuffrè (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
The lives of many children and adolescents are today increasingly influenced by new technological devices, including smartphones. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic occurred in a time of outstanding scientific progress and global digitalization. Young people had relevant adverse psychological and behavioral effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly related to infection control measures, which led them to spend more time at home and with major use of technological tools. The goal this study proposes is to evaluate health and social outcomes of smartphone overuse among Italian children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, analyzing patterns and aims of utilization, as well as the eventual presence and degree of addiction.
Increased symptoms of post-traumatic stress in school students soon after the start of the COVID-19 outbreak in China

AUTHOR(S)
Hanmei Xu; Hang Zhang; Lijuan Huang (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMC Psychiatry

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) caused psychological stress in Chinese adults population. But we are unaware of whether the pandemic causes psychological stress on children. We used the Children’s Impact of Event Scale questionnaire (CRIES-13) to investigate the degree of Post-traumatic Stress (PTSD) symptoms caused by the pandemic in students selected from schools in Sichuan, Jiangsu, Henan, Yunnan, and Chongqing provinces of China.

Factors contributing to psychological ill-effects and resilience of caregivers of children with developmental disabilities during a nation-wide lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Tammy S. H. Lim; Mae Yue Tan; Ramkumar Aishworiya (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
This study evaluated factors affecting psychological ill-effects and resilience of caregivers of children with developmental disabilities during the coronavirus pandemic. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25-item were administered. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with psychological ill-effects and resilience. DASS-21 depression, anxiety and stress scores were high; these were associated with difficulties with infection control measures, autism diagnosis, and need for early intervention services. For caregivers of children with ASD, our DASS-21 scores were significantly higher than non-pandemic scores locally and in other Asian sites. Resilience scores correlated inversely with DASS-21 scores. Targeted support to selected at-risk caregivers and improving resilience can help their coping.
Ethical responsibilities of European children’s teams facing the resurgent COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Zanin; Enrico Furlan; Marek Migdal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
The COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems around the globe. Europe has been struggling for 1 year now, and despite some encouraging progress (above all, the beginning of vaccination), the second wave is ongoing. Even though children are less affected than adults, the COVID-19 pandemic—and in particular the measures to counter it—is having a considerable impact on the paediatric healthcare setting. It is, therefore, the duty of paediatric teams in Europe to prepare for the challenges ahead. We wish to contribute to this necessary preparedness in two ways: firstly, by assessing the direct and indirect impact of the pandemic on children and on the paediatric setting; secondly, and more importantly, by identifying the various responsibilities of paediatric healthcare professionals, in light of established ethical principles.
The influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on development and health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA: a review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Claypool; Arelis Moore de Peralta

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
The purpose of this review is to synthesize existing literature to analyze the influence of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on child development and lifelong health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA, utilizing the ACE framework. Without adequate protective factors, children’s early experiences with adversity and toxic stress have implications for their physiological, psychological, and social health. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown to exacerbate childhood adversity and toxic stress and has disproportionately harmed Latinx communities. In applying the ACE framework to US-Latinx populations, relevant findings concerning a potential failure of ACEs to accurately capture Latinx experiences of adversity were highlighted, as well as the need to classify the COVID-19 pandemic as an ACE. Research suggest that first-generation Latinx immigrants report lower-than-average rates of ACEs despite the various disparities ethnic minorities face in the USA.
Media use before, during and after COVID-19 lockdown according to parents in a clinically referred sample in child and adolescent psychiatry: results of an online survey in Switzerland

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Maria Werling; Susanne Walitza; Edna Grünblatt (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Comprehensive Psychiatry

To investigate the consequences of COVID-19 lockdown on screen media use in children and adolescents with mental health problems, an online survey was conducted on leisure media use before, during and after the lockdown of spring 2020. Parents of patients (10-18 yrs) referred to child and adolescent psychiatry participated in an anonymous online survey, approximately six weeks after the first easing of lockdown measures. Parents rated the amount, the content and the psychological impact of their children's media use before, during and after the lockdown.

Risk factors and prediction nomogram model for psychosocial and behavioural problems among Children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national multicentre study: risk factors of childhood psychosocial problems

AUTHOR(S)
Lin Wang; Li Chen; Feiyong Jia (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

This study aimed to explore the risk profiles attributable to psychosocial and behavioural problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To this end, a risk-prediction nomogram model was created. A national multicentre study was conducted through an online questionnaire involving 12,186 children (6-11 years old) and adolescents (12-16 years old). Respondents’ psychosocial and behavioural functioning were assessed using the Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data were analysed using STATA software and R-language.

Sleep-related problems and eating habits during COVID-19 lockdown in a southern Brazilian youth sample

AUTHOR(S)
José Francisco López-Gil; Anelise R. Gaya; Cézane P. Reuter (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Sleep Medicine

The pandemic has affected children’s behaviors and this fact has an effect on their healthy habits, such as sleep and diet. The aim of the current study was to determinate the prevalence of sleep-related problems and its relationship with eating habits in children from the south of Brazil during the pandemic. Parents/legal guardians of 3-17 years old participants responded to a online survey distributed using the snowball sampling strategy in Brazil. The survey was conducted in April, 2020. Participants were asked for their sleep duration and sleep-related problems, as well as for their eating habits. Logistic regressions were performed to analyze the relationship between sleep-related problems and eating habits.

Neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised children and adolescents in the UK: a prospective national cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen T. J. Ray; Omar Abdel-Mannan; Mario Sa (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The spectrum of neurological and psychiatric complications associated with paediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection is poorly understood. This study aimed to analyse the range and prevalence of these complications in hospitalised children and adolescents. It did a prospective national cohort study in the UK using an online network of secure rapid-response notification portals established by the CoroNerve study group. Paediatric neurologists were invited to notify any children and adolescents (age <18 years) admitted to hospital with neurological or psychiatric disorders in whom they considered SARS-CoV-2 infection to be relevant to the presentation. Patients were excluded if they did not have a neurological consultation or neurological investigations or both, or did not meet the definition for confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (a positive PCR of respiratory or spinal fluid samples, serology for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, or both), or the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health criteria for paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). Individuals were classified as having either a primary neurological disorder associated with COVID-19 (COVID-19 neurology group) or PIMS-TS with neurological features (PIMS-TS neurology group). The denominator of all hospitalised children and adolescents with COVID-19 was collated from National Health Service England data.
Prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Lu Ma; Mohsen Mazidi; Ke Li (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among children and adolescents during global COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 to 2020, and the potential modifying effects of age and gender. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and two Chinese academic databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang) for studies published from December 2019 to September 2020 that reported the prevalence of above mental health problems among children and adolescents. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate the pooled prevalence.

The views of children in residential care on the COVID-19 lockdown: implications for and their well-being and psychosocial intervention

AUTHOR(S)
Carme Montserrat; Marta Garcia-Molsosa; Joan Llosada-Gistau (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Recent international research has warned of the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on vulnerable children. However, little is known regarding the in-care population. This cross-sectional study aims too find out how children in residential care perceived the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown in their everyday life, relationships and subjective well-being. 856 children from 10 to 17 years old (Mage = 15.5, males = 71.2%, females = 28.8%) living in residential centres in Catalonia responded to an on-line questionnaire administered between June and July 2020. Bivariate analysis and multiple linear regression were used comparing the answers by sex.

Social isolation and anxiety disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in China

AUTHOR(S)
Shiyou Wu; Mengni Yao; Chunxia Deng (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders
The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures have had a profound impact on the emotions, anxiety, and mental health of affected communities. Despite this, there is a lack of knowledge about the possible generational and geographical differences in the effects on the mental health of individuals. This study examines the impact of COVID-19 related quarantine on symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) among parents and children (N = 4503). It also compares the outcomes of residents from the initial COVID-19 epicenter of Wuhan to those in surrounding areas.
Children’s well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: relationships with attitudes, family structure, and mothers’ well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah E. Martiny; Kjærsti Thorsteinsen; Elizabeth J. Parks-Stamm (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: European Journal of Developmental Psychology
COVID-19 triggered social restrictions worldwide including the shutdown of schools. Whereas research has documented the negative effects on parents’ well-being, less is known about children’s well-being during the pandemic. We investigated the well-being, emotions, and COVID-19-related attitudes of 87 Norwegian elementary children (42 boys, 45 girls; Mage = 9.66 years, SD = 1.77) and their mothers (Mage = 39.69 years; SD = 5.79) in June 2020. Children reported reduced well-being relative to European norms. In line with research on child well-being before the pandemic, living in a one-parent home was associated with lower child well-being and more negative emotions during the pandemic, and mother’s well-being was related to child well-being.
Behavioral affect in children with autism spectrum disorder during school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: a case-controlled study

AUTHOR(S)
Rie Hosokawa; Kentaro Kawabe; Kiwamu Nakachi (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Developmental Neuropsychology
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could experience more stress due to the changes consequent to school closures because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study investigated differences in behavioral affect between children with ASD and typically developing children (TD). An online survey with mothers was conducted. The data of 84 children with ASD and 361 TD children aged 6 to 18 years were analyzed. Children with ASD were more frustrated due to the changes in their schedule and engaged more in restricted and repetitive behavior. Children with ASD had different types of behavioral affect compared to TD.
Parent-reported social-communication changes in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK

AUTHOR(S)
Phoebe O. Morris; Edward Hope; Tom Foulsham (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
The coronavirus pandemic has swept across the United Kingdom (UK). Given the ever-evolving situation, little is known about the repercussions of coronavirus and the subsequent lockdowns for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Therefore, this study explores the social-communicative impact of the first lockdown (March 2020 – July 2020) in the UK and the return to school period (September 2020 – October 2020), following prolonged disruption to routine, in children diagnosed with ASD. Parents of autistic children completed 2 separate online surveys following the first lockdown in the UK (n = 176) and also when children returned to school following the summer break (n = 54).
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.