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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 925
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on educational, psychosocial and behavioral aspects of children: a cross sectional survey

Ramya Pandi; Aradhya Korapati; Kanta Kumari (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

The outbreak of COVID-19 appeared first in China and then, rapidly, spread to the rest of the world, and WHO declared it as a pandemic.A nation-wide closure of educational institutions was implemented as an emergency measure in India in March 2020. Meanwhile the traditional classroom instructions were replaced by online classes and home-based learning. Pandemic stressors such as boredom, being in isolation, one of the family members hospitalized/ succumbed to covid, etc, may have even more negative impact on children’s behaviour and emotions. Objectives were to study the impact of covid 19 pandemic on psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional survey conducted among the parents attending paediatric OPD in NRI general and superspeciality hospital, Mangalagiri, between September 2021 to December 2021 over a period of 70 day along with their children of age group between 3 years to 18 years with an aim to explore various psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children and their correlation.

Prevalence of mental health symptoms in children and adolescents during the COVID‐19 pandemic: a meta‐analysis

Jiawen Deng; Fangwen Zhou; Wenteng Hou (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
The COVID-19 pandemic and its accompanying infection control measures introduced sudden and significant disruptions to the lives of children and adolescents around the world. Given the potential for negative impacts on the mental health of youths as a result of these changes, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and sleep disturbances in children and adolescents during the pandemic. Major literature databases were searched for relevant cross-sectional or longitudinal studies that included primary and secondary school students or children and adolescents ≤18 years of age.
Behavioral problems among type 1 diabetes mellitus children with good and poor metabolic control during COVID-19 pandemic

Nur Rochmah; Luh Ayu Asri Wijani; Muhammad Faizi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal Of Comprehensive Pediatrics

Children with type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) often experience emotional and behavioral problems such as anxiety and depression. Social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic caused social restrictions and limited access to healthcare facilities, which may have worsened the metabolic control. This study aimed to analyze the behavioral problems among type 1 diabetes mellitus children with good and poor metabolic control during COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted in January - August 2021 in the Endocrine Outpatient Clinic of General Hospital Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. Type-1-DM children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups based on metabolic control, including good (HbA1C ≤ 8) and poor (HbA1C > 8). The Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 (PSC-17) was used as a screening tool with the domain internalizing problems (IP), externalizing problems (EP), and attention problems (AP). The data were analyzed using Pearson or Spearman test with Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 18.0.

The parallel pandemic: The impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children with neurocognitive impairments

Nechama Sorscher

Published: December 2022   Journal: Psychoanalytic Psychology

The COVID-19 pandemic led to many months of school closures, quarantining, and social isolation for children and their families. This disruption of routine had significant implications for the mental health of children and adolescents, leading to a parallel mental health pandemic among this vulnerable population. While these psychosocial effects were most acute during the initial phase, the ripples of the pandemic continue to be felt during the time of this writing (2022), as we continue to be confronted with the ever-evolving virus and its myriad aftereffects. A review of the literature suggests an increase in depression and anxiety among children and adolescents as a result of the sweeping changes to their environment. Fear of contagion, boredom, loneliness, increased social anxiety, irritability, inattention, and increased disruptive behaviors were all observed. For children with neurocognitive impairments, the impact was even more severe due to a proliferation of factors that will be discussed below. Nonetheless, despite the pandemic’s pointed impact on mental health, some children and adolescents were actually able to thrive and even noted improvements in their social and emotional functioning. This article will examine the specific impact of the pandemic on young learners with the most common types of neurocognitive disorders and provide recommendations for intervention.

Visualizing mental health through the lens of Pittsburgh youth: a collaborative filmmaking study during COVID-19

Sara E. Baumann; Brayden N. Kameg; Jessica G. Burke (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Health Promotion Practice
Youth mental health has been significantly impacted by COVID-19, with concerns of rising anxiety-related and depressive symptoms and reduced quality of life. This study provides a nuanced understanding of mental health stressors and supports in the lives of youth during the pandemic. Using Collaborative Filmmaking, an embodied, visual, and participatory research method, participants in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, were trained to create, analyze, and screen films about mental health. The films elucidated numerous stressors impacting youth mental health, including educational stressors (e.g., academic pressure and relationships with teachers), personal and social stressors (e.g., social and cultural expectations), and current events (e.g., the election and the political system). Supports included individual level supports (e.g., hobbies, self-care, spending time outdoors), and interpersonal level supports (e.g., family and socializing). Several themes were discussed as both stressors and supports, such as family, COVID-19, and social media.
Screen time and associated risks in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders during a discrete COVID-19 lockdown period

Mathilde Berard; Marianne Peries; Julie Loubersac (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic may affect the screen time of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study aimed to examine the screen time of children and adolescents with ASD during a discrete lockdown period in France and identify risk factors for excessive screen time. The study sample consisted of 249 ASD subjects, 3–17 years of age, enrolled in the ELENA cohort. Information about the screen time was collected using the COVID-19 questionnaire specially created for this study. The clinical, socio-demographic and familial characteristics were collected from the last ELENA follow-up visit.

Mitigating rural adolescent trauma: remote delivery of a trauma-informed yoga intervention during COVID-19

Lauren Davis; Alexandra Aylward

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Given the prevalence of childhood trauma in rural Montana, this project is intended to help mitigate stressors that may contribute to poor behavioral and mental health in high school-aged children, which may be exacerbated by the collective trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic. The immediate goal was to measure physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents resulting from a remotely delivered trauma-informed yoga intervention designed to foster positive youth development. Our study builds on the successes from an initial feasibility pilot study one year prior in order to evaluate a more robust intervention comparing experimental and control group outcomes. Students at a small, rural high school in Montana volunteered to participate in a 6-week, twice-weekly trauma-informed yoga intervention in their physical education class.
COVID-19 pandemic impact on mental health in children: a call for longitudinal datasets on prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder

Gowda Parameshwara Prashanth

Published: December 2022   Journal: Middle East Current Psychiatry
Mental health in children is intricate with psychological, social, and physical environments acting as key factors influencing the health status and the opposing outcomes and hence difficult to forecast. Important contextual risk factors such as natural calamities, migration, political conflicts, and socioeconomic adversities could produce negative mental health outcomes in childhood. Recent medical literature is abundant with empirical studies reporting adverse mental health symptoms and health behaviors among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 School closures and children's social and emotional functioning: the protective influence of parent, sibling, and peer relationships

Aileen Hanley; Jennifer E. Symonds; Jacqueline Horana

Published: December 2022   Journal: Education 3-13
The current study explored how children’s social interactions during a six-month period of school closures impacted the development of their social and emotional functioning on return to school. A sample of 81 primary school children (age 8–12 years) in Ireland completed measurements of social and emotional functioning before and after the school closure period, and a measure of the types of social interactions they experienced with parents, siblings, and peers, during school closures. Playing outside with friends, playing with siblings, and spending quality time with parents, protected children from declines in social and emotional functioning. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Psychological stress experienced by parents and posttraumatic emotional stress experienced by children during the COVID-19 pandemic

S. Çimke; D. Yildirim Gürkan

Published: December 2022   Journal: Psychological Trauma
This study was conducted to determine psychological stress experienced by parents and posttraumatic emotional stress experienced by children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The study has cross-sectional design and included parents who have 3- to 10 year-old children studying at kindergartens and primary schools under the Yozgat Directorate of National Education in Turkey, and who volunteered to participate in the study. The study was completed with 1,109 parents. School administrators were informed of the study and an online data collection form was distributed through parent WhatsApp groups.
Common mental disorders among high school students during COVID-19 pandemic with online education satisfaction level in Pakistan

Noreen Maqbool Bokhari; Mubashir Zafar; Muhammad Maaz Arif (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Medical Science
The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders among high school students and their online education satisfaction levels in Pakistan. It was an observational, cross sectional study. The study took place among students registered across various high schools at different cities in Pakistan. The duration of the study was about six months from January 2021 to June 2021. A cross sectional study was conducted across different high schools in Pakistan. For a total of 275 selected study participants, structured and validated questionnaires were used to determine the common mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, and Psychosis.
Interviews about pandemics and protective measures: studying key informants' representation to develop a web-application for fostering children and adolescents' resilience

Emmanuela Rocca; Roberto Burro; Marco Carradore (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
COVID-19 pandemic can be defined as a biological disaster whose impact is particularly evident for children and adolescents, vulnerable populations because of their level of cognitive and affective development. For this reason, it is of paramount relevance to develop actions focused on disaster-related prevention and preparedness, including psycho-education. This study aimed at exploring key informants’ representation of the pandemic, also to identify the contents for the first two levels of a psycho-educational web-application for children and adolescents, i.e., PandHEMOT® (Pandemics – Helmet for EMOTions). It involved 25 experts with different professional roles through semi-structured interviews about a variety of aspects related to the pandemic.
Smartphone addiction in children: patterns of use and musculoskeletal discomfort during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran

Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia; Maryam Heydari Torkamani; Ozra Farmani (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics volume

Smartphone use has increased significantly, especially during the period of global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV2 coronavirus (COVID-19). Concurrently, smartphone addiction is a growing social problem in children and adolescents with the consequence of adverse health outcomes. This study assessed the prevalence of smartphone addiction, patterns of use, and the experienced body-region discomfort among Iranian school students during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study with students from grades 1–9 recruited n = 585 participants (mean age = 14.49 (2.26 years); female = 65.8%). Data were collected from parents and students through the online 'Smartphone addiction scale-short version’ (SAS-SV), self-reported demographic questionnaires, and extracts of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders.

The level of services for cerebral palsy centers from the viewpoint of parents during the COVID-19

Wala’a Etawi

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Education Studies

The study examined the level of services for cerebral palsy (CP) centers in Jordan from parents’ viewpoint during the Corona pandemic. It also examined if there are any differences due to the sex and age of the child with CP. The study sample consisted of 50 parents of children with CP and used a scale for services level of CP centers to collect study data. The results indicated that the level of services during the Corona pandemic was generally moderate. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in the services level due to the sex favor to females, and there were no differences due to the age.

CARD (Comfort Ask Relax Distract) for community pharmacy vaccinations in children: effect on immunization stress-related responses and satisfaction

Anna Taddio; James Morrison; Molly Yang (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Canadian Pharmacists Journal
CARD (Comfort Ask Relax Distract) is a vaccine delivery program demonstrated to reduce pain, fear and associated immunization stress-related responses (ISRR) in children undergoing vaccinations at school. This study evaluated CARD’s clinical impact when integrated into community pharmacy–based pediatric vaccinations. This was a before-and-after CARD implementation study in 5 independent pharmacies offering COVID-19 vaccinations to children aged 5-11 years. No changes were made to practices in the “before” phase. CARD interventions were integrated in the “after” phase (e.g., children prepared a coping plan using a checklist, distraction toolkits were placed in waiting and vaccination spaces, vaccinations were performed with privacy, needles were obscured). Children self-reported ISRR, including fear, pain and dizziness during vaccination, and both children and parents/caregivers (herein, parents) compared the child’s experience to their last needle (better, same, worse). In the “after” phase, parents and children reported how much CARD helped (not at all, a little bit, a moderate amount, a lot).
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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