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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 165
Short report: weight management of children and adolescents with obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany

AUTHOR(S)
Nina Eisenburger; David Friesen; Fabiola Haas (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Plos One
The aim of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness of a juvenile outpatient weight management program during the coronavirus pandemic in Germany, which was implemented digitally during the initial lockdown and thereafter under strict hygiene rules (e.g., adapted exercise sessions). Changes in body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS), physical fitness, media consumption, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and social self-concept of 28 children and adolescents were compared to data of 30 participants before the pandemic.
COVID-19 and health in children and adolescents in the US: a narrative systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Selicia T. Mayra; Jayanthi Kandiah; Constance E. McIntosh

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
In the United States, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic necessitated nationwide closures of kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) schools. Stay-at-home orders and social distancing mandates were also implemented to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the existing literature on how COVID-19 impacted K-12 students' eating patterns, physical activity, and sleep in the United States. Utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a literature search was conducted between October and December 2021. Inclusion criteria were studies focused on COVID-19 and eating patterns, physical activity, and sleep in students enrolled in K-12 schools since March 2020.
Relationship between parents' and children's objectively assessed movement behaviours prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Yesenia García-Alonso; Antonio García-Hermoso; Mikel Izquierdo (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Pediatric Obesity

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could have provoked undesirable harmful effects on movement behaviours among children. This paper aimed to compare levels of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and sleep time in children prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic (after the lockdown) and to determine the association between changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), total PA (TPA), SB, and sleep time between mothers and fathers with their children. A total of 110 children (aged 4–7 years) and their parents (63 mothers and 52 fathers) wore GENEActiv accelerometers for 6 days (4 weekdays and 2 weekend days) prior to the pandemic and 1 year into the pandemic to assess SB, MVPA, TPA, and sleep time.

School meal access and changes in meal participation during COVID-19 school closures: a stratified random sample of CalFresh healthy living eligible school districts in California

AUTHOR(S)
Kaela Plank; Sridharshi Hewawitharana; Evan Talmage (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
The National School Lunch and School Breakfast programs are a nutrition safety net for millions of children in the United States, particularly children in households with lower incomes. During Spring 2020 COVID-19 school closures, schools served school meals through the Summer Meal Programs. Despite efforts to increase access, meal participation declined, and food insecurity increased. This study aimed to (1) describe meal program features as communicated in low-income California school districts’ on-line resources (2) examine associations between meal program features and change in meal participation between May 2019 and May 2020 and (3) evaluate equity by describing meal site coverage and placement relative to the size of priority populations.
Health-related quality of life, Mediterranean diet, physical activity and socioeconomic factors of Greek adolescents during COVID-19: a cross sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Stamatina Papadaki; Vilelmine Carayanni

Published: April 2022   Journal: Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism,

Health related quality of life of the adolescents during quarantine and social isolation potentially decreases, with significant alteration on physical activities and nutrition behaviour. The present study investigates the relationship between Greek adolescents’ health related quality of life and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle and dietary characteristics, along with their adherence to the Mediterranean Diet immediately after the lockdown period in Greece. A total sample of 459 students aged 12–16 years old were recruited from secondary schools in the area of Athens. The KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire for children and adolescents, the KIDMED test, the Godin and Shephard Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Family Affluence Scale III, were used for the statistical analysis. T-tests, Kruskal Wallis, Chi-square, Anova tests and multiple regression analyses were employed.

Change in weight category among youth early in the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ihuoma Eneli; Jinyu Xu; Keeley Pratt

Published: April 2022   Journal: Clinical Obesity
Remote learning and shelter-in-place orders during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with obesity risk factors such as decreased physical activity, altered routines and sleep schedules, increased screen time, and non-nutritious food choices. The objective of this brief report is to describe change in weight category 3–6 months after the onset of the pandemic in a cohort of 4509 low-income youth. Inclusion criteria were youth aged 2–17 years with weight and height measure in a large primary care network between 1 January and 30 March 2020 (Q1), designated as pre-COVID period; and 1 June–30 September 2020, (Q3), as early-COVID period. Change in weight category was assessed between Q1 and Q3. Adjusting for visit type and time lapse, logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between weight category change and age, sex, and race/ethnicity.
Effect of orange almond potato cookies supplementation on the nutritional status of underweight preschool-aged children during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Fatma Fatmah; Nur Asiah; Etty Rekawati (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Plos One
Most undernourished preschool-aged children have low hemoglobin and albumin levels, which leads to a higher risk of infections, including COVID-19. This study was designed to determine whether potato almond orange cookies increase weight, hemoglobin, and albumin) in undernourished preschool-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic. A pre-post intervention study was conducted with 30 subjects during 8 weeks in which hemoglobin and albumin levels were recorded at the beginning and end. Education on balanced nutrition was provided to mothers using leaflets, flipcharts, and videos.
Family systems cultural and resilience dimensions to consider in nutrition interventions: exploring preschoolers’ eating and physical activity routines during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia; Erika Ryan; Veronica M. Jones (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior

This study aims to describe the weight-related family functioning of racial minority families with low income using family systems theory as an interpretive framework. Primarily a qualitative study with interviews plus; descriptive demographics, anthropometrics, a family functioning measure, and food insecurity screening.

Weight excess association with severity in children and adolescents with COVID-19: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Mayara Luíza Oliveira da Silva Kist; Gabriela Rupp; Hanzen Andrades (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN

Concomitantly to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in the child population there was already another pandemic wave in progress: childhood obesity. Numerous studies in adults have been carried out and describe obesity as an independent risk and prognostic factor for the severity of COVID-19. This study aims to systematically review the literature on the relation between weight excess and the severity of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. This systematic review was developed following the PRISMA standards (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis). The literature search was performed in September 2020, in the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), EmbaseScopus, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)), Web of Science, BVS/LILACS and SciELO.

Food and beverage offerings by parents of preschoolers: a daily survey study of dinner offerings during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer M. Barton

Published: April 2022   Journal: Appetite
The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have altered parents' daily feeding practices, including what and how much they feed their children, which may have negative implications for children's weight. The primary aim of this study was to examine patterns of and variation in parents' daily food and beverage offerings at dinner across 10 days during the COVID-19 pandemic using descriptive analysis and non-parametric tests. Ninety-nine parents (Mage = 32.90, SDage = 5.60) of children ages 2–4 years (M = 2.82, SD = 0.78) completed an online baseline survey and 10 daily surveys (929 completed surveys) assessing their daily food and beverage offerings at dinner. On average, parents did not offer recommended foods and beverages on a daily basis; parents offered vegetables and protein most often across the 10 days, however, less than 50% of parents offered the recommended serving size for each group.
Mobilizing and delivering essential meals to children and families affected by school closures during COVID-19 and beyond

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin J. Ryan; Victoria Telford; Mark Brickhouse (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

The closure of schools in response to COVID-19 compromised access to essential meals for many students. The Emergency Meals-to-You program, a public/private partnership, was set up to address this challenge. More than 38.7 million meals were delivered between April and August 2020. This study explores lessons learned and identifies strategies for strengthening food access and security at schools and beyond. Qualitative research methods were used. This included interviews and focus groups with participants involved in setting up and delivering the Emergency Meals-to-You program. Data were thematically analyzed using key phrases, ideas, and concepts, and interpreted.

Poverty and food insecurity during COVID-19: phone-survey evidence from rural and urban Myanmar in 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Derek Headey; Sophie Goudet; Isabel Lambrecht (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Global Food Security
Myanmar first experienced the COVID-19 crisis as a relatively brief economic shock in early 2020, before the economy was later engulfed by a prolonged surge in COVID-19 cases from September 2020 onwards. To analyze poverty and food security in Myanmar during 2020 we surveyed over 2000 households per month from June–December in urban Yangon and the rural dry zone. By June, households had suffered dramatic increases in poverty, but even steeper increases accompanied the rise in COVID-19 cases from September onwards. Increases in poverty were much larger in urban areas, although poverty was always more prevalent in the rural sample. However, urban households were twice as likely to report food insecurity experiences, suggesting rural populations felt less food insecure throughout the crisis.
Measuring food insecurity during the Young Lives COVID-19 phone surveys

AUTHOR(S)
Douglas Scott

Institution: Young Lives
Published: March 2022

Throughout Young Lives, This study has provided various measures of food insecurity. These include the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project (FANTA) (Coates, Swindale, and Bilinsky 2007), but also stand-alone questions, such as ‘Was there ever no food to eat in your household because of a lack of money?’ which was employed across different survey rounds in all four Young Lives study countries: Ethiopia, India (the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana), Peru and Vietnam. In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, the Listening to Young Lives at Work was conducted: COVID-19 phone survey to record the experiences of young people during the outbreak. To estimate food insecurity in the four study countries the Food and Agricultural Organisation’s (FAO) Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) (Cafiero, Viviani, and Nord 2018) have been utilised . This technical note provides information on how estimates of food insecurity were calculated using the FIES approach, in a manner comparable to the methods used by the FAO to inform the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) food security indicator.

Diet and food insecurity among mothers, infants, and young children in Peru before and during COVID-19: a panel survey

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca Pradeilles; Rossina Pareja; Hilary M. Creed-Kanashiro (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Maternal & Child Nutrition
The COVID-19 pandemic may impact diet and nutrition through increased household food insecurity, lack of access to health services, and poorer quality diets. The primary aim of this study is to assess the impact of the pandemic on dietary outcomes of mothers and their infants and young children (IYC) in low-income urban areas of Peru. It conducted a panel study, with one survey prepandemic (n = 244) and one survey 9 months after the onset of COVID-19 (n = 254). IT assessed breastfeeding and complementary feeding indicators and maternal dietary diversity in both surveys. During COVID-19, it assessed household food insecurity experience and economic impacts of the pandemic on livelihoods; receipt of financial or food assistance, and uptake of health services.
Protecting breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review of perinatal care recommendations in the context of maternal and child well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Aleksandra Wesołowska; Magdalena Orczyk-Pawiłowicz; Agnieszka Bzikowska-Jura (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The objective of this scoping review is to determine to what extent the recommendations on perinatal care protect breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. The review follows the PRISMA ScR Extension guidelines. The research was conducted in Scopus, Medline via Pubmed, and Web of Science databases from 1 March 2020 to 31 May 2021, using 392 combinations of keywords. The study searched for reviews and original papers published in English providing recommendations on delivery mode, companion during labor, the possibility of skin-to-skin contact (SSC), breastfeeding, and visitors policy. After screening, 86 out of 8416 publications qualified for data extraction. The majority of them indicated that COVID-19 infection is not a sufficient reason for a cesarean section; however, on a national level, cesarean births in severely ill patients were overrepresented.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.