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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 149
Internet searches for terms related to child maltreatment during COVID-19: infodemiology approach

AUTHOR(S)
Madelon M. E. Riem; Pietro De Carli; Jing Guo (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting
This study examined internet searches indicative of abusive parental behaviors before and after the World Health Organization’s declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic (March 11, 2020) and subsequent lockdown measures in many countries worldwide. Using Google Trends, the study inferred search trends between December 28, 2018, and December 27, 2020, for queries consisting of “mother,” “father,” or “parents” combined with each of the 11 maltreatment-related verbs used in the Conflict Tactics Scales, Parent-Child version. Raw search counts from the Google Trends data were estimated using Comscore.
Epidemiological analysis of burn injuries in children during the first COVID-19 lockdown, and a comparison with the previous five years

AUTHOR(S)
O. Charvillat; M.-C. Plancq; E. Haraux (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique

Child burns rank among the most frequent domestic accidents in France. COVID-19 lockdown between March 16th and May 11th of 2020 increased time spent at home by children. This retrospective, observational study described the epidemiological impact of COVID-19 lockdown on child burns in a pediatric surgery department compared with previous five years. Child burns in the previous five years constituted the “before COVID-19 group” as the reference group. Child burns during the first lockdown formed the “COVID-19 group”. Demographics characteristics, the delay before first attendance at the surgery department, burns characteristics, the place of the incident, need of skin graft, and child reactions to trauma or isolation were recorded for these two groups.

Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on presentation and severity of traumatic injury due to physical child abuse across US children's hospitals

AUTHOR(S)
Christopher De Boer; Hassan Ghomrawi; Megan E. Bouchard (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Surgery

Physical child abuse affects 9 in every 1,000 children in the United States and associated traumatic injuries are often identified by the healthcare system. The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified risk factors for physical child abuse and increased avoidance of the healthcare system. This study examined the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on presentation and severity of physical child abuse. A retrospective, cross-sectional study utilizing the Pediatric Health Information System was performed. An interrupted time series analysis estimated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of children <15 years old presenting with physical child abuse to children's hospitals from March 1st to June 30th of 2020 by comparing to those presenting during the same period for years 2016-2019. Hierarchical regression models estimated the effect of the pandemic on likelihood of operative intervention, ICU admission, traumatic brain injury, and mortality.

When home is not safe: media coverage and issue salience of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Stephanie Madden; Kate Guastaferro; Chris Skurkaa (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Howard Journal of Communications
While staying at home is crucial for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, there is concern that such public health measures may increase the risk for child maltreatment (CM). Using a qualitative content analysis of news coverage and a quantitative survey (N = 250) of media consumers, this study explored the framing of CM as an issue during COVID-19, as well as audience recall and perceived efficacy to prevent maltreatment. Findings from the content analysis indicate that domestic violence and CM are frequently discussed together, and that less frequent interaction with mandatory reporters during the pandemic was often cited as a problem. Survey results suggest that social media and public service announcements are more important compared to news media for increasing audience perceptions of salience and efficacy around CM during a pandemic. Implications for studying media coverage of intertwined public health issues, like a pandemic and CM, are discussed.
Violence and abuse experiences and associated risk factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in a population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Else-Marie Augusti; Sjur Skjørshammer Sætren; Gertrud S. Hafstad

Published: July 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

The lockdowns occurring across society because of the COVID-19 pandemic have had far-reaching consequences for children and adolescents. One immediate concern was what the impact of the comprehensive disease control measures on rates of violence and abuse against children and adolescents would be. This study aimed to establish rates of child abuse and degree of family conflict during the first COVID-19 lockdown spring 2020. Additionally, we aimed to investigate associations between preexisting and concurrent risk factors and abuse during these unique times.

Discourses of childism: how covid-19 has unveiled prejudice, discrimination and social injustice against children in the everyday

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca Adami; Katy Dineen

Published: June 2021   Journal: The International Journal of Children's Rights
Do children suffer from discriminatory structures in society and how can issues of social injustice against children be conceptualised and studied? The conceptual frame of childism is examined through everyday expressions in the aftermath of policies affecting children in Sweden, the UK and Ireland to develop knowledge of age-based and intersectional discrimination against children. While experiences in Sweden seem to indicate that young children rarely suffer severe symptoms from covid-19, or constitute a driving force in spreading the virus, policy decisions in the UK and Ireland to close down schools have had detrimental effects on children in terms of child hunger and violence against children. Policy decisions that have prioritised adults at the cost of children have unveiled a structural injustice against children, which is mirrored by individual examples of everyday societal prejudice.
Child maltreatment in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic: a proposed global framework on research, policy and practice

AUTHOR(S)
Carmit Katza; Sidnei R. Priolo Filho; Jill Korbin (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Child protection is and will be drastically impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Comprehending this new reality and identifying research, practice and policy paths are urgent needs. The current paper aims to suggest a framework for risk and protective factors that need to be considered in child protection in its various domains of research, policy, and practice during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. From an international collaboration involving researchers and child protection professionals from eight countries, the current paper examines various factors that were identified as playing an important role in the child protection system.

Using social media data for assessing children’s exposure to violence during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Pouria Babvey; Fernanda Capela; Claudia Cappa (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
There are concerns that the COVID-19 crisis and the measures adopted by countries in response to  the  pandemic may have led  to  an  upsurge in  violence against children. Added stressors placed on caregivers, economic uncertainty, job loss or disruption to livelihoods and social isolation may have led to a rise in children’s experience of violence in the home. Extended online presence by children may have resulted in increased exposure to abusive content and cyberbullying.
Higher levels of harsh parenting during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Netherlands

AUTHOR(S)
Novika Purnama Sari; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Pauline Jansen (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Child Maltreatment
Previous studies on the impact of COVID-19 indicate that pandemic-related distress increases risks for child maltreatment, although data on the scope of this problem are still scarce. Here, we assessed whether parents with toddlers (n = 206) more often used harsh discipline during the lockdown in the Netherlands compared to a matched parent sample collected prior to the pandemic (n = 1,030). Parents were matched on background characteristics using propensity score matching.
Caregiver perceptions and their influence on child education and labour across Lebanon

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Ghazarian

Institution: World Vision
Published: June 2021
Children are the cornerstone of any society and as such, they need to be trained and provided with adequate opportunities to ensure their development, survival and rights on the path to their future as adults. Yet most of these children are at early age exposed to dangerous and risky jobs that affect every aspect of their development. This study contributes to a small but growing body of literature that explains the determinants of child activity decisions (including schooling, child labour and household chores) and aims to explore their prevalence in the Lebanese society along with associations with different socio-demographic factors as well as parental beliefs and perceptions around child labour and education.
Magnifying inequalitues and compounding risks: the impact of COVID-19 on the health and protection of women and girls on the move
Institution: CARE
Published: June 2021
More than one year into the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic—with some countries seemingly on their way out of the crisis while others enter new waves—evidence of its impact is growing. COVID-19 is increasing short-term humanitarian needs and negatively affecting longer-term outcomes for marginalized populations and people in vulnerable situations, significantly setting back hard-won development gains, magnifying inequalities, and compounding risks. Among those worst affected are the more than 80 million people worldwide—approximately half of whom are women and girls—who have been forcibly displaced by drivers such as persecution, conflict, generalized violence or human rights violations.
Pandemic pivot: achieving transformative results in the Covid-19 pandemic
Institution: United Nations Population Fund
Published: June 2021
As the COVID-19 pandemic gained momentum in 2020, UNFPA implemented the third year of its Strategic Plan 2018–2021. The plan’s targets are three transformative results to be achieved by 2030: ending preventable maternal deaths, ending unmet need for family planning, and ending GBV and harmful practices, including female genital mutilation and child marriage. UNFPA adapted and responded quickly to the global emergency, focusing immediately on maintaining the provision of SRH information and services and on mitigating the impact of the pandemic on progress towards the three transformative results.
Intersecting exclusions: displacement and gender-based violence among people with diverse sexualities and gender identities in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Rachel George; Jenny Rivett; Fiona Samuels (et al.)

Published: June 2021
People in Kenya with diverse sexual orientation, gender identity and expression and sex characteristics (SOGIESC), especially those who are refugees and asylum-seekers, experience multiple forms of violence. There is, however, limited data and literature on intersectionality and experiences of violence in Kenya and the region, and further work is needed to better understand and prevent gender-based violence (GBV). Existing policies and programmes that focus on supporting refugees/migrants and people with diverse SOGIESC in Kenya are insufficient and inadequately integrated to address intersecting experiences and exclusions which drive and shape experiences of violence
Emotion regulation and distress during the COVID-19 pandemic: the role of childhood abuse

AUTHOR(S)
Alana Siegel; Yael Lahav

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
The COVID-19 pandemic may be experienced as traumatogenic and may fuel or exacerbate psychological distress and trauma-related symptoms. Based on trauma research, one might expect that survivors of childhood abuse would be susceptible to these negative outcomes during the pandemic, and that among this population a stronger relation between emotion regulation difficulties and symptomatology would be found. Aiming to explore these suppositions, an online survey was conducted among 710 Israeli adults. Of them, 370 were childhood abuse survivors. A history of childhood abuse, COVID-19-related stressors, overall psychological distress, and peritraumatic stress symptoms during the pandemic were assessed via self-report measures. Participants with a history of childhood abuse had elevated overall psychological distress as well as peritraumatic stress symptoms during the pandemic, compared to nonabused participants, above and beyond demographic characteristics and COVID-19-related stressors.
The stay at home order is causing things to get heated up: family conflict dynamics during COVID-19 from the perspectives of youth calling a national child abuse hotline

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Sinko; Yuan He; Rachel Kishton (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
The purpose of this study was to identify changes in family conflict and abuse dynamics during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders from the perspectives of youth calling a national child abuse hotline. We analyzed text and chat transcripts from Childhelp’s National Child Abuse Hotline from May–June 2020 that were flagged as coming from a child with a COVID-19-related concern (N = 105). Thematic analysis was used to identify COVID-19 related influences of family conflict as well as how COVID-19 constraints influenced coping and survival for youth reporting distress or maltreatment to the hotline.
16 - 30 of 149

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.