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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 210
Evaluating child maltreatment and family violence risk during the COVID-19 pandemic: using a telehealth home visiting program as a conduit to families

AUTHOR(S)
Lindsey Rose Bullinger; Stevan Marcus; Katherine Reuben (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Infant Mental Health Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many child maltreatment risk factors and may have affected maltreatment among vulnerable families. This study surveyed 258 certified providers of an evidence-based home visiting program, SafeCare, about their perception of the impact of the pandemic on the families they serve. It examined if the providers perceived an overall change in child maltreatment and family violence risk among the families with young children they served and factors that may have contributed to changes. Regressions estimated the relationship between providers’ assessment of families’ ability to social distance, emotional struggles, and access to public resources/services with providers’ perception of child maltreatment and family violence risk in the home.
COVID-19 distress, negative parenting, and child behavioral problems: the moderating role of parent adverse childhood experiences

AUTHOR(S)
Katherine A. Hails; Rachel A. Petts; Cody A. Hostutler (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Heightened familial stress and distress during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to increased negative parenting practices, particularly for parents with substantial adverse childhood experiences (ACES). To determine whether families' COVID-19-related distress is associated with young children's emotional/behavioral functioning via negative parenting, and whether these relationships vary based on parents' ACEs. Participants were 267 parents of children ages 1.5–5 years recruited from five primary care sites across the United States. Participants completed internet questionnaires including measures of demographics, parent ACES, negative parenting, parent mental health, and COVID-19 distress. We used regression analyses to test a moderated mediation model in which the relationship between COVID-19 distress and child emotional/behavioral problems is mediated by negative parenting, and both the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 distress on child emotional/behavioral problems is moderated by parents' ACEs.

COVID-19 patient care predicts nurses' parental burnout and child abuse: mediating effects of compassion fatigue

AUTHOR(S)
Margaret C. Stevenson; Cynthia T. Schaefer; Vaishnavi M. Ravipati (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Nurses who are also parents may be at risk not only for professional compassion fatigue, but also parental burnout – a reliable and valid predictor of child abuse and neglect. In support, recent research reveals that parents' COVID-19 related stressors predicted elevated potential for child abuse (Katz and Fallon, 2021). This study explored the harmful effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on nurses' parental burnout, child abuse, and child neglect, as mediated by compassion fatigue (i.e., a combination of job burnout and secondary traumatic stress). Participants were 244 nurses (M age = 32.4; 87% female) who were parents of young children (age 12 or under) recruited via chain referral sampling.

Unemployment and child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea

AUTHOR(S)
Young Eun Kim

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Risk factors for child maltreatment have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially due to economic downfalls leading to parental job losses and poor mental health. This study aimed to examine the association between child maltreatment and unemployment rate in the Republic of Korea. Nationally representative data at the province level were used. The monthly excess number of hotline calls related to child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated for each province. Fixed effects regressions was used to examine the relationship between the excess number of hotline calls and unemployment rate.

One year into COVID-19: What have we learned about child maltreatment reports and child protective service responses?

AUTHOR(S)
Ilan Katz; Sidnei Priolo-Filho; Carmit Katz (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

A year has passed since COVID-19 began disrupting systems. Although children are not considered a risk population for the virus, there is accumulating knowledge regarding children's escalating risk for maltreatment during the pandemic. The current study is part of a larger initiative using an international platform to examine child maltreatment (CM) reports and child protective service (CPS) responses in various countries. The first data collection, which included a comparison between eight countries after the pandemic's first wave (March–June 2020), illustrated a worrisome picture regarding children's wellbeing. The current study presents the second wave of data across 12 regions via population data (Australia [New South Wales], Brazil, United States [California, Pennsylvania], Colombia, England, Germany, Israel, Japan, Canada [Ontario, Quebec], South Africa).

Weaponizing COVID-19: how the pandemic influenced the behavior of those who use violence in domestic and family relationships

AUTHOR(S)
Shane Warren; Christine Morley; Jo Clarke (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Violence Against Women
COVID-19 has increased threats to women's safety in Australia and globally. This research is based on a 2020 nationwide survey about the impacts of COVID-19 on domestic and family violence (DFV) services and allied sectors throughout Australia. This study focuses on how perpetrator behaviors—coercion, control, and violence—changed and intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Two central themes identified from this qualitative analysis were the increase in complexity and severity of DFV during COVID-19. The analysis highlights how perpetrator behavior reflects the weaponizing of COVID-19 against women and children. The article concludes with a discussion about the theoretical, practice, and policy implications.
Child maltreatment prevention service cases are significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal investigation into unintended consequences of quarantine

AUTHOR(S)
Kelly M. Whaling; Alissa Der Sarkissian; Natalie Larez (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Maltreatment
Unprecedented financial and emotional stress, paired with measures to slow the spread of COVID-19 (e.g., school closures), place youth at risk for experiencing increased rates of abuse. This study analyzed data from New York City’s Administration for Children’s Services to investigate the frequency of child maltreatment prevention service case openings during this time. Longitudinal counts of case openings were compiled for January through June of the years 2014–2020. An independent samples Kruskal–Wallis H-test suggested that pre-quarantine case openings were significantly larger than case openings during quarantine. To account for the possible influence of other historical events impacting data, a secondary Kruskal–Wallis H-test was conducted comparing only the 4 months of quarantine data available to the 4 months immediately preceding quarantine orders. The second independent samples Kruskal–Wallis H-test again suggested that pre-quarantine case openings were significantly larger than case openings during quarantine. A Poisson regression model further supported these findings, estimating that the odds of opening a new child maltreatment prevention case during quarantine declined by 49.17%.
A profile analysis of COVID-19 stress-related reactions: the importance of early childhood abuse, psychopathology, and interpersonal relationships

AUTHOR(S)
Ateret Gewirtz-Meydan; Dana Lassri

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

There is little argument that COVID-19 is potentially highly stressful for many people, however, little research has broken down COVID-19-related distress into different aspects clustering together, and how these clusters differ in terms of the vulnerability of the individuals. The primary aim of the present study was to identify distinct profiles of individuals' reactions to COVID-19-related stress, and analyze potential differences and risk and protective factors associated with these profiles in relation to childhood abuse, psychopathology, and interpersonal relationships. Data was collected online among a convenience sample of 914 men and women in Israel. A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) for estimating distinct profiles in people's COVID-19-related distress was applied. Next, profiles were compared in childhood abuse, psychopathology, perceived social support and relationship satisfaction.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child protective services caseworkers and administrators

AUTHOR(S)
Veronica Renov; Lauren Risser; Rachel Berger (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted children and young people experiencing child abuse and neglect. Child Protective Services (CPS) has played an important role in supporting children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. Few studies to-date have evaluated the impact of the pandemic on CPS caseworkers and administrators in the United States. These interviews aim to explore CPS caseworkers' and administrators' experiences working and serving families during the pandemic.

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on child abuse and neglect: a cross-sectional study in a French child advocacy center

AUTHOR(S)
L. Massiot; E. Launay; J. Fleury (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

This study aimed to describe the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown in France on the activity of a Child Advocacy Center. This cross-sectional, observational study included all children involved in the activity of the CAC during the first lockdown, from March 16 to May 10, 2020 and the next 3 months and the corresponding periods in 2018 and 2019. Cases were considered severe when a hospitalization, social alert and/or judicial report to the prosecutor was decided.

Reigniting opportunities for children in South Asia regional flagship report
Published: December 2021

Released to coincide with the 75th anniversary of UNICEF’s creation in 1946, the report, “Reigniting Opportunities for Children in South Asia,” highlights the terrible price children are paying not only as a result of COVID-19 but due to the climate crisis and humanitarian disasters affecting the region. Such has been the impact on children’s education, health care, nutrition, and protection services that the hopes and futures of an entire generation are at risk. In developed countries, COVID-19 vaccination rates are steadily increasing, and wealthier economies are recovering. But in South Asia, the picture remains bleak. Just 30 per cent of people in South Asia are fully vaccinated against COVID-19, leaving families dangerously unprotected as new variants continue to emerge. While the region braces itself for future waves of the virus, more children and families are slipping into poverty.

The parenting skill development and education service: Telehealth support for families at risk of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Alison Fogarty; Andi Jones; Monique Seymour (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
Children are at heightened risk of maltreatment during community wide crises. The Parenting Skill Development and Education (PSDE) Service is a 6-week telehealth intervention designed and implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to support families with young children in Australia at risk of child maltreatment. This study aimed to conduct a formative review of the PSDE service to (a) describe families accessing the PSDE during the pandemic, (b) determine parent and referrers' satisfaction of the service and (c) explore clinicians' experiences of service delivery. A mixed-method study design incorporating the analysis of routinely collected data, and qualitative interviews with clinicians was conducted.
The impact of lockdowns during the Corona pandemic on parental aggressiveness behaviors

AUTHOR(S)
Rachel Lev-Wiesel; Zehavit Dagan; Liat Kende (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Loss and Trauma

Quarantine lockdown enforced for a long duration of time during the Corona pandemic added strain upon families; the educational system has been closed, children were forced to remain at home, and many parents lost their jobs. The aim of the study was to find out the impact of lockdown periods on middle-class parent-child relationship in terms of parental aggressive behaviors. The convenient sample consisted of 236 parents to children (age ranged from 3- to 16). Recruitment was conducted through social media. Following signing a consent form, participants filled a self-report anonymous questionnaire that included demographics, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, The Conflict Tactics Scale pre and during lockdown periods, and, The Parent Strain Scale during lockdown period.

Adult mental health and child maltreatment: an ecological study across rural–urban and economic continua with implications for post-pandemic human services

AUTHOR(S)
Paula Yuma; Rebecca Orsi; Anita A. Pena

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Journal of Community Psychology
This ecological, county-level, cross-sectional study examines relationships between the mental health of adults (IV) and child maltreatment report rates (DV), as they vary by socioeconomic distress and rurality (n = 3015 counties), using the most recent available data from several linked sources. In a two-way model, maltreatment reports increased 20.1% for each additional half day of poor mental health in metro counties, 11.7% in nonmetro counties, and 13% in rural counties. Our zero-inflated negative binomial model, moderated by rurality and economic distress, showed a significant relationship between the number of poor mental health days and increased child maltreatment report rates in counties (χ2 = 145.52, p < 0.0001).
Maternal attachment representation, the risk of increased depressive symptoms and the influence on children’s mental health during the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Franziska Köhler-Dauner; Anna Buchheim; Katherina Hildebrand (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The social distancing measures and the related closure of education institutions have confronted young families, in particular, with various challenges. Additional risk factors such as an insecure or even unresolved maternal attachment representation may affect mental health of mothers and their children in times of increased stress such as during the ongoing pandemic. This study aimed to analyze the interplay between maternal attachment representation and mother’s and children’s mental health before and during the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic. 91 mothers completed a “SARS-CoV-2 pandemic survey” examining the pandemic-related stress of their families including their own depressive symptomology and their children’s mental health.
31 - 45 of 210

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.