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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 1106
Childhood COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and preference from caregivers and healthcare workers in China: a survey experiment

AUTHOR(S)
Zhiyuan Hou; Kuimeng Song; Qian Wang (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
With approval of more COVID-19 vaccines for children, vaccine attributes may influence parental acceptance and choices. This study aimed to assess effects of vaccine attributes and information on herd immunity on childhood COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. A survey experiment was conducted with caregivers of children aged 6 months to 11 years old and health care workers (HCWs) in China from September 14 to November 18, 2021. Respondents were randomly assigned to receive differing information on herd immunity (> 80% of the entire population must be vaccinated; or no information). Respondents then completed eight discrete choice tasks to assess vaccine acceptance based on attributes. 2331 (90.07%) of 2588 surveyed caregivers and 1576 (92.71%) of 1700 surveyed HCWs would accept COVID-19 vaccination for children, respectively.
'Go away from this galaxy coronavirus': children's meanings and feelings of the Covid-19 pandemic through narrated drawings

AUTHOR(S)
Zoi Nikiforidou; Eleni Doni

Published: July 2022   Journal: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal
Children, like everyone, have been affected in multiple ways by the changes the pandemic has caused. This study aims to explore how 4–6-year-olds (N =  50) express through drawings and narrations their meanings and feelings around coronavirus. From a rights-based approach and in particular, children’s rights to access information, to express their ideas and be listened to, the study captures how young children think of and feel about the coronavirus, during the first lockdown in early 2020.
Long-COVID in immunocompromised children

AUTHOR(S)
Karolina Kuczborska; Piotr Buda; Janusz Książyk

Published: July 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to an illness characterized by persistent symptoms which affect various organs and systems, known as long-COVID. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of long-COVID in children with immunodeficiency, in comparison to those without. A self-constructed questionnaire was created, which included questions regarding the child’s general health, the course of their COVID-19, their symptoms of long-COVID and its impact on their daily functioning, the diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and vaccination status. The questionnaire was completed by parents of 147 children — 70 children with a diagnosis of immunodeficiency (47.6%) and 77 who were immunocompetent (52.4%). Immunocompetent children were more significantly affected by long-COVID than those immunocompromised. Its prevalence in the first 12-week post-infection was 60.0% and 35.7% in these groups, respectively. Beyond this period, these percentages had dropped to 34.6% and 11.43%, respectively. Children who were immunocompetent reported more often symptoms of fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, and difficulty concentrating. Meanwhile, there was a slight increase in complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms in immunocompromised patients. The risk of developing long-COVID increased with age and COVID-19 severity in both groups.
Impact of the first COVID–19 lockdown on the lifestyle of elementary school children

AUTHOR(S)
K. O. Bartha; L. Csengeri; A. Lichthammer (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Acta Alimentaria

COVID-19 lockdown affects people’s daily routine and has an impact on their lifestyle. Recent studies documented associations between body weight changes and children’s lifestyle during social isolation. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality. This study aimed to assess the effects of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s sleep, screen time, physical activity, and eating habits. 387 parents of five elementary school students between 16 and 26 June 2020 were interviewed through an online questionnaire. Physical activity level decreased (63.8%), sleep (60.9%)and screen (5.64±3.05 h/day) times and food intake (39.8%) increased. 80.6% of parents reported changes in children’s diet: increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (32.4%), breakfast (15.5%), water and sugar-free beverages (17.6%), snacks (40.4%), sugary drinks (9.9%) was observed. Body weight increased in 44.4% of children.

How The child with hearing loss and their parents affected during the Covid-19 pandemic?

AUTHOR(S)
Deniz Tuz; Filiz Aslan; Esra Yucel

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
This study aimed to determine parents’ perception of the behavioral and auditory performance differences of children with hearing loss and anxiety levels of children and their parents during the pandemic. This is a cross-sectional study. The study included 75 parents who have preschool-aged children with hearing loss. The inclusion criteria were being a family member of a child with hearing loss between the ages of one and six years. The children’s mean age was 4.09 (± 1.42). The evaluation forms included the control list to determine how the children with hearing loss and their parents were affected during the pandemic, the Parents' Evaluation of Aural Performance of Children rating scale to measure children's auditory performance, the Preschool Behavior.
Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on stress and access to services for licensed and kinship caregivers and youth in foster care

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah J. Beal; Katie Nause; Mary V. Greiner

Published: July 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal
Children in foster care in the United States face unique challenges related to access to health and education services. With the COVID-19 pandemic, many of those services were temporarily disrupted, adding burden to an already strained system. This observational study describes the experiences of licensed and kinship caregivers (N = 186) during the peak of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders and as restrictions to services were lifted, to understand the overall impact of COVID-19 on this already vulnerable population. Purposive sampling methods were used, where caregivers known to have received placement of children prior to, during, and following COVID-19 stay-at-home orders were identified and recruited to complete a 45-minute phone-administered survey assessing stress, risks for contracting COVID-19, strain resulting from COVID-19, and access to services for children in foster care in their care across five domains: healthcare, mental health, education, child welfare, and family visitation. Differences by caregiver type (licensed, kinship) and timing in the pandemic were examined.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on young children with feeding and eating problems and disorders and their families

AUTHOR(S)
Hilde Krom; Joost van Mameren; Lianne Remijn (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

The incidence of feeding and eating problems and disorders (FEPD) in children increased during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young children with FEPD and their parents. Cross-sectional survey: parents of children with FEPD (0-11 years) in the Netherlands completed an online questionnaire (January-April 2021). This questionnaire included 4 demographic questions (including criteria of Pediatric Feeding Disorder (PFD) and/or Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID)) and 11 questions related to experienced impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental responses regarding children with FEPD (including PFD and ARFID) were compared to those of healthy controls (HC).

Impact of school closure due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on body mass index in Japanese children: Retrospective longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Yuka Nagashima; Mikako Inokuchi; Yosuke Yasui (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Chils Health

During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the governments of many countries responded to high levels of infection with lockdowns. As a result, some children were reported to experience weight gain. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of school closures on body mass index (BMI) in Japanese children. This was a retrospective study of students enrolled in the participating schools (6- to 11-year-old elementary school students and 12- to 14-year-old junior high school students) between 2015 and 2020. Using school health check-up data, annual changes in the BMI standard deviation score (ΔBMI-SDS) were calculated. We compared ΔBMI-SDS in 2019–2020 with the corresponding control years.

"Wearing a mask won't protect us from our history": the impact of COVID‐19 on black children and families

AUTHOR(S)
Erin Bogan; Valerie N. Adams-Bass; Lori A. Francis (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Social Policy Report
The data on COVID-19 show an irrefutable and disturbing pattern: Black Americans are contracting and dying from COVID-19 at rates that far exceed other racial and ethnic groups. Due to historical and current iterations of racism, Black Americans have been forced into conditions that elevate their risk for COVID-19 and consequently place Black children at the epicenter of loss across multiple domains of life. The current paper highlights the impact of the pandemic on Black children at the individual, family, and school levels. Based on an understanding of the influence of structural racism on COVID-19 disparities, policy recommendations are provided that focus on equitable access to quality education, home ownership, and employment to fully address the needs of Black children and families during and after the pandemic. Research, practice, and policy recommendations are made to journal editors, funding agencies, grant review panels, and researchers regarding how research on COVID-19 should be framed to inform intervention efforts aimed at improving the situation of Black children and families.
Children's rates of COVID-19 vaccination as reported by parents, vaccine hesitancy, and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among children: a multi-country study from the Eastern Mediterranean Region

AUTHOR(S)
Moawiah Khatatbeh; Samir Albalas; Haitham Khatatbeh (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

Huge efforts are being made to control the spread and impacts of the coronavirus pandemic using vaccines. However, willingness to be vaccinated depends on factors beyond the availability of vaccines. The aim of this study was three-folded: to assess children’s rates of COVID-19 Vaccination as reported by parents, to explore parents’ attitudes towards children’s COVID-19 vaccination, and to examine the factors associated with parents’ hesitancy towards children’s vaccination in several countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design. A sample of 3744 parents from eight countries, namely, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), was conveniently approached and surveyed using Google forms from November to December 2021. The participants have responded to a 42-item questionnaire pertaining to socio-demographics, children vaccination status, knowledge about COVID-19 vaccines, and attitudes towards vaccinating children and the vaccine itself. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS- IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze the data. A cross-tabulation analysis using the chi-square test was employed to assess significant differences between categorical variables and a backward Wald stepwise binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent effect of each factor after controlling for potential confounders.

‘Long COVID’: symptom persistence in children hospitalised for COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Ali A. Asadi-Pooya; Meshkat Nemati; Hamid Nemati

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

This study aimed to describe the long-term outcome with respect to symptom persistence amongst children hospitalised for COVID-19. This was a follow-up study of 58 children and adolescents hospitalised with COVID-19. For all patients, the data were collected in a phone call to the family in December 2021 (9 months after the initial study and more than 13 months after their admission to hospital). We inquired about their current health status and obtained information, if the responding parent consented orally to participate and answer the questions.

Traditional Chinese medicine in treating children with Coronavirus disease 2019: a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Naifan Duan; Bin Liu; Xiaona Li (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently widely spread across the world. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the overall treatment process. As a special group of population, the treatment outcome of children with COVID-19 has attracted much attention. This study summarizes the current situation of TCM treatment of children with COVID-19. The results showed that TCM displayed a positive role in the treatment process, and that no significant adverse reactions were found.
Early (years) reactions: comparative analysis of early childhood policies and programs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Joanne Kearon; Sarah Carsley; Meta van den Heuvel (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

During the first wave of COVID-19 there was little evidence to guide appropriate child and family programs and policy supports. This study compared policies and programs implemented to support early child health and well-being during the first wave of COVID-19 in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Singapore, the UK, and the USA. Program and policy themes were focused on prenatal care, well-baby visits and immunization schedules, financial supports, domestic violence and housing, childcare supports, child protective services, and food security.

Attitude of parents toward vaccination against COVID-19 for own children in Jordan: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Sawsan Abuhammad; Yousef Khader; Shaher Hamaideh

Published: July 2022   Journal: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked

This study aimed to evaluate parents' attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccination for their children and determine predictors of parents’ attitudes towards their children receiving the Vaccine against COVID-19. This study used a cross-sectional design. The subjects were Jordanian parents with a child less than 18 years old. The survey was made available on different social media platforms and other networks such as community organizations, academic posts, and private groups.

Parents' perception towards the national COVID-19 immunisation programme for children (PICKids): a cross-sectional, internet-based survey

AUTHOR(S)
Ishak Mas’ud; Surina Mohamad Shafi; Mohd Zulkifli Awang (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Human and Health Sciences
The Ministry of Health Malaysia’s (MOH) National COVID-19 Immunisation Programme for Children (PICKids) is a public health initiative aimed at achieving herd immunity and prevent illness among Malaysian children. The COVID-19 outbreak and the efficacy of the COVID-19 immunisation programme for children are facing tremendous stress among parents. The purpose of this study was to see how parents in Klang Valley, Malaysia viewed and accepted the COVID-19 vaccination for their children. Parents were distributed a set of questionnaires over social media via Qualtrics XM. A simple random sampling technique was used to choose the participants. The total number of participants in the study was 88, with 30 males (34.09%) and 58 females (65.91%). The findings show a statistically significant correlation between parents’ knowledge of COVID-19 and their willingness to vaccinate their children.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.