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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 1169
SARS-CoV-2 infection in households with and without young children: nationwide cohort study, Denmark, 27 February 2020 to 26 February 2021

Anders Husby; Giulia Corn; Tyra Grove Krause

Published: August 2022   Journal: Eurosurveillance

Infections with seasonally spreading coronaviruses are common among young children during winter months in the northern hemisphere; the immunological response lasts around a year. However, it is not clear if living with young children changes the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adult. This study aimed to investigate the association between living in a household with younger children and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospitalisation.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | Issue: 32 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Denmark
Comparison of eating disorders symptoms and body image between individual and team sport adolescent athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Morteza Homayounnia Firoozjah; Shahnaz Shahrbanian; Alireza Homayouni (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Eating Disorders

COVID-19 has significantly disrupted the routines of school sports for adolescent athletes, which can affect their usual eating behaviors and body image. Specific pressures of individual sports (which tend to emphasize “leanness” as a means to improving performance), versus team sports (which tend to not require “leanness” for an athlete to be competitive), may further increase the risk of disordered eating (DE), eating disorders (ED), and distorted body image. An additional factor to consider is the gender of the athletes, with participation in “lean” sports associated with increased DE and body dissatisfaction for male, but not female, athletes. Participants of the study included 124 Iranian male adolescent athletes residing in Mazandaran province (one of the most affected areas of Iran during COVID-19), who played in 1 of 6 sports (3 individual, 3 team). ED symptoms were assessed by the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and body image was assessed by the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA).

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and implications for vaccination

Jordan Nathanielsz; Zheng Quan Toh; Lien Anh Ha Do (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pediatric Research
he COVID-19 pandemic caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for more than 500 million cases worldwide as of April 2022. Initial estimates in 2020 found that children were less likely to become infected with SARS-CoV-2 and more likely to be asymptomatic or display mild COVID-19 symptoms. Our early understanding of COVID-19 transmission and disease in children led to a range of public health measures including school closures that have indirectly impacted child health and wellbeing. The emergence of variants of concern (particularly Delta and Omicron) has raised new issues about transmissibility in children, as preliminary data suggest that children may be at increased risk of infection, especially if unvaccinated. Global national prevalence data show that SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents is rising due to COVID-19 vaccination among adults and increased circulation of Delta and Omicron variants. To mitigate this, childhood immunisation programmes are being implemented globally to prevent direct and indirect consequences of COVID-19 including severe complications (e.g., MIS-C), debilitating long-COVID symptoms, and the indirect impacts of prolonged community and school closures on childhood education, social and behavioural development and mental health. This review explores the current state of knowledge on COVID-19 in children including COVID-19 vaccination strategies.
Parents' attitudes regarding their children's play and sport during COVID-19

Monika Szpunar; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Brianne A. Bruijns (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Health Education & Behavior
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures have interrupted the daily routines of parents and children. The purpose of this study was to explore parents’ attitudes regarding their children’s play/sport during COVID-19. A secondary objective was to explore the influence of parent demographics and parent-reported physical activity levels and risk tolerance on these attitudes. Ontario parents of children aged 12 and younger completed an online survey (August—December 2020) that assessed their attitudes (grouped by support, safety and socialization-related attitudes; n = 14 items) regarding their child(ren)’s play/sport, their physical activity levels (n = 2 items), and demographic details (n = 16 items). Two open-ended items were used to gather a deeper understanding of attitudes. Parents’ tolerance for risk was measured via the validated Tolerance of Risk in Play Scale. Descriptive statistics were calculated to describe attitudes and risk tolerance. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator regressions were conducted to examine factors influencing parents’ attitudes. Multiple linear models were computed using the identified predictors for each attitude category. Deductive content analysis was undertaken on open-ended responses. Participants (n = 819) reported the highest scores for safety-related attitude items (M = 3.54, SD = .63) followed by socialization and support, which all influenced attitudes regarding children’s play/sport (p < .05).
The evolution of COVID-19 publications in pediatrics: a bibliometric analysis with research trends and global productivity

İlknur Kaba; Nurcan Çoşkun

Published: August 2022   Journal: Medical Science and Discovery

Despite the increase in the number of global studies on COVID-19 that has been increasingly contagious among children, no comprehensive bibliometric studies have been found in the literature concerning COVID-19 in pediatrics. This study aimed to perform a holistic analysis of the scientific outputs about COVID-19 in pediatrics using various statistical methods. The articles published in the research area of pediatrics on COVID-19 between January 1st, 2020 and February 13th, 2022 were downloaded from the Web of Science (WoS) and analysed using various statistical methods. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed for related research. Bibliometric network visualization diagrams were generated to reveal trending topics and cross-country collaborations.

Changes in obesity and BMI among children and adolescents with selected chronic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Izzuddin M. Aris; Charles Bailey (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Obesity

The aim of this study was to examine COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in obesity and BMI among patients aged 5 to <20 years with selected chronic conditions. A longitudinal study in 293,341 patients aged 5 to <20 years who were prescribed one of five medication classes (for depression, psychosis, hypertension, diabetes, or epilepsy) and who had BMI measures from January 2019 to March 2021 was conducted. Generalized estimating equations and linear mixed-effects models were used, accounting for within-child repeated measures and stratified by age, race, ethnicity, gender, and class of medication prescribed, to compare obesity and BMI z score during the pandemic (June through December 2020) versus pre-pandemic (June through December 2019).

Hesitancy versus acceptability: An observational study for acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among parents and guardians of children under 17 years age in South East Rajasthan

Ashutosh Sharma; Vinita Gupta; Anita Sharma (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Asian Journal of Medical Sciences

Vaccination against COVID-19 is necessary to reach herd immunity and essential for mitigating the spread. To establish herd immunity, the immunity generated by natural infection or vaccination must prevent onward transmission, not just clinical disease. However, several studies have shown that achieving herd immunity through natural infection might be difficult. The aim of the study is to enquire about parental acceptability for COVID-19 vaccination for their children, factors affecting acceptability, perceptions for pediatric COVID-19 vaccines.

Pediatric dentist attire and relationship with anxiety in children and parents during covid-19 pandemic

Raghavendra Havale; Dhanu G. Rao; S. P. Shrutha (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences
The study aimed to evaluate children’s and parent’s preferences of dentist’s attire during Covid-19 pandemic and their relationship with dental anxiety.  A total of 139 Children(71 boys, 68 girls) aged 6-12 years were shown videos of a pediatric dentist working with different attire such as Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and pedoscrub, and they were asked to express the way they preferred their dentist to be dressed. Children’s anxiety levels with different attire of paediatric dentists were assessed in different age groups and for boys and girls separately and recorded it using the Facial image scale. A questionnaire regarding dental anxiety was created online and completed by 139 parents (76 females, 63 males) of various ages and different educational backgrounds who were asked to choose between two outfits.
Parents' perceptions of their children's physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic

Emma Ostermeier; Patricia Tucker; Danielle Tobin (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

COVID-19 has drastically changed the everyday lives of children, including limiting interactions with peers, loss of regularly organized activities, and closure of schools and recreational facilities. While COVID-19 protocols are in place to reduce viral transmission, they have affected children’s access to physical activity opportunities. The purpose of this study was to understand how COVID-19 has affected children’s engagement in physical activity and to identify strategies that can support children’s return to physical activity programming in public places. Parents of past participants in the Grade 5 ACT-i-Pass Program in London, Ontario, Canada were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview online (in November and December 2020) via Microsoft Teams. The script was comprised of questions about their child’s physical activity levels (before, current, and anticipated following COVID-19), lifestyle changes due to COVID-19, and what service providers can do to assist children’s return to public programming. Interviews were transcribed in Microsoft Teams, reviewed by a member of the research team, and analyzed in NVivo 12 using thematic analysis.

COVID-19 vaccination intentions, concerns, and facilitators among US parents of children ages 6 months through 4 years

Aaron M. Scherer; Courtney A. Gidengil; Amber M. Gedlinske (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Children aged 6 months through 4 years have become eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, but little is known about parental intentions regarding, concerns about, or facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination for this age group. To evaluate parental intentions, concerns, and facilitators for COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6 months through 4 years and to help inform the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ deliberations and recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6 months through 4 years. This cross-sectional study fielded an online survey from February 2 to 10, 2022, among a nonprobability sample of US parents of children aged 6 months through 4 years who were recruited through Qualtrics using quota-based sampling for respondent gender, race and ethnicity, and child age group.

Public health communication: Attitudes, experiences, and lessons learned from users of a COVID-19 digital triage tool for children

Janet Michel; Julia Rehsmann; Annette Mettler (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The pandemic has made public health communication even more daunting because acceptance and implementation of official guidelines and recommendations hinge on this. The situation becomes even more precarious when children are involved. Our child-specific COVID-19 online forward triage tool (OFTT) revealed some of the public health communication challenges. This study aimed to explore attitudes, experiences, and challenges faced by OFTT users and their families, in regard to public health recommendations. It selected key informants (n = 20) from a population of parents, teachers, guardians, as well as doctors who had used the child-specific COVID-19 OFTT and had consented to a further study. Videos rather than face-face interviews were held. Convenience and quota sampling were performed to include a variety of key informants. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes.

Addressing child obesity via social networks: experience report of actions of the health lifestyle project at school in the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Cavalcante Brandão; Ingra Bezerra de Melo Gonçalves; Ítalo Emanoel de Sousa Chaves (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Science

Childhood obesity is a nutritional disorder considered a serious public health problem worldwide because it is responsible for a large part of the emergence of chronic degenerative diseases and, consequently, raises the levels of morbidity and mortality. The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the increase in the rates of this comorbidity, as the established transmission containment measures led to a reduction in physical activity, an increase in screen time and anxiety-related disorders. Thus, the Healthy Lifestyle at School extension project, developed at the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Cariri (UFCA), whose objective is to act in the identification, prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, recognized the need adapting face-to-face activities to the remote context. An account was created on the social network Instagram in order to alert about the problem and with the objective of reaching the target audience through educational, preventive and control measures against childhood obesity. The study is a qualitative analysis, of the experience report type, based on data obtained between April and September of the year 2020 on the Project’s social media page. It can be seen from this study that the challenge for extension projects to remain as guides for good health practices and remote knowledge production showed satisfactory results with the use of the social network as a tool for health promotion and education.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 43 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 4 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, obesity, physical activity, social distance, social media | Countries: Brazil
Problematic child media use during the COVID-19 pandemic

Emily Kroshus; Pooja S. Tandon; Chuan Zhou (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pediatrics

Assess how family stressors (including structural stressors, social determinants of health inequities, and parent psychological distress) relate to media rule implementation and problematic child media use during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Nationally representative survey of 1000 United States parents with at least one 6 to 17 year old child was conducted in October through November 2020.

Physical activity knowledge, attitude, and behaviours among adolescents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Prior to and during COVID-19 restrictions

Naif Almutairi; Sharyn Burns; Linda Portsmouth

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Obesity
The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has increased dramatically and poses a major public health threat globally. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the main cause of adolescent obesity is an increase in physical inactivity and unhealthy eating habits due to lifestyle changes. This study reports on factors associated with physical activity (PA) prior to and during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) among middle school students in Jeddah, KSA.
The frequency of infant-feeding presentations at English emergency departments during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: a nation-wide electronic health records study

Steven Wyatt; Patrick Aldridge; Samantha Ross (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

This study aims to examine the frequency and distribution of infant feeding-related presentations at emergency departments (EDs) before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Attendances at 48 major EDs in England in two 50-week periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: period 1, April 2, 2019 to March 10, 2020 and period 2, April 1, 2020 to March 10, 2021.

31 - 45 of 1169

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.