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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 567
Caring for children in foster and kinship care during a pandemic: lessons learned and recommendations

AUTHOR(S)
Hilda Loria; Jill McLeigh; Kristin Wolfe (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Child Welfare
Through qualitative feedback from professionals in healthcare, mental health, and child welfare, this study explored the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and well-being of children in the child welfare system. Positive outcomes and challenges related to the care of children in foster or kinship care in Texas during the COVID-19 pandemic are described. Themes identified included disparities in the child welfare system; utilization of telehealth; cross-sector communication and collaboration; safety considerations; and placement stability and support. The article concludes with recommendations in each of these areas for ensuring the health and well-being of children in foster and kinship care during a pandemic.
Association of COVID-19 mitigation measures with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index among children aged 7 to 10 years in Austria

AUTHOR(S)
Gerald Jarnig; Johannes Jaunig; Mireille N. M. van Poppel (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Were COVID-19 mitigation measures associated with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness measures and body mass index among primary schoolchildren in Austria? In this cohort study of 764 primary schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years, COVID-19 mitigation measures were associated with substantial reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness measures and increases in body mass index SD scores and the proportion of children with overweight or obesity. The findings suggest that collaborative efforts are needed to improve children’s health and fitness to prevent long-term negative health outcomes.

Young people's drug use stayed level during pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Alison Knopf

Published: August 2021   Journal: Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly
Alcohol use declined and use of nicotine and misuse of prescriptions increased among 10-to-14-year-olds during the pandemic, according to a study published last week. Overall, the rate of drug use among these young people remained stable during the pandemic based on repeated surveys of more than 7,800 people ages 10 to 14 conducted between September 2019 and August 2020.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on a large cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer

AUTHOR(S)
Kevin R. Krull; Aaron McDonald; Pamela Goodman (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Childhood cancer survivors may be differentially impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From April to June of 2020, we examined psychosocial/health concerns in 4148 adult survivors and 571 siblings. Although more survivors reported concerns about getting sick (p = .002) and needing hospitalization (p = .003) in general, survivors and siblings were comparably concerned about being infected with and the consequences of COVID-19. Cranial radiation was associated with social isolation (relative risk [RR] = 1.3, CI = 1.1–1.7), and central nervous system (CNS) tumors were associated with unemployment due to COVID-19 (RR = 1.7, CI = 1.2–2.2). Some survivors appear more vulnerable and may require more support to meet health care and vocational needs during COVID-19, though siblings also perceive substantial risk.
School-based prevention of screen-related risk behaviors during the long-term distant schooling caused by COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Katerina Lukavská; Václav Burda; Jirí Lukavský (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 outbreak and related restrictions meant a higher incidence of screen-related risk behaviors in both children and adolescents. Our goal was to assess the perceived importance and extent of school-based preventions related to these risks during the long-term, nation-wide distant schooling period in the Czech Republic. The online survey was responded to by the school-based prevention specialists (N = 1698). For the analysis, within-subject analysis of variance (ANOVA) and binominal logistic regression were used. At-risk internet use and cyber-bullying were perceived as pressing, but other risks, for example, excessive internet use or the use of cyberpornography, received substantially less priority
Objective behavioral measures in children before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown in Israel

AUTHOR(S)
Einat Shneor; Ravid Doron; Jonathan Levine (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Studies using questionnaires report that COVID-19 restrictions resulted in children spending significantly less time outdoors. This study used objective measures to assess the impact of pandemic-related restrictions on children's behavior. A total of 19 healthy 8-12-year-old boys were observed before and during social restriction periods. Of these, 11 boys were reassessed after restrictions were lifted. For each session, Actiwatches were dispensed for measures of time outdoors, activity, and sleep. Changes overall and by school status were assessed using signed-rank test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests.
Caregivers’ sources of information about immunization as predictors of delayed childhood vaccinations in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

AUTHOR(S)
Leena R. Baghdadi; Marwah M. Hassounah; Afnan Younis (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Of 628 women, 11.8% (n = 74) were pregnant at the time of survey. Most of the pregnant women (89.2%, n = 66) had some degree of concerns about their unborn babies getting infected during delivery in the hospital. Among mothers of children under 10 years of age (n = 564), half (n = 282) reported change in their children’s behavior during the lockdown. Most mothers and pregnant women (94.9%, n = 569) had some degree of psychological distress. Mothers and pregnant women with a college degree had significantly lower psychological distress (β = -1.346; p = 0.014) than women with a high school education or less. Similarly, mothers and pregnant women with monthly family income ≥ US$ 1,333 had lower psychological distress than those with < US$ 1,333. Women with pre-existing chronic physical (β = 2.424; p < 0.001) or mental (β = 4.733; p < 0.001) conditions had higher psychological distress than those without these conditions. Having children in the house was a contributory factor for higher psychological distress. For example, mothers with one child (β = 2.602; p = 0.007) had significantly higher psychological distress compared to expectant mothers without children in the house.
Feasibility and acceptability of SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance in primary school children in England: Prospective, cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Felicity Aiano; Samuel E. I. Jones; Zahin Amin-Chowdhury (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One

The reopening of schools during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about widespread infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in educational settings. In June 2020, Public Health England (PHE) initiated prospective national surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in primary schools across England (sKIDs). This study used this opportunity to assess the feasibility and agreeability of large-scale surveillance and testing for SARS-CoV-2 infections in school among staff, parents and students. Staff and students in 131 primary schools were asked to complete a questionnaire at recruitment and provide weekly nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing (n = 86) or swabs with blood samples for antibody testing (n = 45) at the beginning and end the summer half-term. In six blood sampling schools, students were asked to complete a pictorial questionnaire before and after their investigations.

Exploring factors that influence children’s growth and development during a pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Kimiya Amjadi

Published: August 2021   Journal: Global Pediatric Health
The potential long-term impacts of natural or man-made disasters on children and adolescents have been the subject of numerous scientific research studies over the past decades. Since the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, however, it has become even more important to continue these investigations in order to address the special needs of our youth. While the virus itself appears to cause less pathology in them compared to adults, the effects go beyond the disease itself. The pandemic has caused extremely high levels of stress for both the children and their families. As a result, special attention has to be given to the possible long-term impacts on their growth and development. It is very important for physicians and other healthcare providers to recognize the signs and symptoms of stress and monitor for physical and mental health inequities, and to be able to provide support when help is needed. Identifying culturally effective solutions and reaching out to community based organizations or partners for resources and programs with which families identify is an important part of this healing provision.
Disinfectant use by K-12 school staff to combat SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Timothy J. Hilbert; Candace Brancato; Kelsey Carter (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Infection Control
K-12 school staff from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio were asked about their use of disinfectants to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in schools. Survey participants (n=1,555) reported frequent use of disinfectants, often using unknown products, and were provided little to no training on safe and effective use. Participant concerns included student involvement in disinfection, inadequate ventilation, surface contact time, and potential health effects.
Age-dependent seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in school-aged children from areas with low and high community transmission

AUTHOR(S)
Lise Boey; Mathieu Roelants; Joanna Merckx (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
It is not yet clear to what extent SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in children reflect community transmission, nor whether infection rates differ between primary schoolchildren and young teenagers. A cross-sectional serosurvey compared the SARS-CoV2 attack-rate in a sample of 362 children recruited from September 21 to October 6, 2020, in primary (ages 6–12) or lower secondary school (ages 12–15) in a municipality with low community transmission (Pelt) to a municipality with high community transmission (Alken) in Belgium. Children were equally distributed over grades and regions. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
COVID-19 hospitalization rate in children across a private hospital network in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Tommy Y. Kim; Esther C. Kim; Adrian Z. Agudelo (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Archives de Pédiatrie

There are limited studies with varying results evaluating the rate of hospitalizations of pediatric patients tested for COVID-19 in the United States. More information in the pediatric COVID-19 literature is needed. The objective of this study was to describe the rates of positive tests, hospitalization, severe disease, and mortality for COVID-19 in children. This study performed a retrospective analysis of data collected from a data warehouse from 184 hospitals across the United States. All cases of pediatric patients who were tested for COVID-19 were analyzed for test positivity, hospitalization, severe disease, and mortality. A separate subgroup analysis for ages < 1 year, 1–4 years, 5–8 years, 9–14 years, and 15–17 years was performed.

Sleep quality among parents and their children during COVID-19 pandemic in a Southern - Brazilian sample

AUTHOR(S)
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Samanta Andresa Richter; Thiago Wendt Viola (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

This study aims to evaluate sleep characteristics of parents and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic and predictors for sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional web-based study using an online survey made available for dyads of parents and their children during the 7th week of quarantine in southern Brazil. Parents' and adolescents’ sleep were characterized using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. For children aged 0-3 years parents completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire, for those aged 4-12 years the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Parents also informed, subjectively, their perception about sleep habits during social distancing. Multiple regression was run to predict sleep disturbances in adults using independent variables: sex, income, education, children age, and children with sleep disturbances.

Global characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents with cancer (GRCCC): a cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Sheena Mukkada; Nickhill Bhakta; Guillermo L. Chantada (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: The Lancet Oncology

Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents with COVID-19 generally have mild disease. Children and adolescents with cancer, however, can have severe disease when infected with respiratory viruses. In this study, we aimed to understand the clinical course and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents with cancer. We did a cohort study with data from 131 institutions in 45 countries. We created the Global Registry of COVID-19 in Childhood Cancer to capture de-identified data pertaining to laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents (<19 years) with cancer or having received a haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. There were no centre-specific exclusion criteria. The registry was disseminated through professional networks through email and conferences and health-care providers were invited to submit all qualifying cases. Data for demographics, oncological diagnosis, clinical course, and cancer therapy details were collected.

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan: the caregiver perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Miral Al Momani; Basima A. Almomani; Aladdin Al-Qudah (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Seizure

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted care systems around the world. This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the care of pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan. Potential predictors for seizure control during COVID-19 outbreaks were investigated. A cross- sectional survey was conducted on pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan, between January and February 2021, via online questionnaires. The collected data included demographic information, epilepsy-related characteristics, views of caregivers and changes in seizure control during COVID-19 outbreak.

31 - 45 of 567

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.