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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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451 - 465 of 578
Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents compared with adults

AUTHOR(S)
Russell M. Viner; Oliver T. Mytton; Chris Bonell (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

In this systematic review and meta-analysis including 32 studies, children and adolescents younger than 20 years had 44% lower odds of secondary infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared with adults 20 years and older; this finding was most marked in those younger than 10 to 14 years. Data were insufficient to conclude whether transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children is lower than by adults. Preliminary evidence suggests that children have a lower susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with adults, but the role that children and adolescents play in transmission of this virus remains unclear.

Trends in clinical presentation of children with COVID-19: a systematic review of individual participant data

AUTHOR(S)
Briana Christophers; Benjamin Gallo Marin; Rocío Oliva (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research

There are sparse patient-level data available for children with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, there is an urgent need for an updated systematic literature review that analyzes individual children rather than aggregated data in broad age groups. Six databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar, medRxiv) were searched for studies indexed from January 1 to May 15, 2020, with MeSH terms: children, pediatrics, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. 1241 records were identified, of which only unique papers in English with individual patient information and documented COVID-19 testing were included. This review of 22 eligible studies followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data guidelines.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health care, impact
Children’s anxiety and factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic: an exploratory study using the children’s anxiety questionnaire and the numerical rating scale

AUTHOR(S)
Marla Andréia Garcia de Avila; Pedro Tadao Hamamoto Filho; Francine Letícia da Silva Jacob (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s lives deserve attention. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety among Brazilian children and its associated factors during social distancing during COVID-19. It is based on a cross-sectional design with an online survey from April to May 2020 in Brazil.
The wide spectrum of COVID-19 clinical presentation in children

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia Nathan; Blandine Prevost; Chiara Sileo (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine
 Ten months after its appearance in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 25 million patients worldwide. Because children were first identified as potential spreaders of the virus, schools were closed in several countries. However, it rapidly became evident that the number of hospitalized children infected by SARS-CoV-2 was dramatically lower than that of adults. To date, only hypotheses have been raised to explain this difference, so it is of great importance to describe the presentation of this disease among children. This study describes a wide spectrum of COVID-19 manifestation in children in a dedicated pediatric unit in France.
Responding to non-communicable diseases during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic

This brief provides guidance for governments, policymakers, UN agencies and development partners to address non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as an integral part of the COVID-19 response and in broader efforts for achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. NCDs, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease, are amplifying the impacts of COVID-19, and COVID-19 is exacerbating the burden of NCDs, particularly in already disadvantaged communities. Almost one fourth (22%) of the global population is estimated to have an underlying condition that increases their vulnerability to COVID-19, and most of these conditions are NCDs. Urgent action across sectors is needed to address the root causes of NCDs and increase access to affordable and quality treatments and prevention.

The hidden impact of COVID-19 on children's health and nutrition

AUTHOR(S)
Adetayo Omoni; Paul Rees-Thomas; Shahab Ali Siddiqu (et al.)

Institution: Save the Children
Published: September 2020
This report is one in a series presenting findings from the Global COVID-19 Research Study. The study focuses on implications  of COVID 19 for children’s health and nutrition, drawing on data from our representative sample of 17,565 parents/caregivers and 8,069 children in our programme participants group. The research presents differences in impacts on and needs of children by region, age, gender, disability, minority group, indicators of poverty and more. This study research was implemented in 46 countries and resulted in the largest and most comprehensive survey of children and families during the COVID-19 crisis to date, with 31,683 parents and caregivers and 13,477 children aged between 11 and 17 participating in the research.
Health-related behaviors among school-aged children and adolescents during the Spanish Covid-19 confinement

AUTHOR(S)
Rubén López-Bueno; Guillermo F. López-Sánchez; José A. Casajús (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) world pandemic, affected countries such as Spain enacted measures comprising compulsory confinement as well as restrictions regarding free movement. Such measures likely influence children's and adolescents' lifestyles. Our study aimed to investigate the impact that the Covid-19 confinement has on health-related behaviors among Spanish children and adolescents. An online survey was administered to 516 parents to collect data about 860 children and adolescents (49.2% girls) aged between 3 and 16 years in relation to physical activity, screen exposure, sleep time, and fruit and vegetable consumption during the Covid-19 confinement.
Things must not fall apart: the ripple effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children in sub-Saharan Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Modupe Coker; Morenike O. Folayan; Ian C. Michelow (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
This article focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child health in sub-Saharan Africa. It reviews the epidemiology of major pediatric diseases and, referencing modeling projections, discuss the short- and long-term impact of the pandemic on major disease control. It also deliberates on potential complications of SARS-CoV-2 co-infections/co-morbidities and identify critical social and ethical issues. Furthermore, this article aims to highlight the paucity of COVID-19 data and clinical trials in this region and the lack of child participants in ongoing studies. Lastly, approaches and interventions to mitigate the pandemic’s impact on child health outcomes are discussed.
Duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding in children with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and synthesis of data

AUTHOR(S)
Cecilia L. H. Xu; Manjri Raval; Jesse A. Schnall (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are more likely to have mild or no symptoms compared with adults and may represent important vectors for transmitting the virus. Little is known about the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding in children with COVID-19. This study  performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for studies reporting real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) results in children with COVID-19, then extracted and synthesized data on duration of viral shedding from symptom onset in respiratory and gastrointestinal samples.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 249-256 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child diseases, child health, COVID-19
An analysis of child-care and school outbreak data and evidence-based recommendations for opening schools & keeping them open

AUTHOR(S)
Fiona Russell; Kathryn Snow; Margie Danchin (et al.)

Published: September 2020
This report is an analysis of the global literature and available Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) and school outbreak data, 25 January 2020 – 31 August 2020. It aims to explore the role of ECEC and schools in transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
Surveillance of COVID-19 school outbreaks, Germany, March to August 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Eveline Otte im Kampe; Ann-Sophie Lehfeld; Silke Buda (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Eurosurveillance
Mitigation of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Germany included school closures in early March 2020. After reopening in April, preventive measures were taken in schools. This paper analyses national surveillance system data on COVID-19 school outbreaks during different time periods. After reopening, smaller outbreaks (average: 2.2/week) occurred despite low incidence in the general population. School closures might have a detrimental effect on children and should be applied only cautiously and in combination with other measures.
COVID-19 pandemic: the impact on vulnerable children and young people in Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin Jones; Susan Woolfenden; Sandra Pengilly (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
This article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of children and young people (CYP) during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups were identified: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing financial hardship; within the child protection system; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP. Recommendations for action are required at the level of governments, health professionals and researchers and include enhancing access to health and social supports, prioritising vulnerable CYP in resuming health activity and elevating the voice of CYP in designing the response.
This
article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of CYP during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate
additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups
were identied: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing nancial hardship; within the child protection sys-
tem; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP.
A national consensus management pathway for paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS): results of a national Delphi process

AUTHOR(S)
Rachel Harwood; Benjamin Allin; Christine E. Jones (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) is a novel condition that was first reported in April, 2020. This study aims to develop a national consensus management pathway for the UK to provide guidance for clinicians caring for children with PIMS-TS.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, medical care | Countries: United Kingdom
COVID-19 and school return: The need and necessity

AUTHOR(S)
Cecily L. Betz

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This paper discusses children and youth safely returning to schools in the midst of this Pandemic and the roles and responsibilities of pediatric nurses in supporting their school return. As evidence accumulates to inform treatment and public health preventive practices, questions arise as to the current and long-term psychosocial concerns and risk factors affecting the health and wellbeing of children that are the indirect yet problematic effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Child health experts, educators and families themselves, are calling attention to the actual and potential consequences of the necessary preventive practices of social distancing and stay at home directives. 
Coronavirus disease (COVID) 2019 in children: a short review

AUTHOR(S)
Sham Balkisanji Lohiya; Sachin Damke; Richa Chaudhary

Published: September 2020   Journal: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a series of Cases of severe pneumonia worldwide. It originated in Wuhan in Hubei province, China. SARS-CoV-2 causes infection by ACE receptors, similar to SARS. It causes potential damage to vital organs, mainly the lungs. COVID- 19 mainly affects respiratory tract with symptoms ranging from upper respiratory tract infection like symptoms to full-blown ARDS. Although the pediatric age group is shown to be less susceptible to severe infection, they can very well act as an intermediate in the transmitter of the virus. Treatment is symp-tomatic for mild diseases, but severe disease and ARDS require ICU management and specific treatment.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 17 | No. of pages: 172-177 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, medical care, respiratory diseases
451 - 465 of 578

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.