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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 473
Intervention effect of long-term aerobic training on anxiety, depression, and sleep quality of middle school students with depression after COVID-19

Lin Luo; Naiqing Song; Hao Yang (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

This study aims to explore the effects of using RPE exercise intensity monitoring methods and 12-week mid- and low-intensity team aerobic training on anxiety, depression and sleep quality of depressed middle school students after the COVID-19 epidemic. All study participants were all from a boarding middle school in Chongqing, China. All study participants were screened by the self-rating depression scale and reached the diagnostic criteria for depression. The study subjects were divided into a control group (N = 35) and an exercise group (N = 34). The exercise group performed 30-min night aerobic running four times a week. Use the Borg 6–20 rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) as a monitoring tool for exercise intensity, and control the exercise intensity at RPE = 11–14. And the control group studied and lived normally. The experiment lasted 12 weeks in total. After the experiment, there were 34 people in the control group and 23 people in the exercise group. The subjects' anxiety, depression and Pittsburgh sleep quality were scored before and after the experiment.

Perceived stress among school students in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Gaza Strip, Palestine

Eqbal Radwan; Afnan Radwan; Walaa Radwan (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Augmented Human Research
The rapid outbreak of COVID-19 is a global health problem that has a significant effect on the educational systems. Therefore, students shifted to distance learning through the digital platform. Since COVID-19 has consequences on mental health, the present study examined the perceived stress level in school students in distance learning during the COVID-19 period. A cross-sectional study of a sample consisting of 385 school students evaluated the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and their concerns and emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Investigating the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on Italian children and adolescents with and without neurodevelopmental disorders: a cross-sectional study

Cristiano Termine; Linda Greta Dui; Laura Borzaga (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Psychology
This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the impact of social distancing and lifestyle changes that occurred during Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on children and adolescents with and without Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs). An online questionnaire was administered in order to investigate the effects of NDD condition, socio-demographic status, familiar/home environment and COVID-19 exposure on their lives during a two months period of social isolation. Logistic regression, focusing on five endpoints (remote learning, lifestyle, stress/anxiety, sociality, scolding) was used to define the extent of these effects. Most questions were paired up to parents and children, to verify the occurrence of agreement. 8305 questionnaires were analyzed, 1362 of which completed by NDDs and 6943 by controls.
COVID-19 and mental health in children and adolescents: a diagnostic panel to map psycho-social consequences in the pandemic context

Menno Baumann

Published: October 2021   Journal: Discover Mental Health
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, much research has been done on the psycho-social consequences, especially for children, adolescents and families. In the long run, there is a large set of quantitative data available. However, these still seem to be not well understood. Theoretical classifications of the evidence also diagnostic tools still seem to be open. This paper elaborates a possible systematisation based on theoretical models of systemic self-organisation theories. This leads to a model for a comprehensive psycho-social child-in-environment diagnostic to map potential problem areas. Such a theoretical framing should enable both: a deeper understanding of the impact of pandemics on young people and hypotheses for intervention strategies in the context of pandemic management as well as in the context of diagnostic-systemic interventions in psycho-social working settings.
Does COVID-19 infection have an impact on children’s psychological problems?

Gellan K. Ahmed; Khaled Elbeh; Hamdy M. Gomaa (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Middle East Current Psychiatry
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a significant impact on children, adolescents, and their families. So, the purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of children’s psychological problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and their association of COVID-19 infection in children and their risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 148 children aged 6–12 years old categorized into 2 groups based on COVID-19 infection history. Participants were assessed by the Socioeconomic Scale and the Checklist for Children’s Behavior (CBCL).
Perceived changes in lifestyle behaviours and in mental health and wellbeing of elementary school children during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Canada: lifestyles and mental health and wellbeing of children during the lockdown

Katerina Maximova; Mohammad KA. Khan; Julia Dabravolskaj (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Public Health
The closure of schools to prevent the spread of COVID-19 prompted concerns of deteriorating lifestyle behaviours, mental health and wellbeing of children, particularly those in socioeconomically disadvantaged settings. This study assessed changes in lifestyle behaviours (physical activity, screen time, eating habits and bed/wake-up times), mental health and wellbeing during the first lockdown in Spring 2020 as perceived by school children from disadvantaged settings, and examined determinants of these changes.
State of child and adolescent mental health during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and at the beginning of the 2020–2021 school year

Anna Gatell-Carbó; Elena Alcover-Bloch; Josep Vicent Balaguer-Martínez (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Anales de Pediatría

The aim of this project was to evaluate the psychopathological impact of home confinement and school closing between March and September 2020 on the mental health of Catalonian children. PEDSAME study: first cross-sectional section (beginning of the school year) and retrospective data (lockdown), carried out through the network of Primary Care pediatricians in the Catalan population between 5 and 14 years (included) from 09/14/2020 to 10/30/2020 in a random sample. Data were collected with an online survey through the RedCap platform at the beginning of the school year. The main variable was the result of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire answered by parents to assess the risk of psychopathology, in addition to other related variable.

Adolescent mental health, connectedness, and mode of school instruction during COVID-19

Marci F. Hertz; Greta Kilmer; Jorge Verlenden (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020, nearly 93% of US students engaged in some distance learning. These school disruptions may negatively influence adolescent mental health. Protective factors, like feeling connected to family or school may demonstrate a buffering effect, potentially moderating negative mental health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to test our hypothesis that mode of school instruction influences mental health and determine if school and family connectedness attenuates these relationships. The COVID Experiences Survey was administered online or via telephone October –November 2020 to adolescents ages 13-19 using NORC’s AmeriSpeak Panel, a probability-based panel recruited using random address-based sampling with mail and telephone non-response follow-up. The final sample included 567 adolescents in grades 7-12 who received virtual, in person, or combined instruction. Unadjusted and adjusted associations among four mental health outcomes and instruction mode were measured, and associations with school and family connectedness were explored for protective effects.

iCOPE with COVID-19: a brief telemental health intervention for children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Michelle S. Zepeda; Stephanie Deighton; Veronika Markova (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted unprecedented disruptions to the daily lives of children and adolescents worldwide, which has been associated with an increase of anxiety and depressive symptoms in youth. However, due to public health measures, in-person psychosocial care has been affected causing barriers to mental health care access. This study investigated the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of iCOPE with COVID-19, a brief telemental health intervention for children and adolescents to address anxiety symptoms. Sessions were provided exclusively using videoconferencing technology. Feasibility and acceptability were measured with client satisfaction data.
Symptoms of emotional difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention among children during the COVID-19 epidemic and associated lockdown: data from the SAPRIS project

C. Galéra; F. Moulin; M. Melchior (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Public Health

COVID-19 limitation strategies led to widespread school closures around the world. The present study aims to provide a description of children's mental health and associated factors during the COVID-19 school closure in France. It conducted a cross-sectional analysis in the SAPRIS study during the COVID-19 pandemic in France, relying on 2 ongoing national birth cohorts, ELFE and EPIPAGE 2. Using weighted multinomial logistic regression models, it estimated associations between children's mental health (i.e., hyperactivity/inattention and emotional symptoms; assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), children's health behaviors, schooling, as well as sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of children family.

Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly disrupted the daily lives of children and adolescents, with increased time at home, online learning and limited physical social interaction. This report seeks to understand the immediate effects on their mental health. Covering more than 130,000 children and adolescents across 22 countries, the evidence shows increased stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased alcohol and substance use, and  externalizing behavioural problems. Children and adolescents also reported positive coping strategies, resilience, social connectedness through digital media, more family time, and relief from academic stress. Factors such as demographics, relationships and pre-existing conditions are critical.  To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations.

The behavioural outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities as perceived by parents during the COVID-19 lockdown

Kathleen Franz; Michelle E. Kelly

Published: October 2021   Journal: Disabilities
The COVID-19 lockdown and closure of schools, clinics, and community-based services put children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other developmental disabilities (DDs) at increased risk of negative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate parents’ perceptions of their children’s behavioural outcomes during the COVID-19 lockdown, parents’ satisfaction with services during this time, and willingness to engage in telehealth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ireland. Parents (n = 89) completed an online questionnaire that included the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ-P). Results demonstrated that children with ASD/DDs were vulnerable to negative outcomes including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, problems with peers and fewer prosocial behaviors.
Parental stress provoked by short-term school closures during the second COVID-19 lockdown

Isabelle May; Sarah Awad; Matthias S. May (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
Governments of numerous countries implemented school closures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Several investigations have shown the negative impact of social-distancing policies and school closures on children worldwide. Recently, research also demonstrated adverse effects on adults’ well-being. The development of children is strongly affected by their parent’s emotional state. The present study aimed to examine parental stress levels caused by a short period of homeschooling in December 2020 in Germany. A structured survey was set up and distributed randomly via social media and parent associations. We observed a significant increase in stress and concerns. Family conflicts significantly increased, social isolation was feared, and powerlessness and helplessness ascended. Risk factors were parental education levels, parental working time, and teaching features like the frequency of feedback, correction, and accessibility.
Understanding changes to children's connection to nature during the COVID-19 pandemic and implications for child well-being

Samantha Friedman; Susan Imrie; Elian Fink (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: People and Nature

While psychological connection to nature is known to be associated with both pro-environmental behaviours and well-being, there is an urgent need to extend this research to consider impacts from the COVID-19 lockdown period. Examining whether children's connection to nature changed during this period, identifying the drivers of these changes and determining the links between connection to nature and child well-being can each serve to guide post-lockdown initiatives to promote children's connection to nature.

Children's resilience during Covid-19 confinement: a child's perspective–Which general and media coping strategies are useful?

Verolien Cauberghe; Steffi De Jans; Liselot Hudders (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Community Psychology
This study explored how children (9–13 years old) coped with the uncertain situation during the first Covid-19 confinement period (Spring 2020) and whether media helped them handle the situation. Based on a survey among 667 West-European (Belgian) children, we concluded that children used various strategies to cope with the situation. Seeking social support via social media and searching for distraction was applied by most children. Creating a comforting atmosphere was used by many, although not evaluated as an effective strategy. Whereas older children searched for Covid-19-related information, younger children indicated to avoid news media to regulate their emotions. The Covid-19 anxiety of parents in the confinement period impacted upon the general level of concerns of their children. The results offer policy recommendations on how to support children in handling the tensive Covid-19 situation, especially during lockdown periods.
16 - 30 of 473

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.