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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 473
Quality of life and mental health in children and adolescents during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic: results of a two-wave nationwide population-based study

Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer; Anne Kaman; Michael Erhart (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of children and adolescents worldwide. The German COPSY study is among the first population-based longitudinal studies to examine the mental health impact of the pandemic. The objective of the study was to assess changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental health in children and adolescents and to identify the associated risk and resource factors during the pandemic. A nationwide longitudinal survey was conducted with two waves during the pandemic (May/June 2020 and December 2020/January 2021). In total, n = 1923 children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years and their parents participated (retention rate from wave 1 to wave 2: 85%). The self-report and parent-proxy surveys assessed HRQoL (KIDSCREEN-10), mental health problems (SDQ with the subscales emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems), anxiety (SCARED), depressive symptoms (CES-DC, PHQ-2) and psychosomatic complaints (HBSC-SCL). Mixed model panel regression analyses were conducted to examine longitudinal changes in mental health and to identify risk and resource factors.

Children and adolescents with disabilities and exposure to disasters, terrorism, and the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review

Mana Mann; Julia E. McMillan; Ellen J. Silver (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Psychiatry Reports
This paper reviews the empirical literature on exposures to disaster or terrorism and their impacts on the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families since the last published update in 2017. It also reviews the literature on studies examining the mental health and functioning of children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Impact of work routines on parents’ and children’s sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Ramkumar Aishworiya; Michael Teik Chung Lima; Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Sleep Medicine

This paper aims to evaluate the effects of parental sleep and work arrangements on children’s sleep duration during the national lockdown period, referred to as ‘Circuit Breaker’ (CB), due to COVID-19. Cross-sectional, anonymous, online questionnaire to parents with school-going children aged between 3 to 16 years. Child and parental sleep duration in relation to change in parental work arrangements, housing type and number of individuals in the household as reported by parents were evaluated. Descriptive statistics and tests of comparison were used to evaluate data.

Temporal trends in suicide attempts among children in the decade before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Paris, France

Anthony Cousien; Eric Acquaviva; Solen Kernéis (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Recent studies have reported a deterioration in children’s mental health since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, with an increase in anxiety and mood disorders. Rates of suicide ideation and suicide attempts among children were also higher when COVID-19–related stressors were heightened in 2020. This study aimed to better assess temporal trends in suicide attempts among children while adjusting for annual and seasonal fluctuations. It conducted a cross-sectional study of surveillance data collected over the past 10 years at the Robert Debré Hospital in Paris, France, which is one of the largest pediatric centers in Europe.

Maternal psychological distress and children’s internalizing/externalizing problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: the moderating role played by hypermentalization

Federica Bianco; Annalisa Levante; Serena Petrocchi (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
In order to explore the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the caregiver–child relationship, this study investigated the interplay among COVID-19 exposure and children’s internalizing/externalizing problems during the Italian lockdown, hypothesizing a mediation effect played by maternal distress. Additionally, it included maternal reflective functioning (i.e., hypermentalization) as a moderator factor among this interplay. A total of 305 Italian mothers of children aged 6–13 years (M = 10.3; SD = 2.4) filled in an online survey. Findings revealed an indirect effect of maternal COVID-19 exposure on children’s anxious/depressed (k2 = 0.46) and attention problems (k2 = 0.32) via maternal distress.
Young people’s mental health is finally getting the attention it needs
Published: October 2021   Journal: Nature

Worldwide, at least 13% of people between the ages of 10 and 19 live with a diagnosed mental-health disorder, according to the latest State of the World’s Children report, published this week by the United Nations children’s charity UNICEF. It’s the first time in the organization’s history that this flagship report has tackled the challenges in and opportunities for preventing and treating mental-health problems among young people. It reveals that adolescent mental health is highly complex, understudied — and underfunded. These findings are echoed in a parallel collection of review articles published this week in a number of Springer Nature journals. Anxiety and depression constitute more than 40% of mental-health disorders among young people (those aged 10–19). UNICEF also reports that, worldwide, suicide is the fourth most-common cause of death (after road injuries, tuberculosis and interpersonal violence) among adolescents (aged 15–19). In eastern Europe and central Asia, suicide is the leading cause of death for young people in that age group — and it’s the second-highest cause in western Europe and North America.

An investigation of anxiety and depression among Chinese primary school students after the resumption of school post-COVID-19

Yiqing He; Yuanrong Li

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies
This study used the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and 9 Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to investigate the anxiety and depression of 1366 primary school students in Shenzhen after the resumption of school. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, many parents began wondering whether months of isolation, a lack of organized school education, and potential loss of relatives would have a long-term impact on their children’s mental health. The results of this study indicate that the rates of anxiety and depression among primary school students are indeed higher than before COVID-19, including the detection rate of anxiety and depression comorbidity, which has reached 11.7%.
In the face of a pandemic: adapting a mentalization-focused treatment that promotes attachment with birth parents and young children in foster care

Phyllis Cohen; Kate Hariton; Ashley Rodriguez

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Child Psychotherapy
The central focus of the Building Blocks Program is to increase the mentalizing capacity of high-risk birth mothers whose young children under the age of five have been placed in foster care. In Building Blocks, therapists are trained to provide dyadic psychotherapy with a birth mother and her child during court-mandated supervised visits, with the aim of reducing cycles of trauma, abuse and neglect, and facilitating a more secure attachment. The program is psychoanalytically informed, grounded in theories of attachment, mentalization and reflective functioning. On March 14, 2020, due to the rapidly spreading coronavirus, it became clear that the birth parents could no longer safely visit with their children in person. In addition, court hearings that might have allowed the retention of parental rights were postponed, leaving many parents devastated. This paper first describes how the Building Blocks approach has been adapted during the pandemic. Second, two case examples are presented that highlight the pre-pandemic work of Building Blocks, as well as the innovative and creative ways the treatment model was adapted when it became unsafe to conduct dyadic therapy at the clinic. Using virtual video platforms, the Building Blocks Program has applied the model of ‘Nested Mentalization,’ providing support and scaffolding for the therapists, parents and children.
The impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents of children with externalising difficulties in Ireland: a longitudinal cohort study

Anna Berry; Tom Burke; Alan Carr

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Clinical Practice

This longitudinal cohort study aimed to examine the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ireland on parents of children with externalising difficulties, in comparison to parents of children without such difficulties. Parents of 159 children completed online self-report measures at three time points during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic; (a) Delay and Mitigation Phase (March 2020 to May 2020), (b) Reopening of Society Phase (June 2020 to July 2020) and (c) Wave 2 Case Acceleration Phase (September 2020 to October 2020). Participants were allocated to the clinical group if they met the clinical cut off point on the Conduct or Hyperactivity/Inattention subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at Time 1.

Experiences of children (ages 6–12) during COVID-19 pandemic from mothers' perspectives

Rabiye Akın Işık; Nebahat Bora Güneş; Yunus Kaya

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of child and adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

This study evaluated the experiences of children between ages 6 and 12 based on their mothers' perspectives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ten mothers living in Ankara, Turkey with children in the aforementioned age range, participated in this study. Data were collected through focus group interview with a qualitative phenomenological approach followed by thematic data analysis. Three categories were obtained relating to the pandemic, including negative effects, positive effects, and the resultant needs and expectations of parents.

‘We are unlikely to return to the same world, and I do not want it to destroy my future’: young people's worries through the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic

Ragnhild Bjørknes; Gro Mjeldheim Sandal; Silje Mæland (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
This study aims to explore what worries youth were having during the seventh to ninth week of the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings build on the responses to an open-ended survey question from 1314 youths. The worries covered three main themes: ‘That my mom dies, then I am left all alone’: worries related to COVID-19 virus infection; ‘To me, this is lost youth’: worries about the consequences of measures for the present life and near future; and ‘I will face a very difficult life in the future’: worries about the consequences of measures for the outlook on life. Young people worried that the measures would have a huge impact on their present life and outlook on life. The costs of restriction measures were unevenly distributed and indicated that the measures affected their mental health. Listening to youth voices during the pandemic is important for practitioners, educators and policymakers.
Association of children’s physical activity and screen time with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

Pooja S. Tandon; Chuan Zhou; Ashleigh M. Johnson

Published: October 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Children’s physical activity and screen time are likely suboptimal during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may influence their current and future mental health. To describe the association of physical activity and screen time with mental health among US children during the pandemic. This cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 22 to November 2, 2020, among 547 parents of children aged 6 to 10 years and 535 parent-child dyads with children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) aged 11 to 17 years and matched down to 500 children per cohort using US Census–based sampling frames. Children aged 11 to 17 years self-reported physical activity, screen time, and mental health, and their parents reported other measures. Parents of children aged 6 to 10 years reported all measures. All 1000 cases were further weighted to a sampling frame corresponding to US parents with children aged 6 to 17 years using propensity scores.

Prevalence and impact of the use of electronic gadgets on the health of children in secondary schools in Bangladesh: a cross‐sectional study

S. M. Mahbubur Rashid; Jannatul Mawah; Ema Banik (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Health Science Reports

Use of technological gadgets has rapidly been increasing among adolescents, which may result in health issues and technology addiction. This study focuses on the prevalence of usage of technological gadgets and health-related complications among secondary school-going children of Bangladesh. A total of 1803 secondary school students from 21 different districts of Bangladesh participated in the study. The children were asked questions relating to their access to electronic gadgets, time spent on outdoor activities, and whether they experienced any health-complications as an after-effect of the usage. A binary logistic regression model was adapted considering time spent on gadgets as an independent variable and health problems (physical and mental) as the dependent variable.

The mediating role of COVID-19-related burden in the association between adverse childhood experiences and emotional exhaustion: results of the egePan – VOICE study

Vera Clemensa; Petra Beschoner; Marc N. Jarczok (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk for mental health problems. However, there is a lack of data targeting the role of ACEs for one of the most prevalent mental health problems in health-care professionals: burnout. We aimed to assess the relationship between ACEs and the core burnout dimension ‘emotional exhaustion’ (EE). As health-care professionals have been facing particular challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, we furthermore aimed to assess the role of COVID-19 associated burden in the interplay between ACEs and EE. During the first lockdown in Germany, a total of 2500 medical healthcare professionals were questioned in a cross-sectional online survey. Questions targeted, among others, sociodemographics, ACEs, COVID-19-associated problems (e.g. increase of workload, worries about relatives and patients) and emotional exhaustion, measured by the respective dimension of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).

What did COVID-19 change? The impact of COVID-19 on Korean parents’ and children’s daily lives and stress

Joo-hyang Park; Ji-young Park; Kyong-sun Jin

Published: October 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 outbreak has not only posed a threat to physical health but has also changed our daily lives. This study explored how the COVID-19 pandemic affected Korean parents’ and children’s daily lives and stress levels. Parents’ childcare time, children’s screen time, the time spent for social interactions and learning, and parents’ and children’s stress levels before and after the pandemic were compared. The main caregivers’ childcare time increased significantly during the pandemic (4.00 h/day). For children, the time spent for screen time (1.76 h) and online interactions (0.95 h) increased significantly, whereas face-to-face interaction time (4.17 h) and time spent learning (2.16 h) decreased significantly.
31 - 45 of 473

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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