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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
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31 - 45 of 663
Mood, emotions, and behaviors of children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Autonomous City of Buenos Aires

Laura Cohen Arazi; Mariela García; Débora Berdecio Salvatierra (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Archivos argentinos de pediatría

Changes in daily routine and social fabric resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic had an effect on children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to know the mood, emotions, and behaviors of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown. This was a prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Parents and/ or caregivers of children and adolescents aged 3-15 years in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires were asked about their perceptions of the mood, behaviors, and emotions of children and adolescents during the lockdown.

Have girls been left behind during the COVID-19 pandemic? Gender differences in pandemic effects on children’s mental wellbeing

Silvia Mendolia; Agne Suziedelyte; Anna Zhu

Published: April 2022   Journal: Economics Letters
Using data from the UK, we show that girls have been affected more than boys by the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of their mental wellbeing. These gender differences are more pronounced in lower-income families. Our results are consistent with previous findings of larger pandemic effects on mental health of women.
Mental health of children and adolescents with pre-existing psychiatric and developmental disorders during the first pandemic-related lockdown: a cross-sectional study in Greece

K. Magklara; I. Giannopoulou; K. Kotsis (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Research Communications
Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised about the effects of the pandemic on youth with pre-existing mental health disorders. The present study aimed to explore change in emotional and behavioral symptoms (mood states) and daily behaviors during the lockdown in a clinical sample of children and adolescents in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, using the CoRonavIrus Health Impact Survey (CRISIS) Questionnaire, was completed by 738 parents of children and adolescents aged 2–18 years attending 12 outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) across four geographical regions in Greece.
Emotional and behavioural changes in children and adolescents and their association with parental depression during COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot study in Bangladesh

S. E. Syed; N. M. Khan; H. U. Ahmed

Published: March 2022   Journal: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental health of children, adolescents, and their parents. This study aimed to assess the emotional and behavioural changes in children and adolescents and their association with parental depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. On 7 May 2020 during COVID-19 lockdown, an online questionnaire was distributed through social media and made available for 10 days. Data were collected from parents of children aged 4 to 17 years. The Bangla version of the parent-rated version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to determine the behavioural and emotional disturbances of the children and adolescents. The Bangla version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess the depression status of parents.
Anxiety in paediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and the affecting factors

Abdullah Solmaz; Hülya Karataş; Tuğba Meliha Fatma Ercan (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Children may be greatly affected by events that increase stress in individuals in general and are reported as the vulnerable groups during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. But most of the studies in the literature investigating the mental effects of the pandemic on children were conducted with healthy children and limited study has evaluated the effect on children diagnosed with COVID-19. The aim of this study is to determine the anxiety level in paediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and the affecting factors. This descriptive study was conducted with 292 children aged 8–18 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19. Data were collected using the Descriptive Characteristics Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Interviews were held by phone.

Depression among schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9–17 years during the outbreak of COVID‑19 in Beijing: a cross-sectional online survey

Fuyuan Wen; Yi Meng; Kuo Liu (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
The COVID-19 outbreak and related confinement have highly impacted psychological health among children and adolescents. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for depression among primary and middle school students and provide advices for psychological interventions during the outbreaks. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 18 primary and middle school students via quota sampling in Beijing during March 2020. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression. Differences between characteristics and depression were examined by chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to reveal the potential risk factors for depression. A total of 7377 participants were included.
Self-isolation and adolescents’ friendship quality: moderation of technology use for friendship maintenance a review

Michelle F. Wright; Sebastian Wachs

Published: March 2022   Journal: Youth & Society
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the moderating effect of technology use for friendship maintenance in the associations between self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and friendship quality, measured 6 months later (Time 2). Participants were 1,567 seventh and eighth graders (51% female; 51% white; Mage = 13.47) from the United States. They completed questionnaires on friendship quality at Time 1, and self-isolation during COVID-19 and technology use for friendship maintenance and friendship quality at Time 2.
Effects of COVID-19 mental health interventions among children, adolescents, and adults not quarantined or undergoing treatment due to COVID-19 infection: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

Olivia Bonardi; Yutong Wang; Kexin Li (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

This study aimed to assess the effects of mental health interventions for children, adolescents, and adults not quarantined or undergoing treatment due to COVID-19 infection. It searched 9 databases (2 Chinese-language) from December 31, 2019, to March 22, 2021. It included randomised controlled trials of interventions to address COVID-19 mental health challenges among people not hospitalised or quarantined due to COVID-19 infection. It synthesized results descriptively due to substantial heterogeneity of populations and interventions and risk of bias concerns.

Parental factors that confer risk and resilience for remote learning outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic among children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Melanie R. Silverman; Jill Stadterman; Danny Lorenzi (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of attention disorders

This study aims to test whether parental factors including internalizing symptoms, parenting style, and confidence in assisting with remote learning conferred risk/resilience for children with/without ADHD's learning and emotional outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. 291 parents of children (ages 6-13; n = 180 males) with (n = 148) and without ADHD completed questionnaires online (April-July 2020).

Risks of digital screen time and recommendations for mitigating adverse outcomes in children and adolescents

Shahina Pardhan; John Parkin; Mike Trott (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented move to emergency remote learning around the world, leading to increased digital screen time for children and adolescents. This review highlights the potential risk of increased screen time to the eye and general health and makes recommendations to mitigate the risks posed. A narrative review of evidence of increased digital time during the COVID-19 pandemic, the risks linked to increased screen time and offer possible steps to mitigate these in students.

Children's perspectives on friendships and socialization during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative approach

Danaë Larivière-Bastien; Olivier Aubuchon; Aurélie Blondin (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Child

Good quality friendships and relationships are critical to the development of social competence and are associated with quality of life and mental health in childhood and adolescence. Through social distancing and isolation restrictions, the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the way in which youth socialize and communicate with friends, peers, teachers and family on a daily basis. In order to understand children's social functioning during the pandemic, it is essential to gather information on their experiences and perceptions concerning the social changes unique to this period. The objective of this study was to document children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their social life and friendships during the COVID-19 pandemic, through qualitative interviews. Participants (N = 67, 5–14 years) were recruited in May and June 2020. Semi-structured interviews were conducted via a videoconferencing platform. A thematic qualitative analysis was conducted based on the transcribed and coded interviews (NVivo).

Disruptions, adjustments and hopes: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child well-being in five Majority World Countries

Sadiyya Haffejee; Panos Vostanis; Michelle O'Reilly (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Children & Society

Drawing on integrated data from focus groups and diary entries, we explored the impact of the COVID- 19 pandemic on child well- being for children from five Majority World Countries. We focus on the disruptions the pandemic caused, the adjustments made in response to these, and children's vision of a post- pandemic world. Underlying children's experiences of loss, boredom and concerns about educational progress, was an awareness of systemic inequalities that disadvantaged them or oth-ers in their community.

Identifying vulnerable children’s stress levels and coping measures during COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: a mixed method study

Hajime Takeuchi; Sharanya Napier-Raman; Osamagbe Asemota (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected vulnerable children and youth. In Japan, despite evidence that the paediatric age group holds a lower risk of infection than the older population, there was a nationwide closure of schools as an early public health measure. Acknowledging that school closures brought heightened psychological and physical stress among Japanese children, we aimed to explore vulnerable children’s experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, focusing on socially disadvantaged subset of the population. This study used an adapted version of the ‘Perceived Stress Scale for Children’, with additional free-text space, delivered online to children attending three non-profit organisations which provide support for this group of vulnerable persons and families experiencing social disadvantage. Simple descriptive analysis was undertaken on the quantitative data; we used thematic and content analysis for the qualitative data.

The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental wellbeing in children with a chronic condition compared to healthy peers

Johanna W. Hoefnagels; Annelieke B. Schoen; Sabine E. I. van der Laan (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental wellbeing of children 8–18 years old with chronic conditions, by comparing pandemic data with pre-pandemic data and with healthy peers. Data were obtained from two ongoing longitudinal cohorts: the PROactive cohort study following children with a chronic condition, and the WHISTLER population cohort. Mental wellbeing was assessed by three indicators: life satisfaction, internalising symptoms, and psychosomatic health. The stringency of the COVID-19-related lockdown was considered a moderating factor. Data on chronic patients were recorded before (n = 934, 65% girls) and during (n = 503, 61% girls) the pandemic, and compared to healthy peers during the pandemic (n = 166, 61% girls).
Implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents: cognitive and emotional representations

Alexandra Maftei; Ioan-Alex Merlici; Iulia-Cristina Roca (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Children
The present research investigated children and adolescents’ explicit and spontaneous representation of the COVID-19 pandemic and their related emotions, cognitions, and coping strategies. It explored the self-reported protective factors and coping mechanisms, in addition to similar attributional emotional experiences, i.e., the ways participants evaluated others’ pandemic experiences. The sample consisted of 155 children and adolescents aged 10 to 13 (M = 10.70, SD = 0.85, 56.1% females). A 12-item survey was designed and data were analyzedusing both qualitative and quantitative methods.
31 - 45 of 663

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.

The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.