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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 545
Associations between parent–child relationship, and children’s externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and lifestyle behaviors in China during the COVID-19 epidemic

Fanxing Du; Li He; Mark R. Francis (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
This study aimed to investigate associations between parent–child relationships, children’s externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and lifestyle responses to the COVID-19 epidemic, and it conducted an online survey of a random, representative sample of residents with children aged 3–17 years during mid-March 2020 in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. A total of 1655 parents and children were surveyed with a response rate of 80.1% in the survey.
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic containment measures on families and children with moderate and high-functioning ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder)

Margarita Saliverou; Maria Georgiadi; Dimitra Maria Tomprou (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Education Sciences
The present study focuses on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) transmission prevention measures and, in particular, home confinement of families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Greece. It is assumed that the implemented new measures during the pandemic constitute a profound change for children on the spectrum, considering that the core ASD symptoms include the persistence and adherence to routine and stability, a condition that also directly affects the children’s parents. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted. Participants were 10 caregivers with a child diagnosed with ASD of medium or high functioning in Greece. The ages of the children range from 6.5 to 15 years old.
Risk and protective factors of quality of life for children with autism spectrum disorder and their families during the COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian study

Maria Grazia Logrieco; Laura Casula; Giuseppe Niccolò Ciuffreda (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

The lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has been a difficult period for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and their families. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of the quality of life (QoL) of children with ASD and their parents throughout the first lockdown, providing a snapshot of the impact of the pandemic on these families life. A cohort of 243 parents of children with ASD (2–15 years old) completed an original online survey regarding the modification of ASD cores symptoms during lockdown, the type of interventions they had done before and during lockdown and the activities performed by the child. Respondents filled the PedsQL for themselves and their children.

Child suicide rates during the COVID-19 pandemic in England

David Odd; Tom Williams; Louis Appleby (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports

There is concern about the impact of COVID-19, and the control measures to prevent the spread, on children's mental health. The aim of this work was to identify if there had been a rise of childhood suicide during the COVID pandemic. Using data from England's National Child Mortality Database (NCMD) the characteristics and rates of children dying of suicide between April and December 2020 were compared with those in 2019. In a subset (1st January to 17th May 2020) further characteristics and possible contributing factors were obtained.

Covid-19 pandemic and its impact on increasing the risks of children’s addiction to electronic games from a social work perspective.

Walaa Elsayed

Published: December 2021   Journal: Heliyon
Children are among the social groups most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic because they have found themselves forced to stay at home, far from their schoolmates, their friends, and far from all the activities they used to do before the pandemic. so, it was their only refuge for recreation during their stay in Home is staying in front of the screens of tablets, smartphones, and computers to play electronic games for long hours, and there is no doubt that the sudden shift in the lifestyle of children during the Covid-19 pandemic had serious consequences and risks threatening their stability at all levels. In light of that, the current study aimed to determine the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on increasing the social, psychological, behavioral, and health risks of children's addiction to electronic games from a social work perspective. This study falls under the type of descriptive-analytical studies that are based on describing the reality of the problem under study. The study sample included 289 children in the age group 6 -17 years in the first grade to the twelfth grade at school.
The interaction between lockdown-specific conditions and family-specific variables explains the presence of child insomnia during COVID-19: a key response to the current debate

Royce Anders; Florian Lecuelle; Clément Perrin (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
It is still debated whether lockdown conditions in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) health crisis seriously affected children’s sleep. For young children, some studies identified more insomnia, while others only transient disturbances, or even no effect. Based on the premise of mother–child synchrony, a well-known dynamic established in child development research, this study hypothesized that principally, the children whose mothers perceived the lockdown as stressful and/or responded maladaptively, suffered sleep disturbances. The main objective of this study was to identify the family profiles, variables, and lockdown responses most linked to insomnia in young children. The sample consisted of 165 mothers, French vs. Swiss origin (accounting for different lockdown severities), of children 6 months to 5 years old. Validated sleep, stress, and behavior scales were used.
What about the baby? Infancy and parenting in the COVID-19 pandemic

Julie Ribaudo

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child
This article reviews the evolution of a newborn through the first year of life and the potential impacts of COVID-19 on the infant, parent, and the parent-infant relationship. Babies grow in the context of relationships, and the quality of those relationships affects the physiological and psychological organization of the baby. Precisely because each baby is a being with unique biology, temperament, and ways of experiencing, feeling, and learning, much is to be discovered and understood about them. The baby’s wordless communications require their parents to intuit, infer, hypothesize, and experiment as parents come to know the needs of their baby. As we walk alongside parents who struggle to come to know their infant – even as the infant is coming to know them – we are required to have conceptual knowledge of how a newborn becomes a fully awakened infant. Under typical conditions, the birth of a firstborn baby presents a caregiving challenge and developmental opportunity for the emerging parent. Environmental context can serve to support or interfere in the success of the adjustment. This paper will explore some theoretical underpinnings that contribute to infant and parent well-being and the possible impact of being born during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Counselling support for the mental health of children in Hong Kong’s international schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: parents’ perspectives

Mark G. Harrison; Chloe Ka Yi Tam; Susanna Siu-sze Yeung

Published: November 2021   Journal: Educational and Developmental Psychologist

This study investigated how school counsellors in international schools in Hong Kong supported the wellbeing of students and families during the period of school closure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of parents.Sixteen parents with children in eleven different international schools in Hong Kong were interviewed and the data were analysed thematically.

Lessons from COVID-19 and the practice of school psychology: opportunity for a changed landscape

Chelsea Hyde; Vicki McKenzie; Cheree Murrihy

Published: November 2021   Journal: Australian Psychologist

Due to the COVID pandemic psychologists have been required to rapidly adapt to a different type of service delivery to ensure safety of the public and maintain the provision of essential psychological services within schools. In response, telehealth or online counselling became the norm across much of Australia. Psychologists in school settings were required to move many traditional face-to-face psychological services online to continue to support the needs of school communities. This project aimed to identify changes made to the practice of school psychology during COVID, the efficacy of these changes and potential applications within the field post COVID. Registered psychologists working in school settings across Australia were invited to participate in an online survey. Fifty-six participants completed questions related to their school psychological practice during COVID, they also completed the Counsellor’s Crisis Self Efficacy Scale, rating their level of confidence to respond in a crisis.

A scoping review of the psychological and emotional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and young people

K. Jones; Sharon Mallon; Katy Schnitzler

Published: November 2021   Journal: Illness, Crisis & Loss

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in many changes to the lives of children and young people. This paper aims to explore the impact of the pandemic on the mental health of children and young people (ages 5–21). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was used to report the findings of this rapid review. Children and young people are potentially very vulnerable to the emotional impact of traumatic events that disrupt their daily lives. Key areas of concern include: Death Anxiety and Fear of Infection; lack of social interaction and loss of routine.

An analysis of admissions to a refugee child mental health unit in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

Hatice Ünver; Neşe Perdahlı Fiş

Published: November 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry

This study aims to examine the admissions to a refugee child outpatient mental health unit in the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare them with the pre-pandemic period. This retrospective observational study, planned through the hospital information system and patient files, included the 1-year number of outpatient unit admissions, sociodemographic, and clinical data. Before the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2019–February 2020), a total of 2322 patients (local and refugee) applied to the same unit, and 236 (10.1%) of these patients were refugees. Since the commencement of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey (March 2020–February 2021), 1209 patients applied, and 10.4% (n = 126) of them were refugees. While 19.66 ± 6.31 refugees applied per month in the pre-pandemic period, this number decreased to 10.50 ± 5.31 during the pandemic period (p = 0.01). During the pandemic period, there was a significant decrease in the number of female refugee patient admissions. In addition, while admissions for external disorders increased significantly during the pandemic period (x2 = 13.99, p = 0.001), admissions for internal disorders decreased significantly (x2 = 4.54, p = 0.03).

Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on family mental health in Canada: findings from a multi-round cross-sectional study

Kimberly C. Thomson; Emily Jenkins; Randip Gill (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Pandemic-related disruptions, including school, child care, and workplace closures, financial stressors, and relationship challenges, present unique risks to families’ mental health. We examined the mental health impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among parents with children <18 years old living at home over three study rounds in May 2020 (n = 618), September 2020 (n = 804), and January 2021 (n = 602). Data were collected using a cross-sectional online survey of adults living in Canada, nationally representative by age, gender, household income, and region. Chi-square tests and logistic regression compared outcomes between parents and the rest of the sample, among parent subgroups, and over time. Parents reported worsened mental health compared with before the pandemic, as well as not coping well, increased alcohol use, increased suicidal thoughts/feelings, worsened mental health among their children, and increases in both negative and positive parent–child interactions. Mental health challenges were more frequently reported among parents with pre-existing mental health conditions, disabilities, and financial/relationship stressors. Increased alcohol use was more frequently reported among younger parents and men. Sustained mental health challenges of parents throughout nearly a year of the pandemic suggest that intervention efforts to support family mental health may not be adequately meeting families’ needs.
Following the epidemic waves: child and youth mental health assessments in Ontario through multiple pandemic waves

Shannon L. Stewart; Aadhiya S. Vasudeva; Jocelyn N. Van Dyke (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Emerging studies across the globe are reporting the impact of COVID-19 and its related virus containment measures, such as school closures and social distancing, on the mental health presentations and service utilization of children and youth during the early stages of lockdowns in their respective countries. However, there remains a need for studies which examine the impact of COVID-19 on children and youth's mental health needs and service utilization across multiple waves of the pandemic. The present study used data from 35,162 interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health (ChYMH) assessments across 53 participating mental health agencies in Ontario, Canada, to assess the mental health presentations and referral trends of children and youth across the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the province.
Vulnerability pathways to mental health outcomes in children and parents during COVID-19

Jala Rizeq; Daphne J. Korczak; Katherine Tombeau Cost (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Current Psychology
This study examined pathways from pre-existing psychosocial and economic vulnerability to mental health difficulties and stress in families during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from two time points from a multi-cohort study initiated during the COVID-19 pandemic were used. Parents of children 6–18 years completed questionnaires on pre-COVID-19 socioeconomic and demographic factors in addition to material deprivation and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions, mental health, and family functioning. Youth 10 years and older also completed their own measures of mental health and stress. Using structural equation modelling, pathways from pre-existing vulnerability to material deprivation and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions, mental health, and family functioning, including reciprocal pathways, were estimated. Pre-existing psychosocial and economic vulnerability predicted higher material deprivation due to COVID-19 restrictions which in turn was associated with parent and child stress due to restrictions and mental health difficulties. The reciprocal effects between increased child and parent stress and greater mental health difficulties at Time 1 and 2 were significant. Reciprocal effects between parent and child mental health were also significant. Finally, family functioning at Time 2 was negatively impacted by child and parent mental health and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions at Time 1.
Change in Japanese children’s 24-hour movement guidelines and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

Kim Hyunshik; Ma Jiameng; Lee Sunkyoung (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Specialized guidelines are required for the health behaviors of vulnerable populations such as children. This is especially true during the COVID-19 pandemic, wherein major lifestyle changes have occurred, especially among young children. The present study aims to use longitudinal data to understand changes in the physical activity, screen time, sleep, and mental health of preschoolers in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to pre-pandemic period. Subjective and objective measures were used to assess the variables of interest longitudinally. It was found that physical activity, adherence to WHO-recommended screen time, and prosocial behaviors decreased significantly. On the other hand, sedentary time and hyperactivity increased. Our results are consistent with findings from other countries. The implications with respect to outdoor playtime, screen-time in the context of online learning during the pandemic, and the effects of parents’ mental health on preschool-aged children are discussed.
46 - 60 of 545

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.