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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 47
Enabling agricultural innovation systems to promote appropriate technologies and practices for farmers, rural youth and women during COVID-19
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will vary for different groups of rural population, with the highest impact expected to be on farmers and other vulnerable groups, especially women and youth. Targeted support is feasible only by activating a network of actors or organizations within agricultural innovation systems (AIS) and promoting customized technologies and practices suitable for location specific contexts. his brief illustrates the extensive repository of good practices and technologies provided by FAO as part of its online knowledge portals. These practices and technologies can be easily adopted to respond to the needs of the smallholders, rural youth and women affected by lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, improve their food security and create income-generating opportunities. They have been applied and tested on the ground and packaged for the benefit of various AIS actors.
School closure, COVID-19 and lunch programme: Unprecedented undernutrition crisis in low-middle income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Korapat Mayurasakorn; Bonggochpass Pinsawas; Pichanun Mongkolsucharitkul (et al.)

Published: July 2020   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Based on the current data indicating that children are less likely to be main vectors of SAR‐CoV‐2, This article argues that the benefits of school reopening and continuing education far outweigh the risks.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has affected nearly 70% of children and teenagers around the world due to school closure policies.
School closure is implemented widely in order to prevent viral transmission and its impact on the broader community, based on preliminary rec-
ommendations and evidence from inuenza. However, there is debate with regard to the effectiveness of school closures. Growing evidence sug-
gests that a childs SARS-CoV-2 infection is often mild or asymptomatic and that children may not be major SARS-CoV-2 transmitters; thus, it is
questionable if school closures prevent transmission signicantly. This question is important as a majority of children in low- and middle-income
countries depend on free school meals; unexpected long-term school closure may adversely impact nutrition and educational outcomes. Food
insecurity is expected to be higher during the pandemic. In this viewpoint, we argue for a more thorough exploration of potential adverse
impacts of school closures in low- and middle-income countries and recommend actions to ensure that the health and learning needs of vulnera-
ble populations are met in this time of crisis.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 56 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 1013-1017 | Language: English | Topics: Education, Health | Tags: child education, child nutrition, school attendance, COVID-19 response, child protection measures | Countries: Thailand
"Everything has Changed": children’s reflections on the impact of COVID-19 in Afghanistan
Institution: Save the Children
Published: July 2020
Between 20-21 May, Save the Children undertook a remote scoping exercise to assess the sentiments of children aged 6-15 across seven provinces of the country. A total of 74 responses, including 32 boys and 42 girls, were collected via phone calls by Save the Children ’s Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning (MEAL) staff. The questions posed to the children were open-ended, simply asking about what they knew about COVID-19 and how it has impacted their lives and those of their families and communities. This approach was employed in order to better ensure objective responses/reflections from children.
Lives upended: how COVID-19 threatens the futures of 600 million South Asian children

AUTHOR(S)
Simon Ingram

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: June 2020

The lives and futures of children across South Asia are being torn apart by the Covid-19 crisis. While they may be less susceptible to the virus itself, children are being profoundly affected by the fallout, including the economic and social consequences of the lockdown and other measures taken to counter the pandemic. Decades of progress on children’s health, education and other priorities risk being wiped out. Yet the crisis has also presented opportunities to expose and tackle some of the longstanding challenges facing children in the region, especially those from the most vulnerable communities. With the pandemic expanding rapidly across a region that contains a quarter of the world’s population, UNICEF's Lives Upended report describes the disastrous immediate and longer-term consequences that the virus and the measures to curb it have had on 600 million children and the services they depend on.

The impact of COVID-19 on food security and nutrition
Institution: United Nations
Published: June 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic is a health and human crisis threatening the food security and nutrition of millions of people around the world, and children among them. Hundreds of millions of people were already suffering from hunger and malnutrition before the virus hit and, unless immediate action is taken, we could see a global food emergency. In the longer term, the combined effects of COVID-19 itself, as well as corresponding mitigation measures and the emerging global recession could, without large-scale coordinated action, disrupt the functioning of food systems. Such disruption can result in consequences for health and nutrition of a severity and scale unseen for more than half a century.
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Yemen 5 years on: Children, Conflict and COVID-19
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: June 2020 UNICEF Publication
Millions of children in Yemen could be pushed to ‘the brink of starvation’ due to huge shortfalls in humanitarian aid funding amid the COVID-19 pandemic – according to a new UNICEF report marking more than five years since conflict escalated in the country. Yemen five years on: Children, conflict and COVID-19 warns that as Yemen’s devastated health system and infrastructure struggle to cope with coronavirus, the already dire situation for children is likely to deteriorate considerably.
Child poverty, food insecurity, and respiratory health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ian P Sinha; Alice R Lee; Davara Bennett (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: Lancet Respir Med
The eradication of poverty and hunger are the top sustainable development goals, adopted by UN Member States in 2015. Yet the World Food Programme estimates that, in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, acute food insecurity could double from 135 to 265 million people worldwide. In the absence of mitigating policies, poverty leading to food insecurity will damage the respiratory health of a generation of children.
Maintaining safety and service provision in human milk banking: a call to action in response to the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Shenker

Published: June 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
When a mother's own milk is not available, WHO recommends pasteurised donor human milk as the first alternative.  Human milk banks screen and recruit donors, and have wide-ranging precautions to ensure the safety of donor milk. Screened donor milk principally feeds babies of very low birthweight, protecting them from a range of complications, as well as babies with congenital anomalies or neurological conditions. The benefits of a human milk diet highlight the importance of providing these infants with donor milk for short periods—with appropriate use in the context of optimal support for lactation, such provision can support mothers to establish their milk supply without the need for supplementation with infant formula milk. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is presenting many challenges to human milk banks worldwide and highlights a range of vulnerabilities in service provision and emergency preparedness. 
Food system policy priorities and programmatic actions for healthy diets in the context of COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has created supply and demand shocks in the food systems, disproportionately affecting the poor and nutritionally vulnerable groups. A possible economic slowdown further compounds challenges faced by governments in tackling malnutrition in all its forms.This brief presents policy and programmatic actions adopted by countries and development partners to ensure that food and agriculture responses promote healthy diets and improve nutrition. Furthermore, this brief explains supply and demand measures, taken from recent worldwide good practices.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): addressing the impacts of COVID-19 in food crises

At the beginning of April, the 2020 edition of the Global Report on Food Crises was issued, presenting a stark warning for the future. In 2019 – prior to the COVID-19 pandemic – 135 million people experienced crisis and worse levels of acute food insecurity. A further 183 million were on the edge in stressed food security conditions – in other words, just one shock away from severe acute food insecurity. COVID-19-related restrictions risk pushing many more into crisis. As the pandemic progresses in food crisis contexts, food availability as well as food access could emerge as a serious concern – in both rural and urban areas.The Global COVID-19 Humanitarian Response Plan has been revised significantly upwards to reflect the increasingly urgent need to address non-health impacts of COVID-19. Of these needs, the food security sector represents the largest component, for a total of USD 1.6 billion. As part of this, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is seeking USD 350 million to ensure the provision of critical assistance where there are already high levels of need, while meeting new needs emerging from the effects of COVID-19.

Gendered impacts of COVID-19 and equitable policy responses in agriculture, food security and nutrition

AUTHOR(S)
Susan Kaaria; Erdgin Mane; Tacko Ndiaye (et al.)

This brief compiles evidence from current and previous epidemics to explore the socio-economic implications of the impact of the pandemic on food systems and rural economies, and how a gender-sensitive approach can help address key policy issues related to the functioning of food and agricultural systems and the special circumstances of rural women. It also provides concrete policy recommendations to mitigate the impacts of the pandemic on rural women and girls.
Breastfeeding of infants born to mothers with COVID-19: a rapid review

AUTHOR(S)
Nan Yang; Siyi Che; Jingyi Zhang (et al.)

Published: May 2020   Journal: Annals of Translational Medicine

In December 2019, a pneumonia caused by a previously unknown coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. During the subsequent weeks and months, the disease, later named COVID-19, spread rapidly nationwide and globally, and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Existing studies have confirmed that all people are susceptible to this novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Cases of COVID-19 among pregnant and lactating women have also been confirmed. Chinese guidelines recommend suspending breastfeeding if the mother is suspected or confirmed with COVID-19. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the USA have published recommendations for mothers with COVID-19 and their family members and healthcare providers on whether and how to start or continue breastfeeding. However, none of the above recommendations provide relevant supporting evidence. As existing recommendations on whether mothers with COVID-19 should continue breastfeeding are still conflicting. We aimed to conduct a rapid review of the mother-to-child transmission of COVID-19 during breastfeeding.

COVID-19 Risks to Children's Health and Nutrition
Institution: World Vision Int'l-USA
Published: May 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic is putting millions of children at heightened risk, and jeopardising their immediate and long-term health and well-being. As countries around the world battle to prevent, contain and respond to COVID-19, it is critical that their efforts reach those most vulnerable and ensure primary health care  is continued and accessible to all. All stakeholders must take proactive measures to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on children’s health and nutrition, and response efforts should consider vulnerable children’s needs and rights. Based on extensive experience working with children, families and communities in emergencies, including epidemics, World Vision outlines a number of recommendations for Governments, UN Agencies, Donors, NGOS, Private Sector, and Faith Leaders. 
Ensuring availability of food for child nutrition amidst the Covid–19 pandemic: challenges and way forward

AUTHOR(S)
Madhu Kumari Upadhyay; Somdatta Patra; Amir Maroof Khan

Published: April 2020   Journal: Indian Journal of Community Health
Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic spread in India is steeply rising. A 21-day lockdown has been imposed by the Government of India, to curtail its spread. This has impacted all walks of life, including the availability of food, and nutrition related services. This will impact nutritional status of children throughout India. The two major schemes, i.e. the Integrated Child Development Scheme and the Mid-day meal services scheme have also been affected leading to a risk of worsening of child nutrition. Some states have evolved their own strategies to mitigate the effect of lockdown during this crisis period. Here we discuss the challenges and way forward related to ensuring availability of food for child nutrition during this health crisis.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 32 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 251-254 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition, Child Protection | Tags: child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown | Countries: India
Investing in the early years during COVID-19
Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2020
Young children need comprehensive nurturing care which includes good health, adequate nutrition, early learning opportunities, responsive caregiving, and safety and security. Severe, lifelong impacts can result from deprivations during the early years if children do not have these critical inputs to ensure optimal child development. The World Bank’s Investing in the Early Years framework lays out three pillars to ensure children reach their full potential: i. Children are healthy and well-nourished, especially in the first 1,000 days ii. Children receive early stimulation and learning opportunities and iii. Children are nurtured and protected from stress. In the following three pages, we set out specific risks that children face under each of these pillars due to the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) crisis, together with response options, potential platforms and country examples. While health and nutrition are key elements of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) emergency response and are more likely to be addressed immediately, empowering parents to provide warm and responsive caregiving and ensuring safety and security of young children and early learning opportunities for young children is essential and risks falling through the cracks.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.