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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Changes in type 2 diabetes trends in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jessica A. Schmitt; Ambika P. Ashraf; David J. Becker (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

There is concern that the growing incidence of pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) may have been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. To examine whether trends in new-onset pediatric T2D—inclusive of patients requiring hospitalization and patients managed as outpatients—were impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to compare patient characteristics prior to and during COVID-19. A retrospective single-center medical record review was conducted in a hospital which cares for 90% of Alabama’s pediatric T2D patients. Patients with new-onset T2D referred from March 2017 to March 2021 were included. Counts of patients presenting per month (“monthly rates”) were computed. Linear regression models were estimated for the full sample and stratified by Medicaid and non-Medicaid insurance status. Patient characteristics prior to vs during COVID-19 were compared.

Risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality in hospitalized children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus: an observational retrospective cohort study

Eduardo A. Oliveira; Robert H. Mak; Enrico A. Colosimo (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Pediatric Diabetes

Diabetes has been recognized as a major comorbidity for COVID-19 severity in adults. This study aimed to characterize the clinical outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19-related death in a large cohort of hospitalized pediatric patients with diabetes. It performed an analysis of all pediatric patients with diabetes and COVID-19 registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated considering discharge as a competitive risk by using cumulative incidence function.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 23 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, diabetes, hospitalization, infectious disease, mortality rate, pandemic | Countries: Brazil
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on management of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

Abha Choudhary; Soumya Adhikari; Perrin C. White

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had widespread impacts on the lives of parents and children. This study determined how the pandemic affected Type 1 diabetes patients at a large urban pediatric teaching hospital. It compared patient characteristics, glycemic control, PHQ-9 depression screen, in person and virtual outpatient encounters, hospitalizations and continuous glucose monitor (CGM) utilization in approximately 1600 patients in 1 year periods preceding and following the local imposition of COVID-related restrictions on 3/15/2020 (“2019” and “2020” groups, respectively).

COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: glycemic control and side effects

Barbara Piccini; Benedetta Pessina; Francesco Pezzoli (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Pediatric diabetes

Two vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for minors aged 12 years and over. Currently, people with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are prioritized for vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate possible glycemic control modification, insulin dose adjustment and adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccination in young T1D individuals, users of different technology levels. 39 T1D individuals, who received a whole vaccination cycle of either Moderna or Pfizer- BioNTech vaccines, were enrolled, 24 of whom using advanced hybrid closed loop systems (AHCLs) and 15 using intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM). Symptoms after each dose and the following variables were considered: time in range 70-180 mg/dl (TIR), time in different glucose ranges, mean glucose levels, coefficient of variation (CV), total daily dose (TDD) and bolus proportion.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents of children with type 1 diabetes during Covid-19 pandemic

C. Carducci; N. Rapini; A. Deodati (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocial outcomes in children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and their parents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence PTSD in parents of children with T1D during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. In the period between March and May 2020 we submitted the “Impact of Event Scale – Revised” (IES-R) questionnaire to the parents of 34 children with Type 1 Diabetes, asking them to express their emotions about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

Predictors of mood, diabetes-specific and COVID-19-specific experiences among parents of early school-age children with type 1 diabetes during initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic

Christine H. Wang; Marisa E. Hilliard; Samantha A. Carreon (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Publishing Open Access? Your fees may be covered OA agreements Pediatric Diabetes
The current study explored pre-pandemic sociodemographics, medical characteristics, social/family support, and mood symptoms, and current COVID-19 experiences as predictors of mood, positive/negative diabetes-specific experiences, and COVID-19-specific distress among parents of children with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. It hypothesized that parents from marginalized backgrounds, youth with higher pre-pandemic A1c and no CGM use, parents with lower pre-pandemic social/family support and more pre-pandemic mood/anxiety symptoms, and those with more negative COVID-19 experiences would have more depressive symptoms, fewer positive and more negative diabetes-specific experiences, and more COVID-19-specific distress during the initial months of the pandemic.
Glycemic control among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt: a pilot study

Yasmine Ibrahim Elhenawy; Khadiga Yehia Eltonbary

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries

The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequences of lockdown significantly impacted glycemic control. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the pandemic and lockdown on glycemic control among Egyptian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Cross-sectional study conducted through an online questionnaire. The participants were patients with type 1 diabetes and/or their caregivers

Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and lifestyle changes in children and adolescents with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Hooi Peng Cheng; Jeanne Sze Lyn Wong; Nalini M. Selveindran (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Endocrine

Malaysia implemented nationwide lockdown from 18th March till 3rd May 2020 to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine the impact of the lockdown on glycaemic control and lifestyle changes in children and adolescents with type 1 (T1DM) and 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aged less than 18 years old. In this cross-sectional study, interviews and a standardised questionnaire comparing lifestyle changes before and during the lockdown were performed in follow-up clinic visits after the lockdown. Anthropometry measurements and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values were compared 3 months prior and after the lockdown.

CoVidentary: an online exercise training program to reduce sedentary behaviours in children with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Valeria Calcaterra; Dario Iafusco; Vittoria Carnevale Pellino (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology

This research explored the physical activity (PA) level and the variation in glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and during the lockdown. Then, it proposed an online training program supported by sport-science specialists. Parents of children with T1D (<18 years) filled out an online survey. Anthropometric characteristics, PA, play, sport and sedentary time and the medical related outcomes were recorded. An adapted online program “Covidentary” was proposed through full-training (FT) and active breaks (AB) modality.

Vaccination against COVID-19 infection: the need of evidence for diabetic and obese pregnant women

A. Lapolla; M. G. Dalfrà; S. Burlina

Published: June 2021   Journal: Acta Diabetologica

The recent availability of vaccines against COVID-19 has sparked national and international debate on the feasibility of administering them to pregnant and lactating women, given that these vaccines have not been tested to assess their safety and efficacy in such women. As concerns the risks of COVID-induced disease, published data show that pregnant women who develop COVID-19 have fewer symptoms than patients who are not pregnant, but they are more likely to need hospitalization in intensive care, and neonatal morbidity. Aim of the present perspective paper is to analyze the current literature regarding the use of the vaccine against COVID-19 infection, in terms of safety and protection, in high risk pregnant women as those affected by diabetes and obesity. Analysis of literature about vaccination against COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.

Effect of the COVID-19 quarantine on metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Hande Turan; Didem Kaya Güneş; Gürkan Tarçın (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición

Metabolic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on many factors such as eating habits, exercise and lifestyle. The objective of this study was to investigate how these factors were affected during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown and impacted metabolic control in children with T1D. One hundred children with T1D were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric measurements, snack and meal frequency, carbohydrate consumption, HbA1c levels, and exercise patterns were recorded and compared before and after the lockdown. Subjects were divided into two subgroups — patients with decreased and patients with increased HbA1c levels after the lockdown — and comparisons of the same parameters were also made between these two subgroups.

Effect of Covid-19 quarantine on diabetes care in children

Miriannette Gayoso; Whei Ying Lim; Madhuri S. Mulekar (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and state-mandated school closures in the spring of 2020, the management of type 1 diabetes in children underwent significant changes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of stay-at-home orders on glycemic control in children. This study is a retrospective review of 238 children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes who were seen in the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic at the University of South Alabama. Average Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) levels in the year prior to stay-at home orders (May 2019–April 2020) were compared with A1c values during the quarantine period (May 2020–July 2020) using a paired t-test. It also analyzed the change of A1c level with respect to sex, race, type of diabetes, type of insurance, and mode of insulin administration, using a 2-sample t-test.

Care of pediatric patients with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Colleen Buggs-Saxton

Published: May 2021   Journal: Pediatric Clinics of North America
This  article  summarizes  clinical  observations  and  management  strategies  in  pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Despite initial fears that children with diabetes would, similar to adults with diabetes, be at risk for severe COVID-19, the majority  of  pediatric  patients  with  a  history  of  type  1  diabetes  (T1D)  who  developed COVID-19 had  mild  disease  or  were  asymptomatic  similar  to  their  peers  without diabetes.  Studies found that pediatric patients with new-onset diabetes often presented with more severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in part due to both parental anxiety with seeking emergency medical care and systemic barriers to accessing health care during a pandemic.  The article also summarizes the use of telemedicine to provide ongoing care for  pediatric  patients  with  T1D  during  the  COVID-19  pandemic.    Finally,  the  article highlights  important  lessons  learned  about  management  of  pediatric  diabetes  during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 19 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, diabetes, health care, health services
Telemedicine in the COVID-19 era: taking care of children with obesity and diabetes mellitus

Giuseppina Rosaria Umano; Anna Di Sessa; Stefano Guarino (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: World Journal of Diabetes
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was declared a pandemic in January 2020. Since then, several measures to limit virus transmission have been imposed; among them, home confinement has been the most severe, with drastic changes in the daily routines of the general population. The “stay at home” rule has impaired healthcare service access, and patients with chronic conditions were the most exposed to the negative effects of this limitation. There is strong evidence of the worsening of obesity and diabetes mellitus in children during this period. To overcome these issues, healthcare providers have changed their clinical practice to ensure follow-up visits and medical consultation though the use of telemedicine. Telemedicine, including telephone calls, videocalls, data platforms of shared telemedicine data platforms mitigated the negative effect of pandemic restrictions. Published evidence has documented good metabolic control and weight management outcomes in centers that performed extensive telemedicine services last year during the pandemic. This review discusses studies that investigated the use of telemedicine tools for the management of pediatric obesity and diabetes.
Youth with type 1 diabetes experienced a higher level of anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to healthy control: a cross-sectional study

Caroline Wade; Leah Akinseye; Tachele Anderson (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Diabetes is highly associated with depression and anxiety. With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the prevalence of mental health issues in the general population appears to be increasing rapidly. Thus this article evaluated psychological heath in pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and caregivers during the lockdown phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Its objective was to compare the levels of depression and anxiety in youth with T1D and their caregivers to those of healthy controls.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 5 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 123–130 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child mental health, COVID-19 response, diabetes, lockdown, mental stress, psychological distress
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.