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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Covid-19 vaccine in prison: a not-to-be-missed opportunity to promote access to vaccination in adolescents.

Sara Mazzilli; Babak Moazen; Heino Stover (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMJ
Covid-19 vaccination campaigns for adolescents have been taking place in many countries for some months. The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunisation have called for vaccine prioritisation within countries to take into account the needs of those groups that, due to underlying social, ethnic, geographic, or biomedical factors, are at greater risk of getting infected or suffering most severe consequences from covid-19. Since the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considerably higher in prisons and detention facilities than elsewhere, adolescents who are detained in juvenile institutions should be prioritised for vaccination.
Towards prevention of COVID‐19 among children in Ghana: parents’ views about children wearing nose masks in public gatherings

Fred Yao Gbagbo; Rosemary Quarcoo

Published: June 2022   Journal: Public Health in Practice

The authors examined parents’ views about children nose-masking in public gatherings in Ghana between January and May 2021. This is exploratory sequential mixed methods study comprising qualitative and quantitative components. Four hundred and thirty-nine parents were interviewed using author-developed structured questionnaires and interview guides in a public University in Ghana. Ten respondents in the company of at least three children and of high academic status were further interviewed in-depth to obtain some qualitative information on the research topic. All interviews were conducted in English. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 whiles qualitative data were analyzed thematically.

School health promotion in pandemic times. Results of the COVID-HL school principal study

Kevin Dadaczynski; Orkan Okan; Melanie Messer

Published: May 2022   Journal: Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz
Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, in welchem Ausmaß Schulen Maßnahmen der Gesundheitsförderung und Prävention während der COVID-19-Pandemie umsetzen. Von besonderem Interesse sind hierbei Unterschiede nach demografischen Variablen, Schulform, Bundesland und die Beteiligung an Landesinitiativen der Gesundheitsförderung.
Rightly blamed the ‘bad guy’? Grandparental childcare and COVID-19

Christina Boll; Till Nikolka

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Finance and Public Choice
This study explores the link between regular grandparental childcare and SARS-CoV-2 infection rates at the level of German counties. This analysis suggests that a region’s infection rates are shaped by region-, household- and individual-specific parameters. It extensively draws on the latter, exploring the intra- and extra-familial mechanisms fuelling individual contact frequency to test the potential role of regular grandparental childcare in explaining overall infection rates.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 37 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 23 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease prevention, disease transmission, family environment, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Germany
Breastfeeding/Breast milk safety in infants of mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection

Nursan Cinar; Ozge Karakaya Suzan; Sinem Ozturkler (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers in the lactation period can breastfeed their infants; and whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers can breastfeed their infants by taking some precautions. The study also aimed to present the measures that can be taken in line with the evidence. The studies conducted after November 2019 and including infants of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers were reviewed between 2019 and 2020. A literature review was conducted in five electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus) to reach original quantitative studies in English. The present authors retrieved 46 of the 1,229 studies included after screening. Three studies were cross-sectional studies, 30 were case studies, and 13 were cohorts.
Parental vaccine hesitancy and concerns regarding the COVID-19 virus

Teresa L. Salazar; Deborah L. Pollard; Deborah M. Pina-Thomas (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This study assessed parental vaccine hesitancy in a metropolitan area of the United States. The study aimed to determine what characteristics and contributing factors influenced parental vaccine hesitancy and concerns regarding COVID-19. An online survey was used to recruit 93 parents to answer demographic and vaccine hesitancy information. Vaccine hesitancy was measured using the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey. The study was conducted between June 2020 and September 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Treatment-seeking and uptake of malaria prevention strategies among pregnant women and caregivers of children under-five years during COVID-19 pandemic in rural communities in South West Uganda: a qualitative study

Ivan Mugisha Taremwa; Scholastic Ashaba; Rose Kyarisiima (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Despite efforts to avert the negative effects of malaria, there remain barriers to the uptake of prevention measures, and these have hindered its eradication. This study explored the factors that influence uptake of malaria prevention strategies among pregnant women and children under-five years and the impact of COVID-19 in a malaria endemic rural district in Uganda. This was a qualitative case study that used focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and key informant interviews involving pregnant women, caregivers of children under-five years, traditional birth attendants, village health teams, local leaders, and healthcare providers to explore malaria prevention uptake among pregnant women and children under-five years. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and data were analyzed using thematic content approach.

When do children avoid infection risks: lessons for schools during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nina H. Fefferman; Katy-Ann Blacker; Charles A. Price (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: iScience
The physical closing of schools due to COVID-19 has disrupted both student learning and family logistics. There is significant pressure for in-person learning to remain open for all children. However, as is expected with outbreaks of novel infections, vaccines and other pharmaceutical therapeutics may not be instantly available. This raises serious public health questions about the risks to children and society at large. The best protective measures for keeping young children in school focus on behaviors that limit transmission. It is therefore critical to understand how we can engage children in age-appropriate ways that will best support their ability to adhere to protocols effectively. This study aims to synthesize published studies with new results to investigate the earliest ages at which children form an understanding of infection risk and when they can translate that understanding effectively to protective action.
Reopening schools in a context of low COVID-19 contagion: consequences for teachers, students and their parents

Anna Godøy; Maja Weemes Grøtting; Rannveig Kaldager Hart

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Population Economics
Knowing how school reopenings affect the spread of COVID-19 is crucial when balancing children’s right to schooling with contagion management. This paper considers the effects on COVID-19 testing prevalence and the positive test rate of reopening Norwegian schools after a 6-week closure aimed at reducing contagion. It estimates the effects of school reopening on teachers, parents and students using an event study/difference-in-differences design that incorporates comparison groups with minimal exposure to in-person schooling.
Empowering parents to protect children during COVID-19 with message strategy based on efficacy, threat levels, and channel preferences

Sejin Park; Elizabeth Johnson Avery

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Health Communication

A national survey (n = 500) was administered in March 2020 at the peak of COVID-19 uncertainty to access parents’ perceived abilities to protect children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the threat/efficacy matrix in Witte’s (1992) extended parallel processing model (EPPM), parents’ behavioral intentions to protect children from coronavirus and their perceived COVID-19 knowledge levels are examined based on their positions within the matrix.

Using community–academic partnerships and a creative excpression contest to engage youth in the development of communication materials for promoting behaviors that prevent COVID-19

Jacob Szeszulski; Ghadir Helal Salsa; Paula Cuccaro (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Health Promotion Practice
Youth can transmit COVID-19 to adults, but few communication materials exist for engaging youth in COVID-19 prevention behaviors. This study describes the process of leveraging a community–academic partnership in a rapid response initiative to engage youth in a contest (i.e., Youth-Led Creative Expression Contest to Prevent COVID-19 across Texas) to develop creative public health messaging centered on the prevention of COVID-19 transmission and infection for their peers. Core activities included developing a request for applications that solicited submission of creative expression materials promoting the use of COVID-19 prevention behaviors (mask-wearing, social distancing, handwashing, not touching the face) from Texas youth in elementary, middle, and/or high school; sending the request for applications to 48 organizations in Austin, Brownsville, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, and San Antonio in summer 2020; and recruiting a youth advisory board to score submissions and award prizes.
COVID-19 pediatric vaccine hesitancy among racially diverse parents in the United States

Celia B. Fisher; Aaliyah Gray; Isabelle Sheck (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Vaccines
On 29 October 2021, the U.S. FDA authorized the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine for emergency use in children ages 5–11 years. Racial/ethnic minorities have born the greatest burden of pediatric COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. Research indicates high prevalence of parental vaccine hesitancy among the general population, underscoring the urgency of understanding how race/ethnicity may influence parents’ decision to vaccinate their children. Two weeks prior to FDA approval, 400 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian, Black, and White parents of children 5–10 years participated in an online survey assessing determinants of COVID-19 pediatric vaccine hesitancy. Compared to 31% Black, 45% Hispanic, and 25% White parents, 62% of Asian parents planned to vaccinate their child. Bivariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression demonstrated race/ethnicity, parental vaccine status, education, financial security, perceived childhood COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, vaccine safety and efficacy concerns, community support, and FDA and physician recommendations accounted for 70.3% of variance for vaccine hesitancy.
COVID-19 testing in schools: perspectives of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students in Southern California

Jennifer B. Unger; Daniel Soto; Ryan Lee (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Health Promot Practice

School-based COVID-19 testing is a potential strategy to facilitate the safe reopening of schools that have been closed due to the pandemic. This qualitative study assessed attitudes toward this strategy among four groups of stakeholders: school administrators, teachers, parents, and high school students. Focus groups and interviews were conducted in Los Angeles from December 2020 to January 2021 when schools were closed due to the high level of COVID transmission in the community.

Characteristics, contacts, and relative risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children during school closures

Jun Yi Sim; Ping-Sheng Wu; Ching-Feng Cheng (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection

Characteristics of children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Taiwanese households is nascent. This study sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 infection, and estimate the relative risk of infection among children within households during school closures in Taipei and New Taipei City. It reviewed consecutive children below 18 years presenting to our emergency department from May 18, 2021 to July 12, 2021 who underwent real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory swabs. Demographics, symptoms, and contacts were captured from medical records. Household contact was defined as an individual with confirmed COVID-19 living in the same residence as the child.

Weighing policymaking: a narrative review of school closures as Covid-19 pandemic-mitigation strategies

Raffaella Nenna; Hana Zeric; Laura Petrarca (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

In the era of data-driven decision-making, unacceptable haziness, and inconsistency surrounds the yearlong scientific and public debate on the school closure policy in the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic mitigation efforts. The present literature review stems out of the need for a clear scaffold collecting in one place all current evidence, as well as helping to organize incoming future evidence, concerning both the role of schools in driving the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) community spread and the cost-effectiveness of school closure in containing such spread. References for this review were initially identified through searches of PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for articles published from March 2020 to March 2021 by the use of key terms “Schools,” “COVID-19,” “pandemic,” “clusters,” “outbreak,” and “seroprevalence,” selecting all articles from 2020 to 2021 with full-text availability. A further search was undertaken by screening citations of articles found in the original search and through Google Scholar and ResearchGate.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.