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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 139
Exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric surgical services: a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Farah Yasmin; Muhammad D. Bin Zafar; Ariba Salman (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Minerva Pediatrics
Inevitably, along with other healthcare specializations, pediatric surgery was affected by the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Children were reported to manifest mild to moderate symptoms and mortality was primarily observed in patients aged <1 year and having underlying comorbidities. The majority of the cases were asymptomatic in children, hence, posing a challenge for pediatric surgery centers to take drastic measures to reduce the virus transmission. Telemedicine was introduced and outpatient consultations were conducted online as out-patient clinics were closed. Elective surgeries were postponed with delayed appointments while the healthcare sector was diverted towards tackling COVID-19. Case urgency was classified and triaged, leading to limited surgeries being performed only in COVID-19 negative patients following an extensive screening process.
School closures reduced social mixing of children during COVID-19 with implications for transmission risk and school reopening policies

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer R. Head; Kristin L. Andrejko; Qu Cheng (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of the Royal Society Interface
School closures may reduce the size of social networks among children, potentially limiting infectious disease transmission. To estimate the impact of K–12 closures and reopening policies on children's social interactions and COVID-19 incidence in California's Bay Area, this study collected data on children's social contacts and assessed implications for transmission using an individual-based model.
Characteristics and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 in children tested in the early phase of the pandemic: a cross-sectional study, Italy, 23 February to 24 May 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Marzia Lazzerini; Idanna Sforzi; Sandra Trapani (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Eurosurveillance

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected Italy as first country in Europe. The Italian government declared a state of emergency on 31 January 2020 and by 24 May 2020, a total of 229,858 cases of COVID-19 had been diagnosed across the country. From the very beginning of the pandemic, data suggested that children are less affected than adults by COVID-19. However, timely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is not only important for the single individual, it is crucial to prevent the spread of the pandemic. A better understanding of the predictors of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test results may facilitate timely case finding and contact tracing and thus contribute to control the pandemic. It may also improve organisation of care in settings where diagnostic facilities are available but still require a considerable processing time, where diagnostic facilities are lacking and where diagnosis, in the absence of other tools, may need to be based on clinical characteristics alone.

Cite this research | Vol.: 26 | Issue: 14 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, disease transmission, infectious disease, lockdown, school attendance, social distance | Countries: Italy
A systematic review of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their neonates

AUTHOR(S)
Mona Mirbeyk; Amene Saghazadeh; Nima Rezaei

Published: April 2021   Journal: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China, with an incredible contagion rate. However, the vertical transmission of COVID-19 is uncertain. This is a systematic review of published studies concerning pregnant women with confrmed COVID-19 and their neonates
Short-term developmental outcomes in neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 from Wuhan, China

AUTHOR(S)
Ling‑Kong Zeng; Hua‑Ping Zhu; Tian‑Tian Xiao (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: World Journal of Pediatrics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) is an emerging disease. The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in infants remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 have adverse brain development. This multicenter observational study was conducted at two designated maternal and children’s hospitals in Hubei Province, mainland China from February 1, 2020 to May 15, 2020. Neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were enrolled. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fndings, and volumes of grey and white matters, and physical growth parameters were observed at 44 weeks corrected gestational age.
Relationship between viral load, infection‐to‐delivery interval and mother‐to‐child transfer of anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 antibodies

AUTHOR(S)
L. C. Poon; B. W. Leung; T. Ma (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
This study aims to investigate the association between SARS‐CoV‐2 viral load and infection‐to‐delivery interval with maternal and cord sera anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 IgG antibody levels in pregnant women with active or recovered SARS‐CoV‐2 infection.
Effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic and lockdown on symptom control in preschool children with recurrent wheezing

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Ullmann; Annalisa Allegorico; Andrew Bush (et al.)

Published: April 2021
Preschool wheezers are at high risk of recurrent attacks triggered by respiratory viruses, sometimes exacerbated by exposure to allergens and pollution. Because of the COVID‐19 infection, the lockdown was introduced, but the effects on preschool wheezers are unknown. This study hypothesized that there would be an improvement in outcomes during the lockdown, and these would be lost when the lockdown was eased.
Implementation of preventive measures to prevent COVID-19: a national study of English primary schools in summer 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Neisha Sundaram; Chris Bonell; Shamez Ladhani (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Health Education Research
This study examined the feasibility of implementing preventive measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission across 105 English primary schools in summer 2020 via a survey and interviews with headteachers. High rates of implementation of most recommended measures were noted with the exception of requiring 2 m distance for students, fitting hand sanitizers in classrooms and introducing one-way systems in school corridors. Measures such as regular handwashing and stopping assemblies were considered easy to implement. Majorly challenging measures included distancing between individuals (for students: 51%, N ¼ 99; for staff: 34%; N ¼ 98; for parents: 26%, N ¼ 100), spacing out desks (34%, N ¼ 99), keeping same staff assigned to each student group (33%, N¼ 97) and staggering break times (25%, N¼ 99).
COVID-19 in children at Strasbourg University Hospital: a retrospective study of the first 2 months of the epidemic

AUTHOR(S)
O. Lavaine; J. Spizzo; C. Arbitre (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Archives de Pédiatrie

The emergence and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shaken the planet, both in terms of health and economical aspects, constituting a real challenge for the scientific community. At the time of the arrival of the epidemic in France, there were limited data regarding how COVID-19 could affect children. A lesser severity compared with adults was described, but knowledge concerning clinical forms and screening strategies was missing. This retrospective and non-interventional epidemiological study aimed to describe the epidemiology and the clinical features of COVID-19 pediatric disease in the first university hospital affected by the epidemic in France.

Were pregnant women more affected by COVID-19 in the second wave of the pandemic?

AUTHOR(S)
Suraj Kadiwar; Jonathan J. Smith; Stephane Ledot (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: The Lancet Journal
At the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there was justified concern that this disease might have similar effects on pregnant women as influenza or other coronavirus infections. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, influenza mortality in pregnant women in the USA was 4·3%. In global analyses, maternal deaths from severe acute respiratory syndrome or Middle East respiratory syndrome have been reported in 13% (n=24) and 40% (n=10) of published case reports, respectively. Reassuringly, US data from the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (from January to June, 2020) show that death from COVID-19 during pregnancy was low (0·19%) and consistent with that of non-pregnant women of childbearing age (0·25%). However, by September, 2020, findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of global data suggested that pregnancy is a significant risk factor for hospitalisation and more severe illness, with a critical care admission odds ratio for pregnant women with COVID-19 compared with infected women of childbearing age of 2·13 (95% CI 1·53–2·95) and an invasive ventilation odds ratio of 2·59 (2·28–2·94).
Post-COVID-19 pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome: association of ethnicity, key worker and socioeconomic status with risk and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Jonathan Broad; Julia Forman; James Brighouse (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Patients from ethnic minority groups and key workers are over-represented among adults hospitalised or dying from COVID-19. In this population based retrospective cohort, we describe the association of ethnicity, socioeconomic and family key worker status with incidence and severity of Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with SARSCoV-2 (PIMS-TS).
Effectiveness of isolation policies in schools: evidence from a mathematical model of influenza and COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Adam A. C. Burns; Alexander Gutfraind

Published: March 2021   Journal: Bioinformatics and Genomics
Non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing, school closures and travel restrictions are often implemented to control outbreaks of infectious diseases. For influenza in schools, the Center of Disease Control (CDC) recommends that febrile students remain isolated at home until they have been fever-free for at least one day and a related policy is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Other authors proposed using a school week of four or fewer days of in-person instruction for all students to reduce transmission. However, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of these interventions.
Early impact of school closure and social distancing for COVID-19 on the number of inpatients with childhood non-COVID-19 acute infections in Japan

AUTHOR(S)
Kenji Kishimoto; Seiko Bun; Jung-ho Shin (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Many countries have implemented school closures as part of social distancing measures intended to control the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to assess the early impact of nationwide school closure (March–May 2020) and social distancing for COVID-19 on the number of inpatients with major childhood infectious diseases in Japan.
COVID-19 symptom surveillance in immunocompromised children and young people in the UK: a prospective observational cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Meera Shaunak; Ravin Patel; Corine Driessens (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMJ Open
This prospective observational cohort study aims to describe the frequency of symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised children and young people in the UK during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. To describe patient/ parent anxiety regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in this cohort.
Clustering and longitudinal change in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in school children in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland: prospective cohort study of 55 schools

AUTHOR(S)
Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene A. Abela

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMJ
This prospective cohort study aims to examine longitudinal changes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence and to determine the clustering of children who were seropositive within school classes in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland from June to November 2020.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.