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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 184
Prevalence and determinants of symptomatic COVID-19 infection among children and adolescents in Qatar: a cross sectional analysis of 11445 individuals

Omran A. H. Musa; Tawanda Chivese; Devendra Bansa (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Epidemiology and Infection
There is a paucity of evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for symptomatic infection among children. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 and its risk factors in children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in Qatar.
Anxious and traumatised: users’ experiences of maternity care in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic

Julia Sanders; Rebecca Blaylock

Published: July 2021   Journal: Midwifery
The COVID-19 pandemic saw universal, radical, and ultra-rapid changes to UK National Health Services (NHS) maternity care. At the onset of the pandemic, NHS maternity services were stripped of many of the features which support woman and family centred care. In anticipation of unknown numbers of pregnant women and maternity staff potentially sick with COVID-19, services were pared back to the minimum level considered to be required to keep women and their babies safe. The aim of this survey was to understand the impact of COVID-19 public health messaging and pandemic-related service changes on users of maternity care in the UK during the pandemic.
Should older adult pneumococcal vaccination recommendations change due to decreased vaccination in children during the pandemic? A cost-effectiveness analysis

Kenneth J. Smith; Angela R. Wateska; Mary Patricia Nowalk (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The COVID-19 pandemic is causing declines in childhood immunization rates. This study examined potential COVID-19-related changes in pediatric 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) use, subsequent impact on childhood and adult pneumococcal disease rates, and how those changes might affect the favorability of PCV13 use in non-immunocompromised adults aged ≥65 years.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4278-4282 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, immunization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies
A qualitative study exploring the relationship between mothers’ vaccine hesitancy and health beliefs with COVID-19 vaccination intention and prevention during the early pandemic months

Kimberly K. Walker; Katharine J. Head; Heather Owens (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vaccine hesitancy is a top ten global health threat that can negatively impact COVID-19 vaccine uptake. It is assumed that vaccine refusers hold deep, negative beliefs, while acceptors hold strong, positive beliefs. However, vaccine hesitancy exists along a continuum and is multidimensional, varying by time, place, vaccine, subgroup, and person. Guided by the Health Belief Model and vaccine hesitancy frameworks, the study purpose was to qualitatively explore maternal COVID-19 threat perceptions and willingness to accept a COVID-19 vaccine in light of their expressed vaccine hesitancy toward past school required and routinely recommended vaccines and the HPV vaccine for their children. Researchers conducted twenty-five interviews with US Midwestern mothers during the early COVID-19 pandemic months. Mothers were grouped by vaccine hesitancy categories and thematic analysis was used to analyze the data within and across categories.
Does Covid-19 in children have a milder course than Influenza?

Kamil Yılmaz; Velat Şen; Fesih Aktar (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: The International Journal of Clinical Practice

In December 2019, a novel type of coronavirus infection emerged in the Wuhan province of China and began to spread rapidly. In this study, we aimed to determine the differences between COVID-19 disease and Influenza. This retrospective study included 164 children with COVID-19, as well as 46 children with Influenza. The two groups were compared with respect to clinical and laboratory parameters and the rates of intensive care and mechanical ventilation requirement.

The young age and plant-based diet hypothesis for low SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa

Jack N. Losso; MerryJean N. Losso; Marco Toc (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Since the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), in December 2019, the infection has spread around the globe. Some of the risk factors include social distancing, mask wearing, hand washing with soap, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and dysbiosis. Evidence has shown the incidence of total infection and death rates to be lower in sub-Saharan Africa when compared with North Africa, Europe and North America and many other parts of the world. The higher the metabolic syndrome rate, the higher the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Africa has a lower rate of metabolic syndrome risk than many other continents. This paradox has puzzled several in the biomedical and scientific communities. Published results of research have demonstrated the exciting correlation that the combination of young age of the population coupled with their native plant-based diet has lowered their risk factors. The plant-based diet include whole grains (millet, sorghum), legumes (black-eye peas, dry beans, soybean), vegetables, potato, sweet potato, yams, squash, banana, pumpkin seeds, and moringa leaves, and lower consumption of meat. The plant-based diet results in a different gut microbiota than of most of the rest of the world. This has a significant impact on the survival rate of other populations. The “plant-based diet” results in lower rates of obesity, diabetes and dysbiosis, which could contribute to lower and less severe infections. However, these hypotheses need to be supported by more clinical and biostatistics data.
A pre-COVID-19 assessment of aspects of the school health programme in some selected Nigerian primary schools: implications for school re-opening during the COVID-19 pandemic in developing country contexts

Usman A. Sanni; Uduak M. Offiong; Emmanuel A. Anigilaje (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
Following the COVID-19 pandemic, school closures were part of the global public health response to limit community spread of the virus. In recent times, there has been an emphasis on safe school re-opening. This concept is likely to differ between developed and developing country settings. There are however no published studies on barriers hindering safe school re-opening within developing country contexts. This study evaluates aspects of the school health program (SHP) in some selected Nigerian schools that might relate to the pandemic control during school re-opening.
A co-design of clinical virtual care pathways to engage and support families requiring neonatal intensive care in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (COVES study)

Marsha Campbell-Yeo; Justine Dol; Brianna Richardson (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Neonatal Nursing

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, family presence restrictions in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) were enacted to limit disease transmission. This has resulted in communication challenges, negatively impacting family integrated care. To develop clinical care pathways to ensure optimal neonatal care to support families in response to parental presence restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Race, ethnicity, poverty and the social determinants of the coronavirus divide: U.S. county-level disparities and risk factors

Laura J. Samuel; Darrell J. Gaskin; Antonio, J. Trujillo (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

Communities with more Black or Hispanic residents have higher coronavirus rates than communities with more White residents, but relevant community characteristics are underexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate poverty-, race- and ethnic-based disparities and associated economic, housing, transit, population health and health care characteristics. Six-month cumulative coronavirus incidence and mortality were examined using adjusted negative binomial models among all U.S. counties (n = 3142). County-level independent variables included percentages in poverty and within racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian), and rates of unemployment, lacking a high school diploma, housing cost burden, single parent households, limited English proficiency, diabetes, obesity, smoking, uninsured, preventable hospitalizations, primary care physicians, hospitals, ICU beds and households that were crowded, in multi-unit buildings or without a vehicle.

A tale of two parts of Switzerland: regional differences in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents

Michelle Seiler; Georg Staubli; Julia Hoeffe (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

This study aimed to document the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on regions within a European country. Parents arriving at two pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in North of Switzerland and two in South of Switzerland completed an online survey during the first peak of the pandemic (April–June 2020). They were asked to rate their concern about their children or themselves having COVID-19.

Delivery management of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 positive mothers

Chih Lin; Shih-Ming Chu; Jen-Fu Hsu (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Pediatrics & Neonatology

The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought catastrophic impact on the world since the beginning of December 2019. Extra precautionary measures against COVID-19 during and after delivery are pivotal to ensure the safety of the baby and health care workers. Based on current literature, it is recommended that delivery decisions be discussed between obstetricians and neonatologists prior to delivery, and designated negative pressure delivery rooms should be arranged for COVID person under investigation (PUI). During delivery, a minimal number of experienced staff attending delivery should don personal protective equipment (PPE) and follow the neonatal resuscitation program (NRP). Positive pressure ventilation is best used in a negative pressure room if available. At-risk babies should be transported in an isolette, and tested for COVID-19 in a negative pressure room soon after bathing. Skin-to-skin contact and breast milk feed should continue under certain circumstances. Although newborns with COVID-19 infections often present with symptoms that mimic sepsis and one third of affected patients may demand some form of respiratory support, short-term prognoses are favorable and most recover within two weeks of symptoms onset.

Covering coughs and sneezes to reduce COVID-19 transmission: does message framing matter?

Dhwani Yagnaraman; Alec Freytag; Allison Zelkowitz

Institution: Save the Children
Published: June 2021
The goal of this research was to utilize behavioural interventions to promote the covering of coughs and sneezes, so as to reduce COVID-19 transmission. The survey covered a wide variety of questions, including daily activities, health and safety choices, perceptions on precautionary measures, and the impact that COVID has had on their lives.  There were two major objectives for this online experiment: 1) To determine the impact of different message framing on respondents’ intentions to cover coughs and sneezes and 2) To understand how COVID-related risks affect daily activities and the precautions being taken to minimize risk.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease prevention, disease transmission, infectious disease | Countries: Viet Nam | Publisher: Save the Children
The relationship between perceived stress, uncertainty emotions and hopelessness regarding pandemics in pregnant women

Gamze Fiskin

Published: June 2021   Journal: The Journal of Community Psychology
The objective of this study was to determine the emotional reactions of pregnant women towards the pandemic and to increase awareness of healthcare professionals on this subject. In this descriptive, cross-sectional, and correlational study, an online questionnaire was applied to 375 pregnant women (n = 375). Data were collected with pregnant information form, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. The mean age of the pregnant women was 29.495 ± 4.301, and the mean gestational week was 27.469 ± 7.971. Pregnant women's levels of perceived stress and intolerance to uncertainty were high. There was a moderate positive correlation between stress and uncertainty levels of the women who stated that they experienced mild hopelessness. It is recommended to identify risky groups and provide the necessary psychological support by health professionals during the pandemic.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 infection (COVID-19) in pregnancy – an overview

Wafaa Ali Belail Hammad; Mariam Al Beloushi; Badreleden Ahmed (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 which causes COVID-19 disease results in severe morbidity and mortality especially in vulnerable groups. Pregnancy by virtue of its physiological and anatomical adaptations increases the risk of severe infections especially those of the respiratory tract. This single stranded RNA virus is transmitted by droplets as well as soiled fomites. There are various degrees of disease severity– asymptomatic, mild, moderate severe and critical. Most infections in pregnancy are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. For these women, the consequences on the mother or pregnancy are minimal unless they have additional risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiorespiratory disease, obesity or are of ethnic minority background.
SARS-CoV-2 infection, antibody positivity and seroconversion rates in staff and students following full reopening of secondary schools in England: a prospective cohort study, September–December 2020

Shamez N. Ladhani; Georgina Ireland; Frances Baawuah (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Older children have higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rates than younger children. This study investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroprevalence and seroconversion rates in staff and students following the full reopening of all secondary schools in England. Public Health England (PHE) invited secondary schools in six regions (East and West London, Hertfordshire, Derbyshire, Manchester and Birmingham) to participate in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance during the 2020/21 academic year. Participants had nasal swabs for RT-PCR and blood samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the beginning (September 2020) and end (December 2020) of the autumn term. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent risk factors for seropositivity and seroconversion.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.