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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 36
Modelling safe protocols for reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic in France

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Di Domenico; Giulia Pullano; Chiara E. Sabbatini

Published: February 2021   Journal: Nature Communications
As countries in Europe implement strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic, different options are chosen regarding schools. Through a stochastic age-structured transmission model calibrated to the observed epidemic in Île-de-France in the first wave, this study explored scenarios of partial, progressive, or full school reopening. Given the uncertainty on children’s role, we found that reopening schools after lockdown may increase COVID-19 cases, yet protocols exist to keep the epidemic controlled. Under a scenario with stable epidemic activity if schools were closed, reopening pre-schools and primary schools would lead to up to 76% [67, 84]% occupation of ICU beds if no other school level reopened, or if middle and high schools reopened later. Immediately reopening all school levels may overwhelm the ICU system.
The different manifestations of COVID-19 in adults and children: a cohort study in an intensive care unit

AUTHOR(S)
Mònica Girona-Alarcon; Sara Bobillo-Perez; Anna Sole-Ribalta (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has collapsed health systems worldwide. In adults, the virus causes severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), while in children the disease seems to be milder, although a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) has been described. The aim was to describe and compare the characteristics of the severe COVID-19 disease in adults and children.
Should COVID-19 mother breastfeed her newborn child? A literature review on the safety of breastfeeding for pregnant women with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Harshil Bhatt

Published: January 2021   Journal: Current Nutrition Reports
Breastfeeding is beneficial to both the newborn and the mother. During the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised on whether the SARS-CoV-2 virus could be transmitted from COVID-19 positive mother to the newborn through breastmilk. The purpose of this review is to examine the available evidence on the risks of transmission of infection from COVID-19 mothers to their newborns through breastfeeding.
Reopening schools and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Israel: a nationwide study

AUTHOR(S)
Ido Somekh; Tamy Shohat (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
The benefits of school reopening must be weighed against the morbidity and mortality risks and the impact of enhancing spread of COVID-19. This study investigated the effects of school reopening and easing of social distancing restrictions on the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Israel, between March-July 2020.
Simulating preventative testing of SARS-CoV-2 in schools: policy implications

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Asgary; Monica Gabriela Cojocaru; Mahdi M. Najafabadi (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
School testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection has become an important policy and planning issue as schools were reopened after the summer season and as the COVID-19 pandemic continues. Decisions to test or not to test and, if testing, how many tests, how often and for how long, are complex decisions that need to be taken under uncertainty and conflicting pressures from various stakeholders. This study aims to develop an agent-based model and simulation tool that can be used to analyze the outcomes and effectiveness of different testing strategies and scenarios in schools with various number of classrooms and class sizes.
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on treatment adherence and patients’ behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Lev Dorfman; Raouf Nassar; Dalit Binjamin Ohana (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Pediatric Research
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic affects medical care worldwide, including patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, we aimed to assess its impact on health care provision, fear of infection, adherence to medical treatment, and compliance with preventative instructions in children and adolescents with IBD.
Immune determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Petter Brodin

Published: January 2021   Journal: Nature Medicine
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is mild to moderate in the majority of previously healthy individuals, but can cause life-threatening disease or persistent debilitating symptoms in some cases. The most important determinant of disease severity is age, with individuals over 65 years having the greatest risk of requiring intensive care, and men are more susceptible than women. In contrast to other respiratory viral infections, young children seem to be less severely affected. It is now clear that mild to severe acute infection is not the only outcome of COVID-19, and long-lasting symptoms are also possible. In contrast to severe acute COVID-19, such ‘long COVID’ is seemingly more likely in women than in men. Also, postinfectious hyperinflammatory disease has been described as an additional outcome after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here our current understanding of the immunological determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity is discussed, and it is related to known immune-system differences between young and old people and between men and women, and other factors associated with different disease presentations and severity.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | No. of pages: 28-33 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease control, disease transmission, COVID-19
Longitudinal symptom dynamics of COVID-19 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Barak Mizrahi; Smadar Shilo; Hagai Rossman (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, obtaining information on symptoms dynamics is of essence. Here, we extracted data from primary-care electronic health records and nationwide distributed surveys to assess the longitudinal dynamics of symptoms prior to and throughout SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information was available for 206,377 individuals, including 2471 positive cases. The two datasources were discordant, with survey data capturing most of the symptoms more sensitively. The most prevalent symptoms included fever, cough and fatigue. Loss of taste and smell 3 weeks prior to testing, either self-reported or recorded by physicians, were the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19. Additional discriminative symptoms included self-reported headache and fatigue and a documentation of syncope, rhinorrhea and fever. Children had a significantly shorter disease duration. Several symptoms were reported weeks after recovery. By a unique integration of two datasources, our study shed light on the longitudinal course of symptoms experienced by cases in primary care.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings: a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of infection clusters and outbreaks in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sharif A. Ismail; Vanessa Saliba; Jamie Lopez Bernal (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Understanding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission in educational settings is crucial for ensuring the safety of staff and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study estimated he rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks among staff and students in educational settings during the summer half-term (June–July, 2020) in England. In this prospective, cross-sectional analysis, Public Health England initiated enhanced national surveillance in educational settings in England that had reopened after the first national lockdown, from June 1 to July 17, 2020.
Health-care organization for the management and surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children during pandemic in Campania region, Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Francesco Nunziata; Eugenia Bruzzese; Marco Poeta (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

In comparison with adults, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children has a milder course. The management of children with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) needs to be appropriately targeted. A hub-and-spoke system was designed, to provide healthcare indications based on the use of telemedicine and stringent admission criteria, to coordinate local stakeholders and to disseminate information.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease control, health services, COVID-19, hospitalization | Countries: Italy
Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states

AUTHOR(S)
Ramanan Laxminarayan; Shankar Reddy Dudala Dudala; Brian Wahl (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Science
Although most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in low-resource countries, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in such contexts. Data from the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh provide a detailed view into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission pathways and mortality in a high-incidence setting. Reported cases and deaths have been concentrated in younger cohorts than would be expected from observations in higher-income countries, even after accounting for demographic differences across settings. Among 575,071 individuals exposed to 84,965 confirmed cases, infection probabilities ranged from 4.7 to 10.7% for low-risk and high-risk contact types, respectively. Same-age contacts were associated with the greatest infection risk. Case fatality ratios spanned 0.05% at ages of 5 to 17 years to 16.6% at ages of 85 years or more. Primary data from low-resource countries are urgently needed to guide control measures.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 370 | Issue: 6517 | No. of pages: 691-697 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, data collection, disease control, disease transmission, COVID-19, epidemiology, low-income countries | Countries: India
SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an urban community: the role of children and household contacts

AUTHOR(S)
Chaya Pitman-Hunt; Jacqueline Leja; Zahra M. Jiwani

Published: November 2020   Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
This is a single center US retrospective study of infection patterns among household sick contacts of children with confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome – Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an urban setting. A household sick contact (HHSC) was identified in fewer than half (42%) of patients and no child-to-adult transmission was identified.
The urgent need for research coordination to advance knowledge on COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Florence T. Bourgeois; Paul Avillach; Mark A. Turner

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prompted a surge in research activity. Funding bodies swiftly allocated resources to establish research infrastructures and partnerships to study the novel virus. The scientific community realigned existing research and launched new studies to define the clinical course of COVID-19 and identify therapeutic candidates. Overall, comparatively fewer studies were initiated in children relative to adults, in part due to the lower prevalence and disease morbidity recorded in pediatric populations. However, characterizing the disease in pediatric patients is critical to elucidate transmission dynamics, inform public health measures, and generate evidence on best practices for clinical care and therapeutic interventions. The life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome further underscores the need for natural history studies and drug development in pediatric populations.
The challenges of a children’s hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic: the pediatric surgeon’s point of view

AUTHOR(S)
Gloria Pelizzo; Sara Costanzo; Luciano Maestri (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Reports
During the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) emergency, in the pediatric surgical setting, it has been essential to avoid and contain infections as well as to protect both the patients and the surgical team. During this emergency, procedures and workflow were adapted to provide the safest possible environment for both the surgical team and the patients. Pediatric surgical activities were reorganized during the COVID-19 pandemic at the “Vittore Buzzi” Children’s Hospital, which is a pediatric/maternal hospital located in Milan (Lombardy Region), Italy. Resources were optimized in order to maintain high levels of care and quality of assistance. During the COVID-19 emergency, the pediatric surgical department at the “Vittore Buzzi” Children’s Hospital became an acute care surgical service.
Who should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination?

AUTHOR(S)
Fiona M. Russell; Brian Greenwood

Published: November 2020   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The development of COVID-19 vaccines is occurring at a rapid pace, with the potential for a vaccine to be available within 6 months. So who should be prioritized for vaccination when in the first instance, there will be insufficient supply to meet demand? There is no doubt that health-care workers in all settings should be vaccinated first, but who comes next will be a complex decision based on local epidemiology, societal values, and the ability of the vaccines to prevent both severe disease and to reduce transmission thereby eliciting herd protection. The decision on who to vaccinate should be equitable, highly contextualized, and based on the property of each vaccine. In some settings, the elderly may be prioritized, in others, it may be the population most likely to get infected and responsible for community spread. To support decision-making on who to be prioritized for vaccination requires urgent additional research on the epidemiology of COVID-19; preexisting immunity and who is responsible for transmission in a variety of settings; the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in children and pregnant women; and determining whether COVID-19 vaccines prevent asymptomatic infection and transmission.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.