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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 55
Demographic, clinical and laboratory features of COVID‐19 in children: the role of mean platelet volume in predicting the hospitalization and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Gizem Guner Ozenen; Zumrut Sahbudak Bal; Zuhal Umit (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology

There have been limited number of studies on COVID‐19 in children. This study aimed to investigate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of COVID‐19 and to identify the role of mean platelet volume (MPV) in predicting the prognosis in children. A single‐center retrospective study, including 251 confirmed and 65 suspected COVID‐19 cases, was conducted between March 11, 2020, and December 11, 2020.

The critical need for pooled data on COVID-19 in African children: an AFREhealth call for action through multi-country research collaboration

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia A. Sam-Agudu; Helena Rabie; Michel Tshiasuma Pipo (et al.)

Published: February 2021
Globally, there are prevailing knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents; however, these gaps are especially wide in African countries. The availability of robust age-disaggregated data is a critical first step in improving knowledge on disease burden and manifestations of COVID-19 among children. Furthermore, it is essential to improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2 interactions with comorbidities and co-infections such as HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sickle cell disease and malnutrition, which are highly prevalent among children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Modelling safe protocols for reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic in France

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Di Domenico; Giulia Pullano; Chiara E. Sabbatini

Published: February 2021   Journal: Nature Communications
As countries in Europe implement strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic, different options are chosen regarding schools. Through a stochastic age-structured transmission model calibrated to the observed epidemic in Île-de-France in the first wave, this study explored scenarios of partial, progressive, or full school reopening. Given the uncertainty on children’s role, we found that reopening schools after lockdown may increase COVID-19 cases, yet protocols exist to keep the epidemic controlled. Under a scenario with stable epidemic activity if schools were closed, reopening pre-schools and primary schools would lead to up to 76% [67, 84]% occupation of ICU beds if no other school level reopened, or if middle and high schools reopened later. Immediately reopening all school levels may overwhelm the ICU system.
SARS-CoV-2 transmissions in students and teachers: seroprevalence follow-up study in a German secondary school in November and December 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Jakob Peter Armann; Carolin Kirsten; Lukas Galow (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Infectious Diseases

This serial SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study aimed to quantify the number of undetected SARSCoV-2 infections in educational settings in secondary school in Dresden, Germany. Grade 8–12 students and their teachers were invited to participate in serial blood sampling and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody assessment.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 5 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Education, Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, infectious disease, school attendance | Countries: Germany
Importance-performance analysis of health perception among Korean adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Seung-Man Lee; Wi-Young So; Hyun-Su Youn

Published: January 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study assessed the health perceptions of 333 Korean adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic via an online questionnaire administered in October 2020, which queried the perceived importance and actual performance of health behaviors. The health perception scales used in the survey consists of the six dimensions of mental health, disease, physical activity, sleep, diet, and sanitary health. The data were primarily analyzed using paired sample t-test for analysis of difference and importance-performance analysis (IPA).
The different manifestations of COVID-19 in adults and children: a cohort study in an intensive care unit

AUTHOR(S)
Mònica Girona-Alarcon; Sara Bobillo-Perez; Anna Sole-Ribalta (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has collapsed health systems worldwide. In adults, the virus causes severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), while in children the disease seems to be milder, although a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) has been described. The aim was to describe and compare the characteristics of the severe COVID-19 disease in adults and children.
Should COVID-19 mother breastfeed her newborn child? A literature review on the safety of breastfeeding for pregnant women with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Harshil Bhatt

Published: January 2021   Journal: Current Nutrition Reports
Breastfeeding is beneficial to both the newborn and the mother. During the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised on whether the SARS-CoV-2 virus could be transmitted from COVID-19 positive mother to the newborn through breastmilk. The purpose of this review is to examine the available evidence on the risks of transmission of infection from COVID-19 mothers to their newborns through breastfeeding.
Reopening schools and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Israel: a nationwide study

AUTHOR(S)
Ido Somekh; Tamy Shohat (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
The benefits of school reopening must be weighed against the morbidity and mortality risks and the impact of enhancing spread of COVID-19. This study investigated the effects of school reopening and easing of social distancing restrictions on the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Israel, between March-July 2020.
Simulating preventative testing of SARS-CoV-2 in schools: policy implications

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Asgary; Monica Gabriela Cojocaru; Mahdi M. Najafabadi (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
School testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection has become an important policy and planning issue as schools were reopened after the summer season and as the COVID-19 pandemic continues. Decisions to test or not to test and, if testing, how many tests, how often and for how long, are complex decisions that need to be taken under uncertainty and conflicting pressures from various stakeholders. This study aims to develop an agent-based model and simulation tool that can be used to analyze the outcomes and effectiveness of different testing strategies and scenarios in schools with various number of classrooms and class sizes.
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on treatment adherence and patients’ behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Lev Dorfman; Raouf Nassar; Dalit Binjamin Ohana (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Pediatric Research
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic affects medical care worldwide, including patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, we aimed to assess its impact on health care provision, fear of infection, adherence to medical treatment, and compliance with preventative instructions in children and adolescents with IBD.
Immune determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Petter Brodin

Published: January 2021   Journal: Nature Medicine
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is mild to moderate in the majority of previously healthy individuals, but can cause life-threatening disease or persistent debilitating symptoms in some cases. The most important determinant of disease severity is age, with individuals over 65 years having the greatest risk of requiring intensive care, and men are more susceptible than women. In contrast to other respiratory viral infections, young children seem to be less severely affected. It is now clear that mild to severe acute infection is not the only outcome of COVID-19, and long-lasting symptoms are also possible. In contrast to severe acute COVID-19, such ‘long COVID’ is seemingly more likely in women than in men. Also, postinfectious hyperinflammatory disease has been described as an additional outcome after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here our current understanding of the immunological determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity is discussed, and it is related to known immune-system differences between young and old people and between men and women, and other factors associated with different disease presentations and severity.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | No. of pages: 28-33 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission
Longitudinal symptom dynamics of COVID-19 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Barak Mizrahi; Smadar Shilo; Hagai Rossman (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, obtaining information on symptoms dynamics is of essence. Here, we extracted data from primary-care electronic health records and nationwide distributed surveys to assess the longitudinal dynamics of symptoms prior to and throughout SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information was available for 206,377 individuals, including 2471 positive cases. The two datasources were discordant, with survey data capturing most of the symptoms more sensitively. The most prevalent symptoms included fever, cough and fatigue. Loss of taste and smell 3 weeks prior to testing, either self-reported or recorded by physicians, were the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19. Additional discriminative symptoms included self-reported headache and fatigue and a documentation of syncope, rhinorrhea and fever. Children had a significantly shorter disease duration. Several symptoms were reported weeks after recovery. By a unique integration of two datasources, our study shed light on the longitudinal course of symptoms experienced by cases in primary care.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings: a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of infection clusters and outbreaks in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sharif A. Ismail; Vanessa Saliba; Jamie Lopez Bernal (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Understanding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission in educational settings is crucial for ensuring the safety of staff and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study estimated he rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks among staff and students in educational settings during the summer half-term (June–July, 2020) in England. In this prospective, cross-sectional analysis, Public Health England initiated enhanced national surveillance in educational settings in England that had reopened after the first national lockdown, from June 1 to July 17, 2020.
Health-care organization for the management and surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children during pandemic in Campania region, Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Francesco Nunziata; Eugenia Bruzzese; Marco Poeta (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

In comparison with adults, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children has a milder course. The management of children with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) needs to be appropriately targeted. A hub-and-spoke system was designed, to provide healthcare indications based on the use of telemedicine and stringent admission criteria, to coordinate local stakeholders and to disseminate information.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, health services, hospitalization | Countries: Italy
Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states

AUTHOR(S)
Ramanan Laxminarayan; Shankar Reddy Dudala Dudala; Brian Wahl (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Science
Although most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in low-resource countries, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in such contexts. Data from the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh provide a detailed view into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission pathways and mortality in a high-incidence setting. Reported cases and deaths have been concentrated in younger cohorts than would be expected from observations in higher-income countries, even after accounting for demographic differences across settings. Among 575,071 individuals exposed to 84,965 confirmed cases, infection probabilities ranged from 4.7 to 10.7% for low-risk and high-risk contact types, respectively. Same-age contacts were associated with the greatest infection risk. Case fatality ratios spanned 0.05% at ages of 5 to 17 years to 16.6% at ages of 85 years or more. Primary data from low-resource countries are urgently needed to guide control measures.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 370 | Issue: 6517 | No. of pages: 691-697 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, data collection, disease control, disease transmission, epidemiology, low-income countries | Countries: India
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.