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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The role of mask mandates, stay at home orders and school closure in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic prior to vaccination

AUTHOR(S)
Bhuma Krishnamachari; Alexander Morris; Diane Zastrow (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: American Journal of Infection Control
COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has quickly spread throughout the world, necessitating assessment of effective containment methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of government mandated school closures, stay at home orders and mask requirements. Cumulative incidence rates were calculated at 14 day intervals until the day of the first vaccine administration in the country. Rate ratios were calculated using negative binomial regression while investigating the effects of adjusting for several socio-demographic and medical factors.
Modelling safe protocols for reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic in France

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Di Domenico; Giulia Pullano; Chiara E. Sabbatini

Published: February 2021   Journal: Nature Communications
As countries in Europe implement strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic, different options are chosen regarding schools. Through a stochastic age-structured transmission model calibrated to the observed epidemic in Île-de-France in the first wave, this study explored scenarios of partial, progressive, or full school reopening. Given the uncertainty on children’s role, we found that reopening schools after lockdown may increase COVID-19 cases, yet protocols exist to keep the epidemic controlled. Under a scenario with stable epidemic activity if schools were closed, reopening pre-schools and primary schools would lead to up to 76% [67, 84]% occupation of ICU beds if no other school level reopened, or if middle and high schools reopened later. Immediately reopening all school levels may overwhelm the ICU system.
Definition and categorization of the timing of mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: February 2021
This scientific brief was prepared based on results of evidence synthesis and a WHO expert consultation. The WHO COVID-19 LENS (Living Evidence Synthesis) working group consolidated available evidence, based on rapid reviews of the literature and results of a living systematic review on pregnancy and COVID-19 (up to October 7, 2020), on potential mechanisms of vertical transmission of infectious pathogens, feasibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, data related to interpretation of positive SARS-CoV-2 virologic and serologic neonatal tests, lessons from diagnosis of other congenital infections, and existing proposed definitions to classify timing of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. WHO convened a multidisciplinary, international panel of experts between October and November 2020 to review the evidence and propose a consensus initial classification system for the timing of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The panel included experts in obstetrics, neonatology, paediatrics, epidemiology, virology, infectious disease, congenital infections, and placental pathology. The selection of the panel ensured geographic representation, gender balance, and no important conflicts of interest, in accordance with WHO standard procedures.
Egyptian school children awareness and precautions in Covid19 pandemic: a cross sectional survey study

AUTHOR(S)
Manal A. Shehata; Ahmed Adel; Ayman F. Armaneous (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Bulletin of the National Research Centre
COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) is showing a wide global spread, and urgent joint international eforts is required to the control of this pandemic, the awareness of people towards infectious viruses still the main factor to limit the widespread of disease. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness and attitude towards COVID-19 among a sample of Egyptian school children, using a web-based questionnaire.
SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children and staff in daycare centres during a nationwide lockdown in France: a cross-sectional, multicentre, seroprevalence study

AUTHOR(S)
Eric Lachassinne; Loïc de Pontual; Marion Caseris

Published: February 2021
The extent to which very young children contribute to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in daycare centres that remained open for key workers' children during a nationwide lockdown in France. Children and staff who attended one of 22 daycare centres during a nationwide lockdown in France (between March 15 and May 9, 2020) were included in this cross-sectional, multicentre, seroprevalence study. Hospital staff not occupationally exposed to patients with COVID-19, or to children, were enrolled in a comparator group. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in children, daycare centre staff, and the comparator group.
COVID-19: knowledge of mode of spread and preventive practices among college adolescents in Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Ann E. Aronu; Awoere T. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Corona virus pandemic (COVID 19) has emerged as the single most important topical issue and poses a challenge to medicine. Adolescent school children are exposed to a varying degree. The study is aimed to determine the knowledge of the mode of spread and preventive practices among college adolescents attending six secondary schools in Enugu metropolis.

The association of viral load and disease severity in children with COVID‐19

AUTHOR(S)
Kubra Aykac; Burcu Ceylan Cura Yayla; Yasemin Ozsurekci (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
It is still not fully understood how to predict the future prognosis of patients at the diagnosis COVID‐19 due to the wide clinical range of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether SARS‐CoV‐2 viral load could predict the clinical course of pediatric patients. It was conducted retrospectively with medical records of pediatric patients who were tested for SARS‐CoV2 between April 12, and October 25, 2020 in the University of Health Sciences, Ankara Educating and Training Hospital and Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 19 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, COVID-19, hospitalization | Countries: Turkey
Comprehensive and safe school strategy during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Susanna Esposito; Nicola Cotugno; Nicola Principi

Published: January 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Although several studies have tried to evaluate the real efficacy of school closure for pandemic control over time, no definitive answer to this question has been given. Moreover, it has not been clarified whether children or teenagers could be considered a problem for SARS-CoV-2 diffusion or, on the contrary, whether parents and school workers play a greater role. The aims of this review are to discuss about children’s safety at school and the better strategies currently able to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at school.
Epidemiology of COVID-19 infection in young children under five years: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan; Eunice Stiboy; Md. Zakiul Hassan (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Vaccine
Emerging evidence suggests young children are at greater risk of COVID-19 infection than initially predicted. However, a comprehensive understanding of epidemiology of COVID-19 infection in young children under five years, the most at-risk age-group for respiratory infections, remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection in children under five years.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 667-677 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, early childhood, COVID-19
Utilizing academic–community partnerships with nursing students to improve hand hygiene in elementary students to reduce transmission of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Julie Perry; Natasha McClure; Rebecca Palmer

Published: January 2021   Journal: NASN School Nurse
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised awareness about the vital role school nurses have in improving the overall health of children. School nurses provide health promotion within schools, yet over 60% of schools have only a part-time nurse or no nurse. Nursing students may be valuable partners for health promotion and academic–community partnerships may be mutually beneficial to schools of nursing and local schools. Using a nursing student team to teach hand hygiene while school health staff were present provided an opportunity for hands-on training to help the staff master curriculum content and ensure competency. This article describes a collaborative partnership initiative that expanded access to health promotion education in schools to increase knowledge about reducing the spread of infectious disease, such as COVID-19, while providing valuable clinical experiences for nursing students.
A literature review on impact of COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning

AUTHOR(S)
Sumitra Pokhrel; Roshan Chhetri

Published: January 2021   Journal: Higher Education for the Future

The COVID-19 pandemic has created the largest disruption of education systems in human history, affecting nearly 1.6 billion learners in more than 200 countries. Closures of schools, institutions and other learning spaces have impacted more than 94% of the world’s student population. This has brought far-reaching changes in all aspects of our lives. Social distancing and restrictive movement policies have significantly disturbed traditional educational practices. Reopening of schools after relaxation of restriction is another challenge with many new standard operating procedures put in place. Within a short span of the COVID-19 pandemic, many researchers have shared their works on teaching and learning in different ways. Several schools, colleges and universities have discontinued face-to-face teachings. There is a fear of losing 2020 academic year or even more in the coming future. The need of the hour is to innovate and implement alternative educational system and assessment strategies. The COVID-19 pandemic has provided us with an opportunity to pave the way for introducing digital learning. This article aims to provide a comprehensive report on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on online teaching and learning of various papers and indicate the way forward.

Reopening schools safely in the face of COVID-19: can cluster randomized trials help?

AUTHOR(S)
Charles Weijer; Karla Hemming; Spencer Phillips Hey (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Clinical Trials
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the challenges of evidence-based health policymaking, as critical precautionary decisions, such as school closures, had to be made urgently on the basis of little evidence. As primary and secondary schools once again close in the face of surging infections, there is an opportunity to rigorously study their reopening. School-aged children appear to be less affected by COVID-19 than adults, yet schools may drive community transmission of the virus. Given the impact of school closures on both education and the economy, schools cannot remain closed indefinitely. But when and how can they be reopened safely?
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the COVID-19 pandemic among Bangladeshi youth: a web-based cross-sectional analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Rajon Banik; Mahmudur Rahman; Md. Tajuddin Sikder (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Health
This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 among youth in Bangladesh. Subject and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 5 May to 25 May 2020. People aged between 18 and 35 years were approached via social media to complete an online questionnaire that consisted of socio-demographic information and KAP toward COVID-19. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted
Should COVID-19 mother breastfeed her newborn child? A literature review on the safety of breastfeeding for pregnant women with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Harshil Bhatt

Published: January 2021   Journal: Current Nutrition Reports
Breastfeeding is beneficial to both the newborn and the mother. During the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised on whether the SARS-CoV-2 virus could be transmitted from COVID-19 positive mother to the newborn through breastmilk. The purpose of this review is to examine the available evidence on the risks of transmission of infection from COVID-19 mothers to their newborns through breastfeeding.
Research consent rates before and during a COVID-19 one-visitor policy in a children’s hospital

AUTHOR(S)
Sara L. Van Driest; Sarita M. Madell; Kimberly Crum (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Pediatric Research
The COVID-19 pandemic has already had widespread effects on healthcare and health-related research worldwide. Early phase responses to the pandemic included restriction of clinical care and research to essential, time-sensitive and COVID-related activities in many institutions. With the re-introduction of clinical services, a number of strategies were imposed to minimize viral transmission to patients and healthcare personnel, such as strict limits on visitors/caregivers in pediatric inpatient facilities, which may have ethical implications on family-centered care. This study investigates consent rates for a clinical research study before and after implementation of a one-visitor policy at our children’s hospital.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.