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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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181 - 195 of 234
COVID-19: lessons to date from China

AUTHOR(S)
Xiaoxia Lu; Yuhan Xing; Gary Wing-Kin Wong

Published: December 2020   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood
In China, there have been more than 1200 paediatric cases. Most paediatric patients acquire the infection through household contact with infected adults. The disease in children is usually self-limiting and most infected children will recover uneventfully within 7–10 days. Other than symptoms of the respiratory tract, many children may present with gastrointestinal symptoms. Older children are more likely to have asymptomatic infection. Although deaths related to SARS-CoV-2 are rarely reported in the paediatric age group, young children and those with underlying medical conditions are more likely to develop severe illness. Only a small fraction of neonates born to infected mother would acquire the virus by vertical transmission. Because a large proportion of children and adolescents may have asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infection, children are likely to play an important role in community transmission of this infection. Screening of children who have a definitive contact history will facilitate early diagnosis and isolation of all infected children. This review summarises the lessons learned in China with regard to the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 105 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 1146-1150 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child mortality, COVID-19 response, disease transmission | Countries: China
Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states

AUTHOR(S)
Ramanan Laxminarayan; Shankar Reddy Dudala Dudala; Brian Wahl (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Science
Although most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in low-resource countries, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in such contexts. Data from the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh provide a detailed view into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission pathways and mortality in a high-incidence setting. Reported cases and deaths have been concentrated in younger cohorts than would be expected from observations in higher-income countries, even after accounting for demographic differences across settings. Among 575,071 individuals exposed to 84,965 confirmed cases, infection probabilities ranged from 4.7 to 10.7% for low-risk and high-risk contact types, respectively. Same-age contacts were associated with the greatest infection risk. Case fatality ratios spanned 0.05% at ages of 5 to 17 years to 16.6% at ages of 85 years or more. Primary data from low-resource countries are urgently needed to guide control measures.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 370 | Issue: 6517 | No. of pages: 691-697 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, data collection, disease control, disease transmission, epidemiology, low-income countries | Countries: India
Saliva: an important alternative for screening and monitoring of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Catielma Nascimento Santos; Karla Mayra Rezende; Nilson Ferreira de Oliveira Neto (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Brazilian Oral Research
The increasing number of cases of COVID-19 worldwide poses challenges to healthcare systems not only in effectively identifying individuals positive for SARS-CoV-2, but also in isolating cases to minimise contagion in early diagnosing more severe cases that will need hospitalization. Less-invasive collection methods are indispensable in a pandemic scenario as large-scale tests are necessary to understand the actual evolution of contagion in different populations, thus enabling decision-making based on scientific evidence. Saliva has been shown to be an alternative for diagnosing viral infections as this biological fluid can be easily and quickly collected without using specific devices and causing less discomfort during collection, which is an important factor for use in children. Despite the smaller percentage of severe cases of COVID-19 among children, they seem to play an important role in the contagion as they have the same potential of transmission as that of adults. Knowing the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic in children is extremely important, mainly regarding the changing in rules of social distancing, such as re-opening schools and recreational activities spaces.
Coronaviruses in children: a review of potential mechanisms of childhood protection

AUTHOR(S)
Firas A. Rabi; Mazhar S. Al Zoubi; Montaha Mohammed Al‐Iede (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) has spread worldwide and the number of cases continues to rise exponentially. Epidemiologic reports indicate that severity of illness increases with age. However, the reasons behind the relative protection of children and infants are unclear. Whether the rationale is host‐related or virus‐dependent is important to determine since the latter could change with viral mutations. This survey reviewed factors that could affect the susceptibility of children to the novel coronavirus.
SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an urban community: the role of children and household contacts

AUTHOR(S)
Chaya Pitman-Hunt; Jacqueline Leja; Zahra M. Jiwani

Published: November 2020   Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
This is a single center US retrospective study of infection patterns among household sick contacts of children with confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome – Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an urban setting. A household sick contact (HHSC) was identified in fewer than half (42%) of patients and no child-to-adult transmission was identified.
Parental Coronavirus disease 2019 testing of hospitalized children: rethinking infection control in a pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ameer Hassoun; Nishant Prasad; Suzanne Pugh

Published: November 2020   Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a challenge to infection control within hospital systems. Asymptomatic children and their caretakers carry the risk of silently spreading infection in pediatric emergency departments and hospital units. Our current knowledge is evolving, and infection control measures are frequently changing depending on new emerging data. This research conducted a point-prevalence study to assess SARS-CoV-2 Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR) results of hospitalized children, their asymptomatic caretakers, and caretaker-child test concordance at a major community hospital in New York City.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 5 | No. of pages: 364-365 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, disease transmission, hospitalization | Countries: United States
Birth and infant outcomes following laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Kate R. Woodworth; Emily O’Malley Olsen; Varsha Neelam (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at increased risk for severe illness compared with nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and pregnancy loss have been reported. Among 3,912 infants with known gestational age born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than a national estimate of 10.2%. Among 610 (21.3%) infants with testing results, 2.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 results, primarily those born to women with infection at delivery. These findings can inform clinical practice, public health practice, and policy. It is important that providers counsel pregnant women on measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The urgent need for research coordination to advance knowledge on COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Florence T. Bourgeois; Paul Avillach; Mark A. Turner

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prompted a surge in research activity. Funding bodies swiftly allocated resources to establish research infrastructures and partnerships to study the novel virus. The scientific community realigned existing research and launched new studies to define the clinical course of COVID-19 and identify therapeutic candidates. Overall, comparatively fewer studies were initiated in children relative to adults, in part due to the lower prevalence and disease morbidity recorded in pediatric populations. However, characterizing the disease in pediatric patients is critical to elucidate transmission dynamics, inform public health measures, and generate evidence on best practices for clinical care and therapeutic interventions. The life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome further underscores the need for natural history studies and drug development in pediatric populations.
Favorable outcomes among neonates not separated from their symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers

AUTHOR(S)
Antoine Martenot; Imad Labbassi; Amélie Delfils-Stern (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting from infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can affect pregnant women. Their newborns are at a higher risk of prematurity and early separation from their mothers, who may subsequently require intensive care for their own health. Although neonates born of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy are seemingly vulnerable to infection, studies have found that they were not at a high risk for severe infection and were very rarely affected by COVID-19. The presence of virus by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been reported in newborns before H 12 of life. In addition, antiviral immunoglobulin M has been detected in newborns at birth, suggesting that mother-to-infant viral transmission may occur. To date, however, only one case of vertical transmission has been clearly demonstrated. In several cases of early neonatal infection, postnatal contamination cannot be excluded. Moreover, only one case report found that the virus could pass from mother to infant through the mother’s breast milk.
A study of breastfeeding practices, SARS-CoV-2 and its antibodies in the breast milk of mothers confirmed with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sicong Peng; Huaping Zhu; Lixia Yang (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The possibility of 2019 novel coronavirus disease transmission to neonates through breast milk remains unverified. This paper presents the interim results of a longitudinal study being carried out in Hubei province. As of 1 April 2020, 24 mothers confirmed with COVID-19, 19 mothers suspected with COVID-19 but Polymerase chain reaction negative, and 21 mothers without COVID-19 and their neonates have been recruited. Telephone follow-up was conducted to collect information on breastfeeding practices. Forty-four breast milk samples were collected from 16 of the 24 mothers with confirmed COVID-19 for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) ribonucleic acid (RNA) and antibodies (IgM and IgG) testing.
Caregiver willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19: Cross sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Tyler D. Yan; Michelle Seiler (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Vaccine
More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. This paper aims to investigate predictors associated with global caregivers’ intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 38 | Issue: 48 | No. of pages: 7668-7673 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, disease control, disease transmission, vaccination | Countries: United States
Possible vertical transmission and antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 among infants born to mothers with COVID‐19: a living systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
George M. Bwire; Belinda J. Njiro; Dorkasi L. Mwakawanga (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
Current evidence suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), is predominantly transmitted from human‐to‐human. However, evidence on vertical transmission and natural passive immunity among the newborns exposed to COVID‐19 is scanty and varies. This poses a challenge on preventive interventions for the newborns. A systematic review was conducted to first, determine the likelihood of vertical transmission among COVID‐19 exposed infants and second, determine whether antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 were generated among COVID‐19 vertically exposed but negative infants. This review registered in PROSPERO searched evidence from PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar, among others.
Why is COVID-19 less severe in children?: a review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the age-related difference in severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections

AUTHOR(S)
Petra Zimmermann; Nigel Curtis

Published: October 2020   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review discusses proposed hypotheses for the age-related difference in severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Factors proposed to explain the difference in severity of COVID-19 in children and adults include those that put adults at higher risk and those that protect children. The former include: (1) age-related increase in endothelial damage and changes in clotting function; (2) higher density, increased affinity and different distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors and transmembrane serine protease 2; (3) pre-existing coronavirus antibodies (including antibody-dependent enhancement) and T cells; (4) immunosenescence and inflammaging, including the effects of chronic cytomegalovirus infection; (5) a higher prevalence of comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and (6) lower levels of vitamin D. Factors that might protect children include: (1) differences in innate and adaptive immunity; (2) more frequent recurrent and concurrent infections; (3) pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses; (4) differences in microbiota; (5) higher levels of melatonin; (6) protective off-target effects of live vaccines and (7) lower intensity of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

Cite this research | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission
COVID-19 in pregnancy: the foetal perspective: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Rajani Dube; Subhranshu Sekhar Kar

Published: October 2020   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open
We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the available literature to determine the effects of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in pregnant women from the foetal perspective by estimation of mother to child transmission, perinatal outcome and possible teratogenicity.
Childhood immunization and COVID-19: an early narrative review

AUTHOR(S)
Bojana Beric-Stojsic; Julie Kalabalik-Hoganson; Denise Rizzolo (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved into arguably the largest global public health crisis in recent history—especially in the absence of a safe and effective vaccine or an effective anti-viral treatment. As reported, the virus seems to less commonly infect children and causing less severe symptoms among infected children. This narrative review provides an inclusive view of scientific hypotheses, logical derivation, and early analyses that substantiate or refute such conjectures. At the completion of a relatively less restrictive search of this evolving topic, 13 articles—all published in 2020, were included in this early narrative review.
181 - 195 of 234

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.