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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 237
Caregivers’ sources of information about immunization as predictors of delayed childhood vaccinations in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

AUTHOR(S)
Leena R. Baghdadi; Marwah M. Hassounah; Afnan Younis (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Of 628 women, 11.8% (n = 74) were pregnant at the time of survey. Most of the pregnant women (89.2%, n = 66) had some degree of concerns about their unborn babies getting infected during delivery in the hospital. Among mothers of children under 10 years of age (n = 564), half (n = 282) reported change in their children’s behavior during the lockdown. Most mothers and pregnant women (94.9%, n = 569) had some degree of psychological distress. Mothers and pregnant women with a college degree had significantly lower psychological distress (β = -1.346; p = 0.014) than women with a high school education or less. Similarly, mothers and pregnant women with monthly family income ≥ US$ 1,333 had lower psychological distress than those with < US$ 1,333. Women with pre-existing chronic physical (β = 2.424; p < 0.001) or mental (β = 4.733; p < 0.001) conditions had higher psychological distress than those without these conditions. Having children in the house was a contributory factor for higher psychological distress. For example, mothers with one child (β = 2.602; p = 0.007) had significantly higher psychological distress compared to expectant mothers without children in the house.
Feasibility and acceptability of SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance in primary school children in England: Prospective, cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Felicity Aiano; Samuel E. I. Jones; Zahin Amin-Chowdhury (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One

The reopening of schools during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about widespread infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in educational settings. In June 2020, Public Health England (PHE) initiated prospective national surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in primary schools across England (sKIDs). This study used this opportunity to assess the feasibility and agreeability of large-scale surveillance and testing for SARS-CoV-2 infections in school among staff, parents and students. Staff and students in 131 primary schools were asked to complete a questionnaire at recruitment and provide weekly nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing (n = 86) or swabs with blood samples for antibody testing (n = 45) at the beginning and end the summer half-term. In six blood sampling schools, students were asked to complete a pictorial questionnaire before and after their investigations.

Disinfectant use by K-12 school staff to combat SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Timothy J. Hilbert; Candace Brancato; Kelsey Carter (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Infection Control
K-12 school staff from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio were asked about their use of disinfectants to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in schools. Survey participants (n=1,555) reported frequent use of disinfectants, often using unknown products, and were provided little to no training on safe and effective use. Participant concerns included student involvement in disinfection, inadequate ventilation, surface contact time, and potential health effects.
Age-dependent seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in school-aged children from areas with low and high community transmission

AUTHOR(S)
Lise Boey; Mathieu Roelants; Joanna Merckx (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
It is not yet clear to what extent SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in children reflect community transmission, nor whether infection rates differ between primary schoolchildren and young teenagers. A cross-sectional serosurvey compared the SARS-CoV2 attack-rate in a sample of 362 children recruited from September 21 to October 6, 2020, in primary (ages 6–12) or lower secondary school (ages 12–15) in a municipality with low community transmission (Pelt) to a municipality with high community transmission (Alken) in Belgium. Children were equally distributed over grades and regions. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Emergency and disaster response strategies to support maternal-infant dyads in times of COVID

AUTHOR(S)
Felipe Aros-Vera; Ilana R. Azulay Chertok; Semyon Melnikov

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
The COVID-19 pandemic has produced an unprecedented global health crisis. Vulnerable populations, such as breastfeeding mother-infant dyads, are in a particularly delicate situation. Before, during, and after birth mothers and their infants could be exposed to the virus. Due to fear of infection transmission, there has been an increase in separation of COVID-positive mothers and their infants and a decline in breastfeeding, despite research supporting the provision of mother's milk for her infant. During this crisis, evidence-based education counseling and resources can support healthful infant feeding which is necessary for short- and long-term infant growth and development. Using a framework of disaster preparedness and response, this study delineates operational guidelines and policy recommendations to support maternal-infant dyads during the COVID pandemic outbreak. Key recommendations include promotion of breastfeeding and milk expression, avoiding the use of formula, engaging healthcare providers in supporting lactation, and incorporating evidence-based breastfeeding and lactation protocols and practices in disaster preparedness and disaster response plans.
COVID-19 in pregnancy: what we know from the first year of the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Anya Lara Arthurs; Tanja Jankovic-Karasoulos; Claire Trelford Roberts

Published: August 2021   Journal: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected nearly 178 million people and claimed the lives of over 3.8 million in less than 15months. This has prompted a flurry of research studies into the mechanisms and effects of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection in humans. However, studies examining the effects of COVID-19 in pregnant women, their placentae and their babies remain limited. Furthermore, reports of safety and efficacy of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy are limited. This review concisely summarises the case studies and research on COVID-19 in pregnancy, to date. It also reviews the mechanism of infection with SARS-CoV-2, and its reliance and effects upon the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.


Factors affecting parent health-promotion behavior in early childhood according to family cohesion: Focusing on the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Song I. Parka; In Young Chob

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

This study investigated and compared the factors influencing parents' promotion of healthy behavior in young children according to their family cohesion level during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea. This was a cross-sectional study involving 432 parents of young children (ages 1–6) in six South Korean cities (320 and 112 from the high and low family cohesion groups, respectively). We collected data using self-report questionnaires on parents' health promotion behavior, stress, risk perception due to COVID-19, positive psychological capital, and family cohesion, and analyzed it using stepwise multiple regressions with the SPSS program.

Determinants of parental hesitancy to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in China

AUTHOR(S)
Mei-Xian Zhang; Xiao-Qing Lin; Yan Chen (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines

Vaccine hesitancy seriously hinders herd immunity. This study explored the determinants of parental hesitancy to vaccinate children against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. A population-based self-administered online questionnaire evaluating parental hesitancy in vaccinating their children against COVID-19 was conducted in Taizhou, China. Of the 2463 parents who received the invitation, 1788 (72.6%) responded to the survey.

Breastfeeding in the era of COVID-19: a narrative review

AUTHOR(S)
Rozeta Sokou; Aikaterini Konstantinidi; Theodora Boutsikou (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Human milk is the best possible nutrition for infants, as it supplies them with nutrients, bioactive molecules as well as antibodies, which contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonisation. Few situations are considered definitive contraindications for breastfeeding. The disastrous Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raised many health issues, including the safety of breastfeeding for infants born to affected mothers. To date relevant data are limited. This review will make an account of the published data so far, regarding the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 via human milk; it will also present the current feeding recommendations, issued by several international boards, though not always in agreement, for infants born to mothers suspected or positive for SARS-CoV-2. In most studies existing so far on women with COVID-19, the virus was not detected in breastmilk. Based on currently available data, it seems that breastfeeding and human milk are not contraindicated for infants born to mothers suspected or confirmed with COVID-19.
TobBe or not to be: parents’ willingness to send their children back to school after the COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Zehui Zhan; Yuanmin Li; Xinyue Yuan (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
This study investigated the factors that parents considered when sending their children back to school after the COVID-19 outbreak and analyzed the dilemma that parents were facing. A total of 1067 questionnaires were collected through snowball sampling. After three levels of coding based on Grounded Theory and Field Theory, parents’ key concerns were categorized as four personal factors (i.e., intuitive expectation, health issue, learning effectiveness, perceived epidemic safety) and three environmental factors (i.e., school environment, family environment, social environment). By factor weight analysis using the Kruskal–Wallis H test, a field model of factors that affect parents’ willingness was set up. Results indicated that learning effectiveness is the most critical factor affecting parents’ willingness.
COVID-19 and cause of pregnancy loss during the pandemic: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Seyyedeh Neda Kazemi; Bahareh Hajikhani; Hamidreza Didar (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One

The association between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and abortion has been debated since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. This systematic review aimed to understand better the potential effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on fetal loss in infected mothers presented with abortion following this infection. It included articles published in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, clinicaltrials.gov, and Embase databases in 2019 and 2020 through a comprehensive search via appropriate keywords, including COVID-19 and abortion synonyms. All studies with the abortion data in COVID-19 confirmed pregnant females were collected.

COVID-19 in children with cancer and continuation of cancer-directed therapy during the infection

AUTHOR(S)
Badira Cheriyalinkal Parambil; Nirmalya Roy Moulik; Chetan Dhamne (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Indian Journal of Pediatrics

This study aims to report the experience with COVID-19 in children with cancer at the largest tertiary-cancer care and referral center in India. This study is a single tertiary center experience on COVID-19 in children with cancer and continuation of cancer-directed therapy in them. Children ≤ 15 y on active cancer treatment detected with COVID-19 until September 15th, 2020 were prospectively followed up in the study. Patients were managed in accordance with well-laid guidelines. Treatment was continued for children with COVID-19 who were clinically stable and on intensive treatment for various childhood cancers.

SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during delivery of childhood vaccination campaigns: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Simon R. Procter; Kaja Abbas; Stefan Flasche (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Medicine

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. This study modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. It used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. It explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening.

Breastfeeding in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: a discussion paper

AUTHOR(S)
Karen Walker; Janet Green; Julia Petty (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Neonatal Nursing
Breastfeeding offers one of the most fundamental global health benefits for babies. Breastmilk is lifesaving, providing not only nutrition but immunologic benefits and as such is strongly supported by the World Health Organization and leading healthcare associations worldwide. When the COVID-19 pandemic started in 2020, the impact of the restrictions to prevent the spread of the disease created challenges and questions about provision of safe, quality care, including breastfeeding practices, in a new ‘normal’ environment. Mothers were temporarily separated from their babies where infection was present or suspected, parents were prevented from being present on neonatal units and vital breastfeeding support was prevented. This discussion paper provides an overview of essential areas of knowledge related to practice for neonatal nurses and midwives who care for breastfeeding mothers and babies, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the latest global guidance.
COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy: coverage and safety

AUTHOR(S)
Helena Blakeway; Smriti Prasa; Erkan Kalafat (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Concerns have been raised regarding a potential surge of COVID-19 in pregnancy, secondary to rising numbers of COVID-19 in the community, easing of societal restrictions, and vaccine hesitancy. Even though COVID-19 vaccination is now offered to all pregnant women in the UK, there are limited data on its uptake and safety. This was a cohort study of pregnant women who gave birth at St George’s University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK, between March 1st and July 4th 2021. The primary outcome was uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and its determinants. The secondary outcomes were perinatal safety outcomes.

16 - 30 of 237

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.