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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 80
Coronaviruses in children: a review of potential mechanisms of childhood protection

AUTHOR(S)
Firas A. Rabi; Mazhar S. Al Zoubi; Montaha Mohammed Al‐Iede (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) has spread worldwide and the number of cases continues to rise exponentially. Epidemiologic reports indicate that severity of illness increases with age. However, the reasons behind the relative protection of children and infants are unclear. Whether the rationale is host‐related or virus‐dependent is important to determine since the latter could change with viral mutations. This survey reviewed factors that could affect the susceptibility of children to the novel coronavirus.
SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an urban community: the role of children and household contacts

AUTHOR(S)
Chaya Pitman-Hunt; Jacqueline Leja; Zahra M. Jiwani

Published: November 2020   Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
This is a single center US retrospective study of infection patterns among household sick contacts of children with confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome – Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an urban setting. A household sick contact (HHSC) was identified in fewer than half (42%) of patients and no child-to-adult transmission was identified.
Parental Coronavirus disease 2019 testing of hospitalized children: rethinking infection control in a pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ameer Hassoun; Nishant Prasad; Suzanne Pugh

Published: November 2020   Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a challenge to infection control within hospital systems. Asymptomatic children and their caretakers carry the risk of silently spreading infection in pediatric emergency departments and hospital units. Our current knowledge is evolving, and infection control measures are frequently changing depending on new emerging data. This research conducted a point-prevalence study to assess SARS-CoV-2 Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR) results of hospitalized children, their asymptomatic caretakers, and caretaker-child test concordance at a major community hospital in New York City.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 5 | No. of pages: 364-365 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, COVID-19 response, hospitalization | Countries: United States
Birth and infant outcomes following laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Kate R. Woodworth; Emily O’Malley Olsen; Varsha Neelam (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at increased risk for severe illness compared with nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and pregnancy loss have been reported. Among 3,912 infants with known gestational age born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than a national estimate of 10.2%. Among 610 (21.3%) infants with testing results, 2.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 results, primarily those born to women with infection at delivery. These findings can inform clinical practice, public health practice, and policy. It is important that providers counsel pregnant women on measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The urgent need for research coordination to advance knowledge on COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Florence T. Bourgeois; Paul Avillach; Mark A. Turner

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prompted a surge in research activity. Funding bodies swiftly allocated resources to establish research infrastructures and partnerships to study the novel virus. The scientific community realigned existing research and launched new studies to define the clinical course of COVID-19 and identify therapeutic candidates. Overall, comparatively fewer studies were initiated in children relative to adults, in part due to the lower prevalence and disease morbidity recorded in pediatric populations. However, characterizing the disease in pediatric patients is critical to elucidate transmission dynamics, inform public health measures, and generate evidence on best practices for clinical care and therapeutic interventions. The life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome further underscores the need for natural history studies and drug development in pediatric populations.
Favorable outcomes among neonates not separated from their symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers

AUTHOR(S)
Antoine Martenot; Imad Labbassi; Amélie Delfils-Stern (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting from infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can affect pregnant women. Their newborns are at a higher risk of prematurity and early separation from their mothers, who may subsequently require intensive care for their own health. Although neonates born of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy are seemingly vulnerable to infection, studies have found that they were not at a high risk for severe infection and were very rarely affected by COVID-19. The presence of virus by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been reported in newborns before H 12 of life. In addition, antiviral immunoglobulin M has been detected in newborns at birth, suggesting that mother-to-infant viral transmission may occur. To date, however, only one case of vertical transmission has been clearly demonstrated. In several cases of early neonatal infection, postnatal contamination cannot be excluded. Moreover, only one case report found that the virus could pass from mother to infant through the mother’s breast milk.
A study of breastfeeding practices, SARS-CoV-2 and its antibodies in the breast milk of mothers confirmed with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sicong Peng; Huaping Zhu; Lixia Yang (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The possibility of 2019 novel coronavirus disease transmission to neonates through breast milk remains unverified. This paper presents the interim results of a longitudinal study being carried out in Hubei province. As of 1 April 2020, 24 mothers confirmed with COVID-19, 19 mothers suspected with COVID-19 but Polymerase chain reaction negative, and 21 mothers without COVID-19 and their neonates have been recruited. Telephone follow-up was conducted to collect information on breastfeeding practices. Forty-four breast milk samples were collected from 16 of the 24 mothers with confirmed COVID-19 for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) ribonucleic acid (RNA) and antibodies (IgM and IgG) testing.
Caregiver willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19: Cross sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Tyler D. Yan; Michelle Seiler (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Vaccine
More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. This paper aims to investigate predictors associated with global caregivers’ intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 38 | Issue: 48 | No. of pages: 7668-7673 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disease control, disease transmission, vaccination, COVID-19 response | Countries: United States
Possible vertical transmission and antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 among infants born to mothers with COVID‐19: a living systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
George M. Bwire; Belinda J. Njiro; Dorkasi L. Mwakawanga (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
Current evidence suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), is predominantly transmitted from human‐to‐human. However, evidence on vertical transmission and natural passive immunity among the newborns exposed to COVID‐19 is scanty and varies. This poses a challenge on preventive interventions for the newborns. A systematic review was conducted to first, determine the likelihood of vertical transmission among COVID‐19 exposed infants and second, determine whether antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 were generated among COVID‐19 vertically exposed but negative infants. This review registered in PROSPERO searched evidence from PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar, among others.
Why is COVID-19 less severe in children?: a review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the age-related difference in severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections

AUTHOR(S)
Petra Zimmermann; Nigel Curtis

Published: October 2020   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review discusses proposed hypotheses for the age-related difference in severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Factors proposed to explain the difference in severity of COVID-19 in children and adults include those that put adults at higher risk and those that protect children. The former include: (1) age-related increase in endothelial damage and changes in clotting function; (2) higher density, increased affinity and different distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors and transmembrane serine protease 2; (3) pre-existing coronavirus antibodies (including antibody-dependent enhancement) and T cells; (4) immunosenescence and inflammaging, including the effects of chronic cytomegalovirus infection; (5) a higher prevalence of comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and (6) lower levels of vitamin D. Factors that might protect children include: (1) differences in innate and adaptive immunity; (2) more frequent recurrent and concurrent infections; (3) pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses; (4) differences in microbiota; (5) higher levels of melatonin; (6) protective off-target effects of live vaccines and (7) lower intensity of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

Cite this research | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, disease transmission, COVID-19
COVID-19 in pregnancy: the foetal perspective: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Rajani Dube; Subhranshu Sekhar Kar

Published: October 2020   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open
We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the available literature to determine the effects of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in pregnant women from the foetal perspective by estimation of mother to child transmission, perinatal outcome and possible teratogenicity.
Childhood immunization and COVID-19: an early narrative review

AUTHOR(S)
Bojana Beric-Stojsic; Julie Kalabalik-Hoganson; Denise Rizzolo (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved into arguably the largest global public health crisis in recent history—especially in the absence of a safe and effective vaccine or an effective anti-viral treatment. As reported, the virus seems to less commonly infect children and causing less severe symptoms among infected children. This narrative review provides an inclusive view of scientific hypotheses, logical derivation, and early analyses that substantiate or refute such conjectures. At the completion of a relatively less restrictive search of this evolving topic, 13 articles—all published in 2020, were included in this early narrative review.
On the effect of age on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households, schools and the community

AUTHOR(S)
Edward Goldstein; Marc Lipsitch; Muge Cevik

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Journal of Infectious Diseases

There is limited information on the effect of age on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in different settings. This research reviewed published studies/data on detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in contacts of COVID-19 cases, serological studies, and studies of infections in schools.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, schools, COVID-19
Holidays over: a review of actual COVID-19 school outbreaks up to September 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Victor Grech; Elizabeth Grech; Jeremy Borg Myatt

Published: October 2020   Journal: Early human development
In the absence of an effective vaccine and/or treatment, COVID-19 remains pandemic. It is only public health measures, such as social distancing (and these included school closures), that have prevented millions of infections and deaths. School closures followed a precautionary principle in that many previous epidemics (e.g. influenza) were mainly transmitted by children. This is supported by few studies and yet, these closures have significantly impacted parents and children. We are now in September 2020, with public health restrictions being lifted in an attempt to attenuate the negative economic impact of the pandemic. The easing of restrictions has led to a resurgence of COVID-19 in a second wave of infections. In the meantime, summer school holidays are coming to an end in the northern hemisphere and it is salutary to review the effects on viral surges due to school openings thus far. This review shows that as schools open, outbreaks that affect both pupils and staff occur probably due to failure to adhere to public health principles: hand washing, distancing etc.
The management of children with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review

AUTHOR(S)
Matteo Amicucci; Angela Mastronuzzi; Italo Ciaralli (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Despite the fact that cancer patients seem to be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, limited data are available in the pediatric oncology setting. A systematic rapid review was conducted to analyze scientific literature regarding the management, interventions, and strategies adopted to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the pediatric cancer population. Our search on PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases yielded 505 articles.
31 - 45 of 80

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.