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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 80
Characteristics of symptomatic women of reproductive age with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by pregnancy status

AUTHOR(S)
Laura D. Zambrano; Sascha Ellington; Penelope Strid (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Limited information suggests that pregnant women with COVID-19 might be at increased risk for severe illness compared with non-pregnant women. In an analysis of approximately 400,000 women aged 15–44 years with symptomatic COVID-19, intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death were more likely in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness including death; measures to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized for pregnant women and their families. These findings can inform clinical practice, risk communication, and medical countermeasure allocation.


Public health antibody screening indicates a six-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 exposure rate than reported cases in children

AUTHOR(S)
Markus Hippich; Lisa Holthaus; Robin Assfalg (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Clinical Advances
This paper describes a highly specific and sensitive approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for population-scale immune surveillance. Antibody positivity was defined as a dual-positive response against both the receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation assays in capillary blood from 15,771 children aged 1 to 18 years living in Bavaria, Germany, and participating in a public health type 1 diabetes screening program, in 1,916 dried blood spots from neonates in a Bavarian screening study, and in 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Virus positive incidence was obtained from the Bavarian health authority data.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 15, 4 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: Germany
COVID-19’s impact on HIV vertical transmission services reversed
Institution: UNAIDS - The Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS
Published: October 2020
Recent data collection has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on HIV testing services but the impact on HIV treatment has been less than originally feared. The impact on services for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (from mother to child) is mixed—by April, countries generally saw a decline in the number of women tested for HIV at their first antenatal clinic visit, but by June that decline had been reversed.
Clinical manifestations and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Jeong Yee; Woorim Kim; Ji Min Han Han (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Scientific Reports
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science have been searched for qualified studies. The clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their infants were reported as means and proportions with 95% confidence interval. Eleven studies involving with 9032 pregnant women with COVID-19 and 338 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Pregnant women with COVID-19 have relatively mild symptoms. However, abnormal proportions of laboratory parameters were similar or even increased, compared to general population.
Management of newborns exposed to mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Shaili Amatya Amatya; Tammy E. Corr; Chintan K. Gandhi (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Perinatology
There is limited information about newborns with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. Particularly in the hospital after delivery, clinicians have refined practices in order to prevent secondary infection. While guidance from international associations is continuously being updated, all facets of care of neonates born to women with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 are centerspecific, given local customs, building infrastructure constraints, and availability of protective equipment. Based on anecdotal reports from institutions in the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic close to our hospital, together with our limited experience, in anticipation of increasing numbers of exposed newborns, this study has developed a triage algorithm at the Penn State Hospital at Milton S. Hershey Medical Center that may be useful for other centers anticipating a similar surge.
The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates

AUTHOR(S)
Giuseppe De Bernardo; Maurizio Giordano; Giada Zollo (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Perinatology
The COVID-19 pneumonia was firstly reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease had a rapid spread all over the word becoming an international public health emergency. Limited data were available on COVID-19 positive neonates. We reviewed relevant literature to understand the clinical course of disease and transmission routes in affected neonates. The aim of the study was evaluating the clinical course and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates. Based on current literature, the hypothesis of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, though conceivable, remains unproven. A research conducted on PubMed database from December 2019 to April 27, 2020 revealed that were reported 25 neonates affected by SARS-CoV-2. Main symptoms were fever, cough, or shortness of breath but often these neonates did not show other symptoms during length stay in hospital. No deaths occurred.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 40 | No. of pages: 1462-1469 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care, child health, disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19
Synthesis and systematic review of reported neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections

AUTHOR(S)
Roberto Raschetti; Alexandre J. Vivanti ; Christelle Vauloup-Fellous (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
A number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been reported in neonates. This survey aims to clarify the transmission route, clinical features and outcomes of these infections. It presents a meta-analysis of 176 published cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections that were defined by at least one positive nasopharyngeal swab and/or the presence of specific IgM. This report shows that 70% and 30% of infections are due to environmental and vertical transmission, respectively.
Systematic analysis of infectious disease outcomes by age shows lowest severity in school-age children

AUTHOR(S)
Judith R. Glynn; Paul A. H. Moss

Published: October 2020   Journal: Scientific Data

The COVID-19 pandemic has ignited interest in age-specific manifestations of infection but surprisingly little is known about relative severity of infectious disease between the extremes of age. In a systematic analysis, this study identifies 142 datasets with information on severity of disease by age for 32 different infectious diseases, 19 viral and 13 bacterial. For almost all infections, school-age children have the least severe disease, and severity starts to rise long before old age. Indeed, for many infections even young adults have more severe disease than children, and dengue was the only infection that was most severe in school-age children. Together with data on vaccine response in children and young adults, the findings suggest peak immune function is reached around 5–14 years of age. Relative immune senescence may begin much earlier than assumed, before accelerating in older age groups. This has major implications for understanding resilience to infection, optimal vaccine scheduling, and appropriate health protection policies across the life course.

Age-structured model for COVID-19: Effectiveness of social distancing and contact reduction in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Mark Kimathi; Samuel Mwalili; Viona Ojiambo (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Infectious Disease Modelling
Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Kenya reported its first case on March 13, 2020 and by March 16, 2020 she instituted physical distancing strategies to reduce transmission and flatten the epidemic curve. An age-structured compartmental model was developed to assess the impact of the strategies on COVID-19 severity and burden. Contacts between different ages are incorporated via contact matrices. Simulation results show that 45% reduction in contacts for 60-days period resulted to 11.5–13% reduction of infections severity and deaths, while for the 190-days period yielded 18.8–22.7% reduction. The peak of infections in the 60-days mitigation was higher and happened about 2 months after the relaxation of mitigation as compared to that of the 190-days mitigation, which happened a month after mitigations were relaxed. Low numbers of cases in children under 15 years was attributed to high number of asymptomatic cases. High numbers of cases are reported in the 15–29 years and 30–59 years age bands. Two mitigation periods, considered in the study, resulted to reductions in severe and critical cases, attack rates, hospital and ICU bed demands, as well as deaths, with the 190-days period giving higher reductions.
COVID-19 trends among school-aged children — United States, March 1–September 19, 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca T. Leeb; Sandy Price; Sarah Sliwa (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Children aged <10 years can transmit SARS-CoV-2 in school settings, but less is known about COVID-19 incidence, characteristics, and health outcomes among school-aged children (aged 5–17 years) with COVID-19. Since March, 277,285 COVID-19 cases in children have been reported. COVID-19 incidence among adolescents aged 12–17 years was approximately twice that in children aged 5–11 years. Underlying conditions were more common among school-aged children with severe outcomes related to COVID-19. Weekly incidence, SARS-CoV-2 test volume, and percentage of tests positive among school-aged children varied over time and by region of the United States. It is important for schools and communities to monitor multiple indicators of COVID-19 among school-aged children and layer prevention strategies to reduce COVID-19 disease risk for students, teachers, school staff, and families. These results can provide a baseline for monitoring trends and evaluating mitigation strategies.

Cite this research | Vol.: 69 | No. of pages: 1410-1415 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease control, disease transmission, schools, COVID-19 | Countries: United States
Coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) in children

AUTHOR(S)
Fahri Ovali

Published: September 2020   Journal: Medeniyet Medical Journal
COVID-19 disease affects all ages, but severe cases of the disease and mortality are very rarely seen among children. In most cases, they acquire the virus from their parents or from an another infected person. The exact reasons why the disease has a milder course in children is unknown but high numbers of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors, underdeveloped immune responses, cross-reaction with other viruses, protective effect of fetal hemoglobin and fewer outdoor activities as well as journeys, and nonexposure to air pollution, and smoking. Although many cases are asymptomatic, they can still shed the virus. Materno-fetal vertical transmission has not been shown so far. In symptomatic cases, clinical findings include fever and respiratory symptoms, followed by diarrhea and vomiting. There are signs indicating a possible association between Kawasaki disease and COVID-19. Clinical findings and diagnostic procedures in newborns, and older children are similar
Adapting HIV services for pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, children, adolescents and families in resource‐constrained settings during the COVID‐19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Alexandra C. Vrazo; Rachel Golin; Nimasha B. Fernando (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Protecting pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, children and adolescents from acquiring SARS‐CoV‐2 while sustaining essential HIV services is an immense global health challenge. Tailored, family friendly programme adaptations for case‐finding, ART delivery and viral load monitoring for these populations have the potential to limit SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission while ensuring the continuity of life‐saving HIV case identification and treatment efforts.
Considerations for school-related public health measures in the context of COVID-19
Institution: *UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO - World Health Organization
Published: September 2020

This Annex is intended to help policy makers and educators with making decisions on running schools as safely as possible during the COVID-19 pandemic. At the forefront of all considerations and decisions should be the continuity of education for children for their  overall  well-being,  health  and  safety.  Nonetheless,  all  decisions  will  have  implications  for  children,  parents  or  caregivers,  teachers and other staff and more broadly, their communities and societies. This document was developed with input from the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of Experts on Educational Institutions and COVID-19 and experts from WHO, UNICEF, and UNESCO, who jointly reviewed the latest evidence to develop this interim guidance, which considers equity, resource implications, and feasibility.

Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents compared with adults

AUTHOR(S)
Russell M. Viner; Oliver T. Mytton; Chris Bonell (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

In this systematic review and meta-analysis including 32 studies, children and adolescents younger than 20 years had 44% lower odds of secondary infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared with adults 20 years and older; this finding was most marked in those younger than 10 to 14 years. Data were insufficient to conclude whether transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children is lower than by adults. Preliminary evidence suggests that children have a lower susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with adults, but the role that children and adolescents play in transmission of this virus remains unclear.

The wide spectrum of COVID-19 clinical presentation in children

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia Nathan; Blandine Prevost; Chiara Sileo (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine
 Ten months after its appearance in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 25 million patients worldwide. Because children were first identified as potential spreaders of the virus, schools were closed in several countries. However, it rapidly became evident that the number of hospitalized children infected by SARS-CoV-2 was dramatically lower than that of adults. To date, only hypotheses have been raised to explain this difference, so it is of great importance to describe the presentation of this disease among children. This study describes a wide spectrum of COVID-19 manifestation in children in a dedicated pediatric unit in France.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.