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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 256
COVID-19 in children with cancer and continuation of cancer-directed therapy during the infection

AUTHOR(S)
Badira Cheriyalinkal Parambil; Nirmalya Roy Moulik; Chetan Dhamne (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Indian Journal of Pediatrics

This study aims to report the experience with COVID-19 in children with cancer at the largest tertiary-cancer care and referral center in India. This study is a single tertiary center experience on COVID-19 in children with cancer and continuation of cancer-directed therapy in them. Children ≤ 15 y on active cancer treatment detected with COVID-19 until September 15th, 2020 were prospectively followed up in the study. Patients were managed in accordance with well-laid guidelines. Treatment was continued for children with COVID-19 who were clinically stable and on intensive treatment for various childhood cancers.

SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during delivery of childhood vaccination campaigns: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Simon R. Procter; Kaja Abbas; Stefan Flasche (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Medicine

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. This study modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. It used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. It explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening.

Breastfeeding in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: a discussion paper

AUTHOR(S)
Karen Walker; Janet Green; Julia Petty (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Neonatal Nursing
Breastfeeding offers one of the most fundamental global health benefits for babies. Breastmilk is lifesaving, providing not only nutrition but immunologic benefits and as such is strongly supported by the World Health Organization and leading healthcare associations worldwide. When the COVID-19 pandemic started in 2020, the impact of the restrictions to prevent the spread of the disease created challenges and questions about provision of safe, quality care, including breastfeeding practices, in a new ‘normal’ environment. Mothers were temporarily separated from their babies where infection was present or suspected, parents were prevented from being present on neonatal units and vital breastfeeding support was prevented. This discussion paper provides an overview of essential areas of knowledge related to practice for neonatal nurses and midwives who care for breastfeeding mothers and babies, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the latest global guidance.
COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy: coverage and safety

AUTHOR(S)
Helena Blakeway; Smriti Prasa; Erkan Kalafat (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Concerns have been raised regarding a potential surge of COVID-19 in pregnancy, secondary to rising numbers of COVID-19 in the community, easing of societal restrictions, and vaccine hesitancy. Even though COVID-19 vaccination is now offered to all pregnant women in the UK, there are limited data on its uptake and safety. This was a cohort study of pregnant women who gave birth at St George’s University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK, between March 1st and July 4th 2021. The primary outcome was uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and its determinants. The secondary outcomes were perinatal safety outcomes.

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the household setting: a prospective cohort study in children and adults in England

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth Miller; Pauline A. Waight; Nick J. Andrews (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection

This study aims to measure secondary attack rates (SARs) in prospectively followed household contacts of paediatric and adult cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in England. Self-taken nasal swabs from household contacts of PCR confirmed cases of COVID-19 and blood samples on day 35 were tested for evidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus.

SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses are lower in children and increase with age and time after infection

AUTHOR(S)
Carolyn A. Cohen; Athena P. Y. Li; Asmaa Hachim (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Nature Communications
SARS-CoV-2 infection of children leads to a mild illness and the immunological differences with adults are unclear. Here, we report SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses in infected adults and children and find that the acute and memory CD4+ T cell responses to structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins increase with age, whereas CD8+ T cell responses increase with time post-infection. Infected children have lower CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural and ORF1ab proteins when compared with infected adults, comparable T cell polyfunctionality and reduced CD4+ T cell effector memory. Compared with adults, children have lower levels of antibodies to β-coronaviruses, indicating differing baseline immunity. Total T follicular helper responses are increased, whilst monocyte numbers are reduced, indicating rapid adaptive co-ordination of the T and B cell responses and differing levels of inflammation. Therefore, reduced prior β-coronavirus immunity and reduced T cell activation in children might drive milder COVID-19 pathogenesis.
Knowledge, attitude and practice toward Corona virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public hospitals in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Merga Besho; Reta Tsegaye; Mekdes Tigistu Yilma (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of General Medicine
Pregnancy is an immune-suppressed state which makes pregnant women generally more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Extensive precautions have been recommended to avoid exposure to the virus. Knowledge and attitude toward the disease play an integral role in readiness to accept public health measures. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among 415 pregnant women attending antenatal care at public hospitals in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia from July to August 2020.
Risk of infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adolescents in households, communities and educational settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Omar Irfan; Jiang Li; Kun Tang (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Global Health
There is uncertainty with respect to SARS-CoV-2 transmission in children (0-19 years) with controversy on effectiveness of school-closures in controlling the pandemic. It is of equal importance to evaluate the risk of transmission in children who are often asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic carriers that may incidentally transmit SARS-CoV-2 in different settings. This review aims to assess transmission and risks for SARS-CoV-2 in children (by agegroups or grades) in community and educational-settings compared to adults. Data for the review were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WHO COVID-19 Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database, WanFang Database, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Google Scholar, and preprints from medRixv and bioRixv) covering a timeline from December 1, 2019 to April 1, 2021.
Impact of coronavirus 2019 on mental health and lifestyle adaptations of pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Mona Hashim; Ayla Coussa; Ayesha S. Al Dhaher (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

In light of the pandemic, pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to increased psychological distress and in need of imperative preventive measures. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on mental health, lifestyle adaptations, and their determinants among pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates. A survey was conducted electronically between June and August 2020. Pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in the UAE and invited to participate in an online survey developed on Google Forms. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, the Impact of Event Scale- Revised, the Perceived Support Scale and lifestyle-related factors.

Diagnostic imaging in the newborn, child and adolescent infected with SARS-CoV-2: is there a realistic alternative to lung-HRCT and chest X-rays ? A systematic review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Costantino Caroselli; Michael Blaivas; Sara Falzetti

Published: July 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology home
Chest computed tomography (CT) has been frequently used to evaluate patients with potential COVID-19 infection. However, this may be particularly risky for pediatric patients due to high doses of ionizing radiation.This study sought to evaluate COVID-19 imaging options in pediatric patients based on published literature.It performed an exhaustive literature review focusing on COVID-19 imaing of pediatric patients. Researcher used “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV2”, “coronavirus”, “2019-nCoV”, “Wuhan virus”, “lung ultrasound (LUS)”, “sonography”, “lung HRCT”, “children”, “childhood” and “newborn” as search terms to query online databases including: US National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), LitCovid, WHO COVID-19 database and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline Bireme). Articles meeting inclusion criteria were included in the analysis and review.
Prevalence and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in childcare facilities: a longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Luise Haag; Judith Blankenburg; Manja Unrath (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
This study aims to evaluate the role of childcare facilities in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, we conducted a longitudinal study to gain further knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, transmission and spread among preschool children, their parents and caretakers. Children between 1 and 6 years of age, their parents and caregivers in 14 childcare facilities in Dresden, Saxony/Germany were invited to participate in the KiTaCoviDD19-study between July 2020 and January 2021. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was assessed up to 4 times during the study period in all participating adults and personal characteristics as well as epidemiologic information of personal SARS-CoV-2 history were obtained. Samples for stool virus shedding of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by PCR every 2-4 weeks in all participating children.
The toll of COVID-19 on African children: a descriptive analysis on the COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality among the pediatric population in Sub-Saharan Africale myopericarditis after vaccination with the Pfizer- BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 mR

AUTHOR(S)
Sabina Rodriguez Velásquez; Léa Jacques; Jyoti Dalal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Few data on the COVID-19 epidemiological characteristics among the pediatric population in Africa exists. This paper examines the age and sex distribution of the morbidity and mortality rate in children with COVID-19 and compares it to the adult population within 15 Sub-Saharan African countries. A merge line listing dataset shared by countries within the Regional Office for Africa was analyzed. Patients diagnosed within 1 March and 1 September 2020 with confirmed positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Children's data were stratified into three age groups: 0-4 years, 5-11 years, and 12-17 years, while adults were combined. The cumulative incidence of cases, its medians, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

Implementation of a pooled surveillance testing program for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in K-12 schools and universities

AUTHOR(S)
Rachelle P. Mendoza; Chongfeng Bi; Hui-Ting Cheng (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
The negative impact of continued school closures during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic warrants the establishment of cost-effective strategies for surveillance and screening to safely reopen and monitor for potential in-school transmission. This paper presents a novel approach to increase the availability of repetitive and routine COVID-19 testing that may ultimately reduce the overall viral burden in the community. This study implemented a testing program using the SalivaClear࣪ pooled surveillance method that included students, faculty and staff from K-12 schools (student age range 5–18 years) and universities (student age range >18 years) across the country (Mirimus Clinical Labs, Brooklyn, NY). The data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, kappa agreement, and outlier detection analysis.
Maternal outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19 severity among pregnant women

AUTHOR(S)
Manon Vouga; Guillaume Favre; Oscar Martinez‑Perez (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Pregnant women may be at higher risk of severe complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may lead to obstetrical complications. We performed a case control study comparing pregnant women with severe coronavirus disease 19 (cases) to pregnant women with a milder form (controls) enrolled in the COVI-Preg international registry cohort between March 24 and July 26, 2020. Risk factors for severity, obstetrical and immediate neonatal outcomes were assessed. A total of 926 pregnant women with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 were included, among which 92 (9.9%) presented with severe COVID-19 disease. Risk factors for severe maternal outcomes were pulmonary comorbidities [aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.9–9.5], hypertensive disorders [aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0–7.0] and diabetes [aOR2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.5].
Children’s role in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review of early surveillance data on susceptibility, severity, and transmissibility

AUTHOR(S)
KatyA. M. Gaythorpe; Sangeeta Bhatia; Tara Mangal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in all age groups including infants, children, and adolescents. However, the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is still uncertain. This systematic review of early studies synthesises evidence on the susceptibility of children to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the severity and clinical outcomes in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 by children in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Reviewers extracted data from relevant, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 4th 2020 during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak using a standardised form and assessed quality using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.
46 - 60 of 256

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.