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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Impact of COVID-19 on achieving the goal of sustainable development: E-learning and educational productivity

Xin-Yu Wang; Guang Li; Summaira Malik (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Economic Research = Ekonomska Istraživanja
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a thought-provoking impact on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that were approved by United Nations in the year 2015. Therefore, taking this very consideration forward, this study primarily explores the impact of COVID-19, particularly on the SDG number 4, i.e., education. Due to the COVID-19 contagion, given the unusual and never been experienced circumstances, educational institutions all over the world have been forced to establish their e-learning systems practically overnight. For this purpose, this study collected the relevant data from middle school students, by using a technique known as convenience sampling. Furthermore, moving on in the same context, it also developed an integrated model with five dimensions, i.e., Learner, Design, Technology, Instructor, and Environment, in order to gauge this relationship in further detail.
Technology integration for young children during COVID-19: towards future online teaching

Xinyun Hu; Ming Ming Chiu; Wai Man Vivienne Leung (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BJET
To support young children's learning during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, preschool educators in Hong Kong were required to teach with digital technologies. In this study, 1035 educators from 169 preschools reported their views and practices in an online survey, which we examined via multilevel mixed-response analysis and thematic analysis. More than half of the respondents (53%) expected future online teaching to continue, and only 11% of educators believed that parents would reject this form of delivery. Administrators and teaching assistants were more likely than teachers to expect online preschool teaching to continue in the future.
Adolescent vision health during the outbreak of COVID-19: association between digital screen use and myopia progression

Ji Liu; Baihuiyu Li; Yan Sun (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted education systems globally, making digital devices common arrangements for adolescent learning. However, vision consequences of such behavioral changes are not well-understood. This study investigates the association between duration of daily digital screen engagement and myopic progression among 3,831 Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Study subjects report an average of 2.70 (SD = 1.77), 3.88 (SD = 2.23), 3.58 (SD = 2.30), and 3.42 (SD = 2.49) hours of television, computer, and smartphone for digital learning use at home, respectively. Researchers analyzed the association between digital screen use and myopic symptoms using statistical tools, and find that every 1 h increase in daily digital screen use is associated with 1.26 OR [Odds Ratio] (95% CI [Confidence Interval: 1.21–1.31, p < 0.001]) higher risks of myopic progression.
Screen time for preschool children: learning from home during the COVID-19 pandemic

Indri Hapsari Susilowati; Susiana Nugraha; Sudibyo Alimoeso (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Global Pediatric Health
Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Indonesian Government enacted a study at home policy for all students. This policy also applied to preschool children aged 2 to 6 years old. The purpose of the research was to examine the duration and impact of digital media use by preschool children in urban areas in Indonesia during weekdays and weekends. Data were collected using a validated questionnaire called the Surveillance of digital-Media hAbits in earLy chiLdhood Questionnaire (SMALLQ®). A total of 951 parents or guardians (17-70 years old) who had preschool children volunteered to complete the questionnaire online.
Experiences and attitudes of elementary school students and their parents toward online learning in China during the COVID-19 pandemic: questionnaire study

Shu Cui; Chao Zhang; Shijiang Wang (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Due to widespread SARS-CoV-2 infection, an emergency homeschooling plan was rigorously implemented throughout China. This study aimed to investigate the experiences and attitudes of elementary school students and their parents (two generations from the same family) toward online learning in China during the pandemic.
Cite this research | Vol.: 23 | Issue: 5 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: COVID-19 response, e-learning, lockdown, parent-child relationship, remote learning, school attendance | Countries: China
Improving the model of family-school interaction with the help of digital education

Jamileh Alamolhoda

Published: May 2021   Journal: Contemporary School Psychology
The study of the consequences of school education has proved the need for reinforcement family interventions in school education and also the need to improve the model of family-school interaction (FSI). The family and the school are two complementary educational institutions. But the emergence of digital technologies and especially the critical situation caused by the outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19) has paved the way for their further interaction. However, both the family and the school have faced serious changes in their educational tasks and functions, and have raised questions about the possibility of upgrading the FSI and possible changes in curriculum. The present study is qualitative and the data collection tool is in-depth interview. Participators in the study are 24 teachers and parents of 6–11-year-old male and female learners who are involved in virtual education.
Disengaged, positive, or negative: parents’ attitudes toward learning from home amid COVID-19 pandemic

Ahmad R. Pratama; Firman M. Firmansyah

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many countries to close their schools and to change their education system to adopt the learning from home (LFH) method, which arguably requires more direct involvement from parents to succeed. This study explored parent’s attitudes toward LFH policy based on a survey of 261 participants from 16 provinces in Indonesia. Employing latent class analysis, we revealed three distinct groups of parents with unique compounds of attitudes toward LFH (i.e., disengaged, positive, and negative). Disengaged parents neither consider LFH useful, nor do they see it as demanding. In contrast, the other two groups of parents have quite the opposite views on the usefulness and demandingness of LFH. Further analysis using multinomial logistic regression revealed that older parents from low-income households tend to be disengaged while fathers of young children tend to have negative attitudes toward LFH. Interestingly, the ownership of a personal computer at home seems to be a key indicator of parents with positive attitudes toward LFH after controlling for other demographic factors. How the findings provide a firsthand insight on the existence of digital divide by highlighting the importance of access to personal computers at home is further discussed.
Students’ online learning challenges during the pandemic and how they cope with them: the case of the Philippines

Jessie S. Barrot; Ian I. Llenares; Leo S. del Rosario

Published: May 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
Recently, the education system has faced an unprecedented health crisis that has shaken up its foundation. Given today’s uncertainties, it is vital to gain a nuanced understanding of students’ online learning experience in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although many studies have investigated this area, limited information is available regarding the challenges and the specific strategies that students employ to overcome them. Thus, this study attempts to fill in the void. Using a mixed-methods approach, the findings revealed that the online learning challenges of college students varied in terms of type and extent
Widening the divide: the impact of school closures on primary science learning

Cherry Canovan; Naomi Fallon

Published: May 2021   Journal: SN Social Sciences volume
Prolonged Covid-19-related school closures in the UK raised concerns that science teaching and learning at primary level would be negatively impacted. This paper reports the findings of phase 1 of a study that the authors are conducting with teachers and parents to explore this issue. We found that a significant proportion of teachers were providing less science during lockdown than in the normal school week. Teachers, particularly those working in more deprived areas, reported that translating the science curriculum for home learning had been difficult, with concerns around resources, internet access and parental ability to help. Some areas of the curriculum posed particular difficulties, leading to a narrowing of topics being taught. Both teachers and parents felt that schools prioritised English and maths above science. Meanwhile some parents reported that their children had engaged in sophisticated extracurricular activities, bolstered by resources available at home and knowledgeable adult help, but others said that their children had done no science at all.
A peer-to-peer live-streaming intervention for children during COVID-19 homeschooling to promote physical activity and reduce anxiety and eye strain: cluster randomized controlled trial

Yingfeng Zheng; Wei Wang; Yuxin Zhong (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Medical Internet Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to worldwide school closures, with millions of children confined to online learning at home. As a result, children may be susceptible to anxiety and digital eye strain, highlighting a need for population interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a digital behavior change intervention aimed at promoting physical activity could reduce children’s anxiety and digital eye strain while undergoing prolonged homeschooling during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Sink or swim: virtual life challenges among African American families during COVID-19 lockdown

Adaobi Anakwe; Wilson Majee; Kemba Noel-London (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study explores African American parents’ experiences with using technology to engage their children in meaningful activities (e.g., e-learning) during COVID-19 and its impact on family health. Eleven African American families were recruited through a local health department program from a rural Midwestern community to participate in semi-structured interviews. Majority of participants reported stresses from feelings of “sink or swim” in a digital world, without supports from schools to effectively provide for their children’s technology needs. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the importance of family-school collaborative engagement and empowerment. Digital technology needs to become part of our school education system so that technology use among African Americans is elevated and families protected against future outbreaks.
COVID 19 response: an analysis of teachers’ perception on pedagogical successes and challenges of digital teaching practice during new normal

Arnab Kundu; Tripti Bej

Published: April 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
The purpose of this exploratory study undertaken between June and August 2020 was to capture teachers’ perspectives to explore (a) what kind of pedagogies they have successfully implemented in the face of a pandemic; (b) what hurdles and successes did they encounter while implementing virtual teaching-learning; and (c) how virtual pedagogies can be improved. Data was collected using purposive sampling via 47 social media groups and pages, using internet survey as an instrument from 141 teachers, teaching kindergarten and elementary students, from different regions (continents) of the world.
Distance education in COVID-19 pandemic: an evaluation of parent’s, child’s and teacher’s competences

Tuğba Öçal; Medera Halmatov; Samet Ata

Published: April 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
COVID-19 has caused profound changes in various dimensions of people’s lives. Education system is one of the areas affected most; and there have been profound changes mainly with regard to teachers, students and parents. The main purpose of this research is to analyse the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on ICT competences and experiences of classroom teachers and parents in various dimensions. Scales were developed to collect data for the research. The reliability of the scale was examined by calculating Cronbach Alpha coefficients; which were .690 and .793 for the Distance Education and Pandemic Scale; respectively. In the second study a total of 1345 people participated in the study, including 841 classroom teachers and 504 parents whose children attending primary schools. The findings of the second study revealed significant differences between teachers and parents. Based on the findings of the current study, following suggestions could be given; both parents and teachers should be informed and educated about ICT usage. Teachers should use digital applications like Web 2.0 tools which will direct them through interactive way of teaching.
Why flipping the classroom is not enough: digital curriculum making after the pandemic

Susanne Backes; Isabell Baumann; Dominic Harion (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Prospects
To slow down the proliferation of Covid-19, governments virtually shut down public life, temporarily closed schools, and forced teaching to be done exclusively on a remote basis. These measures ofer an opportunity to reexamine conventional teaching and learning arrangements, test new digital and analogue concepts, and provide essential inspiration for curriculum making in the twenty-frst century. This article addresses the historical development of schooling in the classroom as diferentiated from “homeschooling”. On one hand, the question of how school closures and digitally supported teaching settings may afect an increase in educational inequalities is investigated using an international comparison. On the other hand, the pedagogical and didactical implications of distance learning and a digital teaching culture, which constitute the foundation for digital curriculum making, are examined.
Homeschooling during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: the role of students’ trait self-regulation and task attributes of daily learning tasks for students’ daily self-regulation

Friederike Blume; Andrea Schmidt; Andrea C. Kramer

Published: April 2021   Journal: Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft
As a means to counter the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, schools were closed throughout Germany between mid-March and end of April 2020. Schooling was translocated to the students’ homes where students were supposed to work on learning tasks provided by their teachers. Students’ self-regulation and attributes of the learning tasks may be assumed to have played important roles when adapting to this novel schooling situation. They may be predicted to have influenced students’ daily self-regulation and hence the independence with which they worked on learning tasks. The present work investigated the role of students’ trait self-regulation as well as task difficulty and task enjoyment for students’ daily independence from their parents in learning during the homeschooling period.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.