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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 42
The race against COVID-19: outpacing the pandemic for children in Senegal
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: July 2021

Since the first identified case on 2 March 2020 until 13 July 2021, more than 1,200 people have lost their lives, meaning that too many boys and girls suffered the tragic and permanent loss of a grandparent, parent, caregiver or loved one. More than 46,860 persons tested positive, implying that and even greater number of loved ones might have fallen ill, making it hard for them to care for family, keep plans or sustain employment. Meanwhile, almost every household in Senegal was affected by restrictions designed to contain the first wave. While the strict measures were largely successful in limiting the spread of the virus, they also affected key sectors of the economy, disrupted supply chains and markets, and affected both the demand for, and availability of, social services. Essentially, COVID-19 impacted almost every aspect of life, particularly in the first quarter of 2020, which we now recognize as the first “leg” in a multi-year, planet-wide marathon to outpace the pandemic. With the closure of schools and disruption of many basic services, child protection mechanisms also lapsed, triggering a crisis for children with considerable socio-economic costs.

COVID-19: the turning point for gender equality

AUTHOR(S)
Senait Fisseha; Gita Sen; Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus; Henrietta H. Fore (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have gone far beyond the disease itself. In addition to the increasing number of COVID-19 deaths, the pandemic has deepened social and economic inequalities. These indirect impacts have been compounded by pervasive gender inequalities, with profound consequences, especially for women, girls, and people of diverse gender identities. There has been an escalation in gender-based violence within households, increasing numbers of child marriages and female genital mutilation, and an increased burden of unpaid care work, with impacts on mental health. Communities of people affected by HIV are, again, at the crossroads of injustice and targeted discrimination. Measures to control the pandemic have reduced access to essential health and social welfare services, including sexual and reproductive health services, reduced employment and labour force participation, and decimated many household incomes. Here again, women have borne the brunt of marginalisation, particularly those working in the informal sector. Intersectionality analyses have highlighted the inextricable effects of poverty, racial discrimination, harmful gender norms, and limited agency and opportunities for women, especially already marginalised women, even when they represent most of the front-line health workers. The diversion of funds from other health and development programmes into economic recovery means that the pandemic is further eroding health gains made over decades, stalling progress on tackling gender inequalities.
Early marriage and teenage pregnancy: the unspoken consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Shuaibu Saidu Musa; Goodness Ogeyi Odey; Muhammad Kabir Musa (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health in Practice
Early marriage and its sad consequences to the girl child and socio-economic development of the nation has been an age-long issue being advocated against in many parts of Nigeria. At the onset of COVID-19, the teeming efforts to curb this issue almost got jeopardized with harsh economic situations in many households due to the lockdown and the willingness to marry off their girls to reduce this burden. Closure of schools and cases of sexual gender based violence also impacted the prevalence of early marriage during the pandemic in Nigeria.
Will malnutrition, morbidities, and household environmental characteristics are risk factors of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among children under five in India?

AUTHOR(S)
Jay Saha; Pradip Chouhan

Published: July 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (2019-nCoV) outbreak, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst serious global risk to humanity in the last century and linked with various risk factors. This study aims to find out the risk zone associated with Coronavirus disease among children under-five age using malnourished status, pre-existing morbidity conditions, poor household environmental conditions, and also with case fatality rate (CFR) and active case rate (ACR) of COVID-19 in India.

Race, ethnicity, poverty and the social determinants of the coronavirus divide: U.S. county-level disparities and risk factors

AUTHOR(S)
Laura J. Samuel; Darrell J. Gaskin; Antonio, J. Trujillo (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

Communities with more Black or Hispanic residents have higher coronavirus rates than communities with more White residents, but relevant community characteristics are underexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate poverty-, race- and ethnic-based disparities and associated economic, housing, transit, population health and health care characteristics. Six-month cumulative coronavirus incidence and mortality were examined using adjusted negative binomial models among all U.S. counties (n = 3142). County-level independent variables included percentages in poverty and within racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian), and rates of unemployment, lacking a high school diploma, housing cost burden, single parent households, limited English proficiency, diabetes, obesity, smoking, uninsured, preventable hospitalizations, primary care physicians, hospitals, ICU beds and households that were crowded, in multi-unit buildings or without a vehicle.

Predictors of medical mistrust among urban youth of color during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Marcia J. Ash; Jannette Berkley-Patton; Kelsey Christensen (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Translational Behavioral Medicine
The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted communities of color and highlighted longstanding racial health inequities. Communities of color also report higher rates of medical mistrust driven by histories of medical mistreatment and continued experiences of discrimination and systemic racism. Medical mistrust may exacerbate COVID-19 disparities. This study utilizes the Behavior Model for Vulnerable Populations to investigate predictors of medical mistrust during the COVID-19 pandemic among urban youth of color. Minority youth (N = 105) were recruited from community organizations in Kansas City, Missouri to complete an online survey between May and June 2020. Multiple linear regressions were performed to estimate the effect of personal characteristics, family and community resources, and COVID-19 need-based factors on medical mistrust.
Food insecurity and affecting factors in households with children during the Covid-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Gizem Deniz Bulucu Büyüksoy; Aslıhan Çatıker; Kamuran Özdil

Published: June 2021   Journal: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness

This study aims to examine the incidence of food insecurity and affecting factors in households with children in Turkey during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were recruited by the snowball sampling method and the data were collected via a link sent to their smart mobile phones through their social media accounts. This study included 211 households with at least one child.

Child labour: global estimates 2020, trends and the road forward
Institution: *UNICEF, International Labour Organization
Published: June 2021

The latest global estimates indicate that the number of children in child labour has risen to 160 million worldwide – an increase of 8.4 million children in the last four years. 63 million girls and 97 million boys were in child labour globally at the beginning of 2020, accounting for almost 1 in 10 of all children worldwide. This report warns that global progress to end child labour has stalled for the first time in 20 years. The number of children aged 5 to 17 years in hazardous work – defined as work that is likely to harm their health, safety or morals – has risen by 6.5 million to 79 million since 2016. In sub-Saharan Africa, population growth, extreme poverty, and inadequate social protection measures have led to an additional 16.6 million children in child labour over the past four years. Additional economic shocks and school closures caused by COVID-19 mean that children already in child labour may be working longer hours or under worsening conditions, while many more may be forced into the worst forms of child labour due to job and income losses among vulnerable families. The report warns that globally 9 million additional children are at risk of being pushed into child labour by the end of 2022 as a result of the pandemic. Children in child labour are at risk of physical and mental harm. Child labour compromises children’s education, restricting their rights and limiting their future opportunities, and leads to vicious inter-generational cycles of poverty and child labour.

A new educational normal an intersectionality-led exploration of education, learning technologies, and diversity during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Enrico Gandolfi; Richard E. Ferdig; Annette Kratcoski

Published: June 2021   Journal: Technology in Society
The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated the learning technologies disparity in the U.S. K-12 education system, thus broadening an already existing and troublesome digital divide. Low-income and minority students and families were particularly disadvantaged in accessing hardware and software technologies to support teaching and learning. Moreover, the homicide of George Floyd fostered a new wave of inquiry about racism and inequality, questioning often enabled with and through technology and social media. To address these issues, this article explores how parents and teachers experienced the pandemic through intersectional and digital divide-driven lenses.
The stay at home order is causing things to get heated up: family conflict dynamics during COVID-19 from the perspectives of youth calling a national child abuse hotline

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Sinko; Yuan He; Rachel Kishton (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
The purpose of this study was to identify changes in family conflict and abuse dynamics during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders from the perspectives of youth calling a national child abuse hotline. We analyzed text and chat transcripts from Childhelp’s National Child Abuse Hotline from May–June 2020 that were flagged as coming from a child with a COVID-19-related concern (N = 105). Thematic analysis was used to identify COVID-19 related influences of family conflict as well as how COVID-19 constraints influenced coping and survival for youth reporting distress or maltreatment to the hotline.
Monitoring the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 on Djiboutian and refugee households in Djibouti : results from the third wave of survey

AUTHOR(S)
Bilal Malaeb; Anne Duplantier; Romeo Jacky Gansey

Institution: The World Bank
Published: May 2021
The third round of data collection on monitoring of socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic in Djibouti followed urban national households based on two previous waves of data collection as well as a replacement sub-sample. This round also includes a refugee sub-sample, covering urban refugees and those based in refugee villages. Economic recovery in Djibouti continues to follow a positive trend. Breadwinners from Djiboutian households continue to come back to work. Only 4 percent of those working before the pandemic were not working at the time of the survey. Even when counting those who were not working before the pandemic, 83 percent of all national households' breadwinners are now working – continuing strong trends from waves 1 and 2.
COVID-19 among minority children in Detroit, Michigan during the early national surge of the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jocelyn Y. Ang; Nirupama Kannikeswaran; Katherine Parker

Published: May 2021   Journal: Global Pediatric Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on communities of racial/ethnic minority groups in the US where long-standing health issues and structural inequities are now known to have resulted in increased risk for infection, severe illness, and death from the virus. The objective of our study was to describe demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, medical interventions and outcomes of pediatric patients with COVID-19 treated at Children’s Hospital of Michigan (CHM), a tertiary care center in urban Detroit, an early hotspot during the initial surge of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
A make-believe confinement for Brazilian young children in the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Gabriela Tebet; Anete Abramowicz; Jader Lopes

Published: May 2021   Journal: Children's Geographies
Brazil is one of the countries that were most affected by COVID-19. This article aims to present a viewpoint on how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the lives of people in Brazil, emphasizing the impacts on the lives of the youth, showing how the global crisis emerges with particularities in Brazil and affects the private lives of the population in a heterogeneous way. In this text, we support the idea that Brazilian children did not experience a pandemic quarantine, but only a school quarantine; moreover, the pandemic affects different social groups of the country unequally, mainly affecting the poor, black, and indigenous populations.
COVID-19 and disconnected youth: lessons and opportunities from OECD countries

AUTHOR(S)
Ashley N. Palmer; Eusebius Small

Published: May 2021   Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health

This paper highlights how the novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has amplified economic instability and health risks for disconnected youth and young adults (YYA). We offer a brief review of governmental policy responses in four OECD countries and how they may impact the disconnect YYA within those countries. Literature was reviewed utilizing Cochrane Library, ERIC, PsychINFO, PubMed/MEDLINE and Web of Science to outline existing inequities among disconnected YYA and COVID-19 economic and health impacts. Government responses to COVID-19 from four OECD countries were reviewed. Using the social protection model, we highlighted significant policy changes and developments that influence the protection of vulnerable populations and evaluated the potential effect of long-term economic dislocations prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Children in monetary poor households: baseline and COVID-19 impact for 2020 and 2021

AUTHOR(S)
Oliver Fiala; Enrique Delamónica; Gerardo Escaroz (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Economics of Disasters and Climate Change
The impact of the global economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic will not affect all children equally: those in poorer households and children who are disadvantaged face the most serious consequences. As parents lose their jobs and incomes, the impact on children living in impoverished households must be measured. In this article, we assess the economic consequences of the pandemic on these children. Given that poorer families have a larger number of children than other families, the analysis first establishes the proportion of children living in monetary poor households, as defined by national standards, across developing countries. Then, using historical changes and trends of income distribution per country, the latest projections about economic decline due to the pandemic, and demographic information about the distribution of children by deciles, this study estimates the expected increase in the number of children in monetary poor households in developing countries as of end of 2020 to be an additional 122–144 million and, at best, a moderate decline in these numbers by end of 2021.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.