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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 188
COVID-19 and the Rohingya revugees in Bangladesh: socioeconomic and health impacts on women and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Bezon Kumar; Susmita Dey Pinky; Orindom Shing Pulock (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies 1
COVID-19 has exacerbated the existing crisis that the vulnerable refugee population faces. More than a million Rohingya refugees live in Bangladesh. COVID-19 has affected both males and females. It is critical to understand how this population group is coping during this trying period. They are constituted by 52% women and 55% adolescents. The socioeconomic and physiological repercussions of the pandemic on the Rohingya people are contextualised in this study. The socioeconomic and health impacts of COVID-19 on Rohingya women and adolescents in Bangladesh are investigated. Because of the restrictions imposed, over 63% of Rohingya adolescent females suffered from food scarcity. The vast majority of respondents (87%) stated that they had reduced their meal frequency, resulting in a protein deficiency. Since their arrival in Bangladesh, they have had limited access to medical and educational facilities. The pandemic has further exacerbated the situation. Girls are more vulnerable to sexual and gender-based abuse, early marriage, school dropout, and pregnancy. This research aims to add to existing knowledge on refugees, Rohingya, women, and adolescents
Knowledge and risk assessment of depression among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Marianna Charzyńska-Gula; Aneta Sabat; Barbara Ślusarska (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Education, Health and Sport

Depression, perceived in terms of a health problem, is a disorder that spreads dynamically in the youth population. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the problem. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and the risk of depression in the environment of a selected group of young people in the initial period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study group consisted of 100 people - school students aged 15-20 years. An original questionnaire and the Kutcher Depression Scale for Youth were used. Results: The level of knowledge of adolescents about the risk factors for depression and symptoms that may indicate depression is average. Young people acquire knowledge from the Internet (41%) and TV programs (16%). Symptoms of depression were more frequent in: older participants of the study, those who assessed their financial situation as low, and students who had experience of depression in their family.

Essential work and emergency childcare: identifying gender differences in COVID-19 effects on labour demand and supply

AUTHOR(S)
Jordy Meekes; Wolter H. J. Hassink; Guyonne Kalb

Published: July 2022   Journal: Oxford Economic Papers,
This study examines whether the COVID-19 crisis affects women and men differently in terms of employment, working hours, and hourly wages, and whether the effects are demand or supply driven. COVID-19 impacts are studied using administrative data on all Dutch employees up to December 2020, focussing on the national lockdowns and emergency childcare for essential workers in the Netherlands. First, the impact of COVID-19 is much larger for non-essential workers than for essential workers. Although female non-essential workers are more affected than male non-essential workers, on average, women and men are equally affected, because more women than men are essential workers. Second, the impact for partnered essential workers with young children, both men and women, is not larger than for others. Third, single-parent essential workers respond with relatively large reductions in labour supply, suggesting emergency childcare was insufficient for them. Overall, labour demand effects appear larger than labour supply effects.
Mothers with justice‐involved sons: Socioeconomic impacts of COVID‐19 by neighborhood disorder in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Alyssa LaBerge; Amanda Isabel Osuna; Caitlin Cavanagh (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Social Issues
Women, particularly mothers, have faced disparate socioeconomic consequences throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Research has yet to examine whether the consequences of the pandemic vary based on the level of neighborhood disorder, which is associated with various health conditions, including COVID-19 complications. The present study utilizes data from a diverse sample of 221 women with justice-involved sons interviewed during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Negative binominal and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived neighborhood social disorder is related to socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the relation varies for mothers with and without children in their home during the pandemic.
'Each one of us has a dream': gender-responsive education and economic empowerment for refugee youth in Lebanon

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Elizabeth Presler-Marshall; Agnieszka Małachowska (et al.)

Published: July 2022

Echoing global trends, where the absolute number of displaced persons continues to grow in tandem with the proportion of people living in protracted displacement, the vast majority of both Syrian and Palestinian refugee communities in Lebanon have been there for 10 years or longer. So, how can decision-makers lay the foundations for gender-responsive education systems and economic empowerment for refugee youth in Lebanon? The collapse of Lebanon’s GDP by 58% during recent years has resulted not only in an explosion of demand for humanitarian assistance, but also created growing concerns about meeting SDG targets. Questions arise over how best to support adolescents and young people to transition into adulthood in the midst of such intertwined, and escalating, crises. This ODI Report began with an extensive review of secondary data, and uses primary qualitative data collected from Syrian and Palestinian refugees living in Lebanon over the first half of 2021. Our research aims to identify programming proposals and recommended actions for donor and policy-makers to facilitate the economic and educational success for all young refugees living permanently outside their country's borders.

Cash transfers in pandemic times: evidence, practices, and implications from the largest scale up in history

AUTHOR(S)
Gentilini Ugo

Institution: The World Bank
Published: July 2022
Is Coronavirus (Covid-19) a “game changer” for cash transfers? This tantalizing question has animated a large body of recent literature and over 60 virtual panels. This paper offers some clues to address the question by bringing together data, evaluations and practical experiences generated over the course of the pandemic. In particular, the paper flashes out differences between Covid-19 and other crises; it lays out an anatomy of global responses and offers novel data analysis around stylized international trends; synthesizes fresh empirical evidence on response effectiveness based on over 40 evaluations; discusses country-level operational practices as emerging from an array of high and lower-income contexts; and distills key insights with possible future implications.
World report on the health of refugees and migrants
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: July 2022

Worldwide, more people are on the move now than ever before, yet many refugees and migrants face poorer health outcomes than the host populations. Addressing their health needs is, therefore, a global health priority and integral to the principle of the right to health for all. The key is to strengthen and maintain health systems by ensuring that they are refugee- and migrant-sensitive and inclusive. Health outcomes are influenced by a whole host of determinants. However, refugees and migrants face additional determinants such as precarious legal status; discrimination; social, cultural, linguistic, administrative and financial barriers; lack of information about health entitlements; low health literacy; and fear of detention and deportation. This groundbreaking publication outlines current and future opportunities and challenges and provides several strategies to improve the health and well-being of refugees and migrants. It is an advocacy tool for national and international policy-makers involved in health and migration.

Implications of COVID-19 labour market shock for child and household hungers in South Africa: do social protection programs protect?

AUTHOR(S)
Dambala Gelo; Johane Dikgang

Published: July 2022   Journal: Plos One

Recent studies have confirmed that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused massive job losses. However, the impact of this loss on food security is not well-understood. Moreover, a paucity of evidence exists regarding social protection grants’ countervailing effects against such shocks. This study examined the effects of job loss (labour income loss) on child and household hungers (our two measures food insecurity) during COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. It also ascertained whether these effect were offset by alternative social grant programs to document the protective role of the latter.It used South Africa’s National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) and the Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (CRAM) data. These data cover a nationally representative sample of 7073 individuals. We employed a probit model to estimate the effect of job loss and receipts of various social grants on child and households’ hungers. It also estimated the double-selection logit model to account for the model’s uncertainty surrounding the variable selection and treatment-effects estimation using lasso (Telasso) for causal inference of our analysis.

Child labour and education in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jack Iván Vidal Chica; Efstathios Stefos; Raquel Gilar Corbi (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Sociedad & Tecnología
Child labour is a worldwide issue with a major impact on access to education, Latin America being one of the regions heavily affected by this type of illegal activity, the data were not very encouraging and with the COVID19 pandemic the situation worsened. This study uses data, of 117,189 girls and boys between the ages of 5 and 14, obtained from National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment (ENEMDU), with the aim to analyse education and child labour situation in Ecuador through pandemic in 2020, a complete descriptive analysis was developed in order to display the main differentiation criteria and the classification into groups of the people investigated, the results are confirmed by factor analysis.
Effects of socioeconomic status, parental stress, and family support on children's physical and emotional health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Scrimin; Libera Ylenia Mastromatteo; Ani Hovnanyan (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The current study conducts an exploratory study on children’s emotional and physical health in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The direct and interactive effects of parental stress, family socioeconomic status (SES), and family support on child adjustment were investigated. A total of 116 children of varied socioeconomic and their parents were interviewed. Parents with low household income perceived greater distress related to uncertainty and health worries compared to those with higher household income. However, it was among high-SES families that parental distress was associated with child difficulties. At a multivariate level, children’s health was associated with SES, family support, and parental COVID-19 stress. Among families with low household income, when parents perceived low/average COVID-19 stress, family support worked as a protective factor for children’s adjustment. Understanding how COVID-19 relates with children’s emotional and physical health within families with low and high household income may help to inform recommendations for best practices, for example through family support interventions.
Multi-sectoral impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on nutrition outcomes: an analytical framework
Institution: *UNICEF, World Health Organisation, USAID
Published: July 2022
This document describes the process and methodology used to develop the Analytical Framework, explains the different components and provides guidance on how it can be adapted for its application to different contexts for specific nutrition outcomes.
Exploring the nexus of Covid-19, precarious migration and child labour on the Cambodian-Thai border

AUTHOR(S)
Il Oeur; Sochanny Hak; Soeun Cham (et al.)

Institution: Institute of Development Studies
Published: June 2022

This report shares findings from qualitative research on the impacts of Covid-19 on Cambodian migrant workers in four sites along the Cambodia-Thai border. Government restrictions in Thailand and the border closure in February 2020 led to job losses and reduced working hours, and ultimately to an increase in the rate of return migration. Return migrants were forced to use informal points of entry with the facilitation of informal brokers, facing increased costs and risks and, in the process, becoming undocumented. This report shows an unequal access to health services between documented and undocumented migrants. Even in the context of Covid-19, some migrants continue to travel with young children who support the family, mostly through light agricultural work.

A systematic review and meta-analysis on the preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Feifei Li; Wei Liang; Ryan E. Rhodes (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health
The purpose of this review was to synthesize the empirical evidence of relevant studies related to preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents. Further to this, we aimed to identify the demographic, psychological, and social and environmental correlates of such behaviors. Following PRISMA guidelines, eligible literature was identifed by searching seven databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO registry platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov website) and reference list of included studies and relevant review papers from 1st Jan 2020 to 28th Feb 2021. The standardized mean diference and correlation coefcients r were extracted to estimate the efect sizes. Analyses were conducted using R software.
Assessing the prevalence of young children living in households prepared for COVID-19 in 56 low- and middle-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Chunling Lu; Yiqun Luan; Sara N. Naicker (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Global Health Research and Policy

The COVID-19 pandemic and governments’ attempts to contain it are negatively affecting young children’s health and development in ways we are only beginning to understand and measure. Responses to the pandemic are driven largely by confining children and families to their homes. This study aims to assess the levels of and associated socioeconomic disparities in household preparedness for protecting young children under the age of five from being exposed to communicable diseases, such as COVID-19, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Using data from nationally representative household surveys in 56 LMICs since 2016, we estimated the percentages of young children under the age of five living in households prepared for communicable diseases (e.g., COVID-19) and associated residential and wealth disparities at the country- and aggregate-level. Preparedness was defined on the basis of space for quarantine, adequacy of toilet facilities and hand hygiene, mass media exposure at least once a week, and phone ownership. Disparities within countries were measured as the absolute gap in two domains—household wealth and residential area - and compared across regions and country income groups.

Interrupted access to and use of family planning among youth in a community-based service in Zimbabwe during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Constancia V. Mavodza; Sarah Bernays; Constance R. S. Mackworth-Young (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Studies in Family Planning
The COVID-19 pandemic has had serious impacts on economic, social, and health systems, and fragile public health systems have become overburdened in many countries, exacerbating existing service delivery challenges. This study describes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on family planning services within a community-based integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health intervention for youth aged 16–24 years being trialled in Zimbabwe (CHIEDZA). It examines the experiences of health providers and clients in relation to how the first year of the pandemic affected access to and use of contraceptives.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.