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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 32
Child education in the time of pandemic: learning loss and dropout

Muhammad Jehangir Khan; Junaid Ahmed

Published: June 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The disruptive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic had affected the education sector at an unprecedented scale. In order to contain the spread of the virus, a large number of countries across the globe have shut their schools to handle the pandemic. However, it has adversely affected students' learning and school attendance. In this regard, we assess the impact of COVID-19 on the learning loss, school dropout, and the economic costs in term of foregone earnings for children in Pakistan. The study finds a substantial decrease in Learning Adjusted Years of Schooling (LAYS) with worsening consequences for girls than boys. Likewise, the aggregate economic cost amounts to 107 billion dollars when adjusted for human capital utilisation. Besides, our simulation results suggest that about 7.2 million children dropout due to a reduction in household expenditure by 50 percent. In comparison, the dropout is more pronounced at the primary level of schooling. The results recommend that the government design robust social protection and remote education strategies to mitigate school closure’s adverse effect on children's learning. The emphasis should be rather on the long run strategies to cope with a resilient education system of futuristic orientation.
Potential impact of COVID-19 outbreak on education, staff development and training in Africa

Ebrima K. Ceesay

Published: June 2021   Journal: Research in Globalization
The COVID-19 pandemic begins in China in 2019 and because of the connections of China with the rest of the World in trade and businesses, the virus started to spread quickly around the World. This rapidly spread causes serious negative effects on education, small, medium, and large businesses, economic, health, food security, employment, traveling, environment, energy, market, even causes countries to take loans and their debt rises. The specific knowledge about COVID-19 also affects education, which is a source of human capital formation. The data obtained from an online survey, covered from June 2020 to October 2020.
The COVID-19 pandemic impact on pediatric surgery residency programs

Gunadi Gunadi; Naisya Balel; Alvin Santoso Kalim (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Heliyon
The residency program as a part of the clinical services itself has been influenced by the COVID-19 outbreak. Several reports have been published regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the residency programs; however, all studies were performed in developed countries or did not comprehensively analyze what residents think about the COVID-19 impact on their residency program. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pediatric surgery residency program in our institution as an important part of hospital medical services.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the schooling of public and private school students in Pakistan

Hazir Ullah; Johar Ali

Published: May 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
More than 200 countries across the globe, including Pakistan, have closed educational institutions (schools, colleges, universities and madrassas) to contain the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19 pandemic). These closures have disrupted the learning of more than 1.7 billion learners (representing 91 per cent of the total enrolled students) across the world. It attempts to critically examine how schools’ closures in Pakistan perpetuate and reproduce inequalities in education. We have attempted to explore and explain inequalities in education during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and bring the issue of public school students’ learning loss into public debate. The paper is based on qualitative primary data and is analysed and interpreted vis-à-vis the social reproduction theories. We deduce that unequal schools, unequal parenting and geographical location have further inflamed education inequalities in Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic.
Impact of COVID-19 on achieving the goal of sustainable development: E-learning and educational productivity

Xin-Yu Wang; Guang Li; Summaira Malik (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Economic Research = Ekonomska Istraživanja
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a thought-provoking impact on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that were approved by United Nations in the year 2015. Therefore, taking this very consideration forward, this study primarily explores the impact of COVID-19, particularly on the SDG number 4, i.e., education. Due to the COVID-19 contagion, given the unusual and never been experienced circumstances, educational institutions all over the world have been forced to establish their e-learning systems practically overnight. For this purpose, this study collected the relevant data from middle school students, by using a technique known as convenience sampling. Furthermore, moving on in the same context, it also developed an integrated model with five dimensions, i.e., Learner, Design, Technology, Instructor, and Environment, in order to gauge this relationship in further detail.
Technology integration for young children during COVID-19: towards future online teaching

Xinyun Hu; Ming Ming Chiu; Wai Man Vivienne Leung (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BJET
To support young children's learning during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, preschool educators in Hong Kong were required to teach with digital technologies. In this study, 1035 educators from 169 preschools reported their views and practices in an online survey, which we examined via multilevel mixed-response analysis and thematic analysis. More than half of the respondents (53%) expected future online teaching to continue, and only 11% of educators believed that parents would reject this form of delivery. Administrators and teaching assistants were more likely than teachers to expect online preschool teaching to continue in the future.
Teachers and school health leaders' perspectives on distance learning physical education during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jocelyn A. Vilchez; John Kruse; Maryjane Puffer (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of School Health

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, students and teachers have transitioned to online learning. The transition required changes in teaching practices to accommodate for an online learning environment. However, there are no studies characterizing physical educators' and school health experts' perspectives on physical education via distance learning or identifying best practices and their implications for student health. Using purposive and snowball sampling, this research conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 physical education teachers and school health experts across 21 California school districts on best practices for physical education via distance learning. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach.

When it matters most: a trauma-informed, outdoor learning programme to support children's wellbeing during COVID-19 and beyond

Michaela Mulholland; Catriona O'Toole

Published: May 2021   Journal: Irish Educational Studies
This paper presents a unique school-based programme that harnesses the benefits of both trauma-informed practice (TIP) and outdoor environments to support children’s social and emotional wellbeing throughout the pandemic and beyond. In the opening sections of the paper, we discuss the extant literature and conceptual underpinning of TIP and outdoor learning, and highlight why both are needed, particularly in the context of Covid-19. We then chart the design of a six-week outdoor trauma-informed programme, devised to support children’s emotional regulation and overall sense of wellbeing. The programme activities are aligned to the Northern Ireland curriculum, and are tailored to make use of the outdoor spaces available in the first author’s place of work – a primary school in South Belfast.
Kenyan school book knowledge for water, sanitation, hygiene and health education interventions: Disconnect, integration or opportunities?

Carmen Anthonj; Sophie Githinji; Christoph Höser (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Schools, depending on their access to and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and the implementation of healthy behaviours, can be critical for the control and spread of many infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Schools provide opportunities for pupils to learn about the importance of hygiene and WASH-related practice, and build healthy habits and skills, with beneficial medium- and long-term consequences particularly in low- and middle-income countries: reducing pupils' absenteeism due to diseases, promoting physical, mental and social health, and improving learning outcomes. WASH services alone are often not sufficient and need to be combined with educational programmes. As pupils disseminate their acquired health-promoting knowledge to their (extended) families, improved WASH provisions and education in schools have beneficial effects also on the community. International organisations frequently roll out interventions in schools to improve WASH services and, in some cases, train pupils and teachers on safe WASH behaviours. How such interventions relate to local school education on WASH, health promotion and disease prevention knowledge, whether and how such knowledge and school books are integrated into WASH education interventions in schools, are knowledge gaps this study fills.
COVID 19 response: an analysis of teachers’ perception on pedagogical successes and challenges of digital teaching practice during new normal

Arnab Kundu; Tripti Bej

Published: April 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
The purpose of this exploratory study undertaken between June and August 2020 was to capture teachers’ perspectives to explore (a) what kind of pedagogies they have successfully implemented in the face of a pandemic; (b) what hurdles and successes did they encounter while implementing virtual teaching-learning; and (c) how virtual pedagogies can be improved. Data was collected using purposive sampling via 47 social media groups and pages, using internet survey as an instrument from 141 teachers, teaching kindergarten and elementary students, from different regions (continents) of the world.
Virtual kindergarten readiness programming for preschool-aged children: feasibility, social validity, and preliminary impacts

Rebecca Dore; Laura Justice; Abigail K. Mills (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Early Education and Development
The global COVID-19 pandemic prevented the implementation of in-person summer learning programs designed to improve school readiness for entering kindergartners. Thus, we conducted the current study examining the feasibility, social validity, and preliminary impacts of a virtual summer learning program. Ninety-one preschoolers and their caregivers participated in a 4-week program involving one weekly teacher-caregiver meeting, two weekly Watch Together home learning activities, two weekly Play Together home learning activities, one or two weekly Read Together home learning activities, and one or two weekly teacher-child video chat lessons. Recruitment and participation indicated high levels of interest.
The challenges made me stronger: what contributes to young people's resilience in Ethiopia?

Gina Crivello; Agazi Tiumelissan; Karin Heissler

Institution: Young Lives
Published: April 2021
This working paper explores the meanings and experiences of resilience, and its gender dimensions, among a cohort of Ethiopian children exposed to poverty and adversity across the early life course. It asks why some girls and some boys seem to fare well as they transition to adulthood, despite the challenges and obstacles they had faced, while others do less well. The data comprise repeat life history interviews (from ages 12 to 24) and survey questionnaires over a 20-year period (to age 25). Qualitative analysis (n=64) revealed how children’s lives did not follow linear paths, and were easily derailed by unplanned events and shocks, including: (a) climatic shocks; (b) societal influences; (c) school transitions and relations; (d) household changes; and (e) child health and social development. Gender mediated children’s experiences of risk and their individual and family coping mechanisms.
Guidelines to strengthen the right to education in national frameworks
Institution: UNESCO
Published: April 2021

These timely Guidelines were developed precisely with the aim to assist countries and stakeholders to conduct assessments of their national education legal and policy frameworks. The first edition was published in 2014. Today, more than being just a revision, the new Guidelines have been entirely re-designed and re-written to reflect the new context, trends and challenges. They build on the new knowledge we produced, capitalize on the work carried out in countries, and use improved methodological tools.

Shaping the COVID decade: addressing the long-term societal impacts of COVID-19
Institution: British Academy
Published: March 2021

In September 2020, the British Academy was asked by the Government Office for Science to produce an independent review to address the question: What are the long-term societal impacts of COVID-19? This short but substantial question led us to a rapid integration of evidence and an extensive consultation process. As history has shown us, the effects of a pandemic are as much social, cultural and economic as they are about medicine and health. This study aimed to deliver an integrated view across these areas to start understanding the long-term impacts and how to address them. This evidence review concluded that there are nine interconnected areas of long-term societal impact arising from the pandemic which could play out over the coming COVID decade, ranging from the rising importance of local communities, to exacerbated inequalities and a renewed awareness of education and skills in an uncertain economic climate.

Prosocial skills development in children and social value creation during COVID‐19

Ahmad Arslan; Lauri Haapanen; Shlomo Tarba

Published: March 2021   Journal: Strategic Change
Development of prosocial skills in children in their middle childhood and the role of computer games is analyzed in our case study based on an entrepreneurial venture (School of Gaming, Oulu). This venture was launched almost at the same time as the COVID-19 pandemic hit the globe. It has operated successfully during COVID-19, not only in Finland but also has expanded to Indonesia in this limited time period. It created social value by offering the children a possibility to be with their friends during the lockdown as well as develop skills like empathy, sharing, and trust. The case study further revealed that affordable pricing, the use of professional gaming instructors and adaptation played an important role in organizational success during this tough time period.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.