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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 136
Parenting stress during COVID-19 lockdown: correlates with family and child factors

Gen Li; Tony Xin Tan; Peng Wang

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
In response to the COVID-19, a 76-day city-wide strict lockdown was imposed in Wuhan, China. This study aimed to document the family’s psychological status during the lockdown and test the role of family functioning, children’s mental health, child-parent relationship as well as parenting time during pandemic on parenting stress. The results showed that nearly 18% of the children exhibited clinical-level mental health problems. The children’s mental health and child-parent conflict fully mediated general family functioning’s impact on parenting stress. The change in childcaring time moderated the effect of the children’s mental health problems and child-parent conflict on parenting stress.
Investigation of the relationship between family relationships and self-regulation skills of adolescents in the COVID-19 pandemic: an analytical cross-sectional research

Selvinaz Sacan; Sevinç Zeynep Kavruk

Published: June 2022   Journal: Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Health Sciences
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)] pandemic, which surrounded the world, affected all individuals, especially families and children. In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationship between 'adolescents' family relationships and self-regulation skills during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. This analytical-cross-sectional study was conducted with 294 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were reached via social Networks between June 20 and September 20, 2020. In data collection, the Youth Information Form, Family Assessment Scale, and Self-regulation Scale created by the researchers were used.
Returning to normal in an abnormal environment: mothers' COVID-19 uncertainties and uncertainty management strategies

Kimberly K. Walker; Gregory D. Zimet

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Communication
This study used uncertainty management theory to assess mothers’ COVID-19-related uncertainty sources and management strategies during the Delta variant outbreak as the fall 2021 school year approached. Twenty-five mothers living in Indiana were interviewed between July-August 2021. Data indicated four uncertainty sources: COVID-19 illness risk, children’s psychological health, reintegration, and COVID-19 vaccine/prevention rights. COVID-19 illness risk was the most prominent uncertainty theme, and mothers attempted to adapt to it when they could via strategies of strategic decision making, engaging in protective behaviors, and seeking information to guide decisions about their children’s safety. The start of school presented uncertainties about young children’s COVID-19 risk they deemed out of their control, and thus mothers reframed illness uncertainty as the responsibility of others to protect their children.
Parents' perceived stress and children's adjustment during the COVID‐19 lockdown in Italy: the mediating role of family resilience

Francesca Giordano; Athena Daniilidou; Alessandra Cipolla (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Family Relations

This study aimed to explore the role of family resilience in the relationship between parents' psychological stress and their perceptions of children's emotional and behavioral symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. The COVID-19 lockdown threatened the well-being of parents, with a potentially cascading effect on children's adjustment. However, the negative impact of parents' stress on children's well-being may be attenuated in resilient families. During the Italian lockdown, an online survey was administered to 649 parents of at least one child aged between 5 and 17 years. Respondents completed the survey themselves and their child(ren). The Perceived Stress Scale, the Walsh Family Resilience Questionnaire, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered to parents.

Testing a coping scale in Mexican families in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic: exploring the psychometric properties

Xolyanetzin Montero-Pardo; Marla Naiví Toiber-Rodríguez; Joaquín Alberto Padilla-Bautista (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Saludd mental

The rapid spread of the pandemic due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, more commonly known as COVID-19, required sanitary measures, such as social distancing and quarantining, which represented non-normative stressors for Mexican families. This study aimed to obtaini evidence of the validity and reliability of a family coping scale in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was developed containing 48 items, and responses were collected using Google forms with a total of 558 participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to obtain the reliability and validity of the scale.

Family promotion of children's healthy lifestyles during the COVID-19 pandemic in light of Saudi Vision 2030

Ahmed Hassan Rakha; Adil Abalkhail; Dekheel Mohamed Albahadel

Published: May 2022

This study aims to determine the role of the family in promoting an active and healthy lifestyle for children aged 3–12 years during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Qassim region in light of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030 program. This study is important in defining the role of the family in promoting an active lifestyle for children during the COVID-19 pandemic because the family is primarily responsible for promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Responses of 320 parents completing an online survey about their children's physical health during the pandemic were evaluated.

Sibling influences on adolescent alcohol use during the spring 2020 COVID-19 pandemic shutdown

Shawn D. Whiteman; Sahitya Maiya; Jenna R. Cassinat (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
This study aimed to examine the bidirectional associations between adolscent siblings’ alcohol use before and during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spring 2020 and whether youths’ stress about missed social connections (i.e., social disruption stress) moderated these associations. The sample consisted of 682 families (2,046 participants) with two adolescent siblings (older siblings: Mage = 15.67 years, 51% female; younger siblings: Mage = 13.14 years, 48% female) and one parent (Mage = 45.15 years; 85% female) from five Midwestern U.S. states. Siblings reported on their own drinking and social disruption stress before and during the onset of the pandemic via online surveys.
A cross-sectional investigation of psychosocial stress factors in German families with children aged 0-3 years during the COVID-19 pandemic: initial results of the CoronabaBY study

Catherine Buechel; Ina Nehring; Clara Seifert (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

Psychosocial stress during the COVID-19 pandemic is increasing particularly in parents. Although being specifically vulnerable to negative environmental exposures, research on psychosocial stress factors in infants’ and toddlers’ families during the pandemic is so far sparse. The CoronabaBY study investigates the perceived pandemic burden, parenting stress and parent and child mental health problems in families with children aged 0–3 years in Bavaria, Southern Germany. Further, the relationships between these psychosocial stressors are examined and sociodemographic characteristics that may be predictive of these factors will be explored. Participants were cross-sectionally surveyed via smartphone app. Standardized questionnaires on perceived pandemic burden, parenting stress, parental symptoms of depression and anxiety, infants’ crying, sleeping and feeding problems or toddlers’ emotional and behavioral problems were applied.

Parents' modeling during the COVID-19 pandemic: influences on family members' diet quality and satisfaction with-food-related life in dual-earner parents with adolescent children

Berta Schnettler; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata; Ligia Orellana (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Nutrition
Reciprocal family influences in the food domain have been little explored, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. To fill in this gap, this study explored actor and partner effects between parents’ food modeling and parents’ and their adolescent children’s diet quality and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL); and the mediating role of diet quality between modeling and SWFoL. This study used a cross-sectional design. A sample of 430 different-sex dual-earner parents and one adolescent child were recruited in Rancagua, Chile, between March and June 2020. Parents answered the modeling dimension of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. Parents and adolescents answered the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and the SWFoL Scale. Analyses were conducted using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and structural equation modeling.
Who is doing the chores and childcare in dual-earner couples during the COVID-19 era of working from home?

Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia

Published: May 2022
In 2020, parents' work-from-home days increased fourfold following the initial COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period compared to 2015–2019. At the same time, many daycares closed, and the majority of public schools offered virtual or hybrid classrooms, increasing the demand for household-provided childcare. Using time diaries from American Time Use Survey (ATUS) and looking at parents in dual-earner couples, this study examines parents' weekday workday time allocated to paid work, chores, and childcare in the COVID-19 era by the couple's joint work location arrangements. It determines the work location of the ATUS respondent directly from their diary and proxy the partner's work-from-home status using the share of workers reporting work from home in their occupation. When their partners worked on-site, mothers and fathers working from home spent more time on childcare, especially mothers, compared to those on-site; fathers spent more time on household chores. However, only mothers' total unpaid and paid work burden was higher.

The social and economic impact of Covid-19 on family functioning and well-being: where do we go from here?

Claudia Andrade; Martie Gillen; José Alberto Molina (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Family and Economic Issues
A growing body of research demonstrates that COVID-19 has had a profound impact on family functioning and well-being in a range of countries. The fear and uncertainty of the health risks, in addition to the stress from ensuing restrictions and constraints on everyday life caused major disruptions, impacting the financial, emotional, and physical well-being of adults and children alike. This report summarizes the current literature on the impact of COVID-19 disruption to family functioning and economic well-being as a context for this special issue.
Risks and protective factors of Hispanic families and their young children during the COVID-19 pandemic

Natasha Cabrera; Minxuan He; Yu Chen (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children
This study examines the risk-related factors during the pandemic and protective factors that might reduce its effects on family functioning in a sample of 161 low-income Hispanic parents in the United States, recruited from an ongoing longitudinal intervention study. They were surveyed about family functioning six months into the pandemic. The study focused on the associations between social (e.g., exposure to the virus) and economic (e.g., job loss) pandemic-related risks on parental stress, parenting, and children’s socioemotional problems and skills, as well as the degree to which coparenting support, parents’ positivity, economic support, and access to services and information mitigated (protected) the negative effects of these stressors on family functioning.
Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative study on adolescents' stress, anxiety, and family communication

Zeynep Çetin

Published: May 2022   Journal: Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences
Eight high-school students participated in this qualitative study to investigate the adolescents’ stress, anxiety, and family communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. To collect data, a list of questions was prepared by the researchers based on experts’ opinions, and open-ended interviews were carried out with the participants. Consequently, four models were created and thoroughly investigated.
Children's experiences of lockdown and social distancing in the Covid-19 pandemic

Gustavo González-Calvo; Valeria Varea; Alfonso García-Monge

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
Covid-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020, and the world has witnessed significant changes since then. Spain has been forced to go into extreme lockdown, cancelling all school classes and outdoor activities for children, which may have significant consequences on young people. This paper explores how young children have experienced lockdown as a consequence of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and what they think about their future lives after Covid-19. Data were collected from 73 students aged from 7 to 9 years old, using participant-produced drawings and short questions with children’s and parents’ descriptive comments. We used a children’s rights perspective and the Freirean approach of a pedagogy of love and hope to analyse the data.
Associations between parental factors and children's screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea

K. W. Kim; Y. K. Koh; J. H. Kim

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
This study investigated how parental depression, parental self-care, family conflict, and parental fear of COVID-19 are associated with children’s screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected online among South Korean families, resulting in 246 parents (59% fathers) with children between 6 and 12 years of age. Path analysis and multi-group structural equation modelling of fathers and mothers were conducted. Parent’s fear of COVID-19 was positively associated with parental depression. Parent’s fear of COVID-19 and parental depression were negatively related to parental self-care, which was negatively linked to family conflict. Family conflict was positively associated with children’s screen time.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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