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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 177
Associations between work-family balance, parenting stress, and marital conflicts during COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore

Gerard Siew Keong Chung; Xi Wen Chan; Paul Lanier (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
As part of the “Circuit-breaker” social distancing measure to address COVID-19, the government of Singapore closed schools and workplaces from April to May 2020. Although this helped reduce transmission rates, for working parents, this period had been a challenging experience of working from home while providing care for children full-time. Problems in the work-home interface can have a significant impact on parenting and marital harmony. This study analyzed data from 201 married and employed parents in Singapore using online surveys. Latent profile analysis was used to identify profiles of parents’ work–family balance (WFB) and spousal and employer support. Linear regression was used to examine links between profiles with parenting stress and marital conflicts.
Playgroup families' experiences of play-based remote learning

Victoria Minson; Karen McLean

Published: November 2022   Journal: Australasian Journal of Early Childhood
This qualitative study aimed to investigate enablers and barriers facing community-playgroup families in the provision of play opportunities for children throughout periods of lockdown restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study used a capabilities approach, focussing specifically on the concepts of resources, capabilities and functionings. Using case study methodology, the study comprised two case studies and involved five community-playgroup families. Data methods included semi-structured interviews with playgroup families and the use of audio data from Zoom™ workshops conducted with families in each case study. A thematic approach to data analysis identified seven themes characterising identified enablers and barriers. These were: internet and networked technologies, ideas and information, routines and structure, relationships, space, everyday life, and support. Implications for how playgroups can support children and families in post pandemic times are discussed.
Cohesion and conflict for mothers during the pandemic: Results of the Portuguese version of the COVID-19 Household environment scale

Joana Arsénio; Gabriela Fonseca; Alda Portugal (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Family Process
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a worldwide event that has caused significant changes in the daily lives of individuals and families. The combined effect of the pandemic and the stress associated with major life cycle changes, such as the transition to parenthood, is yet to be understood. The aim of the current study was to validate the Portuguese version of the recently developed COVID-19 Household Environment Scale (CHES) and examine its psychometric properties in a sample of mothers who had given birth during the pandemic. The CHES is a self-report measure assessing the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in household cohesion and conflict and includes two sections. Section 1 contains 25 descriptive items pertaining to sociodemographic and household characteristics and COVID-19 stressors. Section 2 encompasses household cohesion and conflict, assessing any change in household experiences and activities following the onset of social distancing. The participants consisted of 342 mothers, aged between 19 and 50 years (M = 31.43; SD = 4.38). A confirmatory factor analysis supported the original CHES bifactor structure of household cohesion and conflict, which obtained an acceptable fit (CFI = 0.900, RMSEA = 0.065). Correlations between household cohesion and conflict and family cohesion and dyadic coping contributed to developing the construct validity of this scale.
Gender differences in epidemic everyday scenarios: an exploratory study of family life in Slovenia

Alenka Švab; Tanja Oblak Črnič

Published: November 2022   Journal: Social Inclusion
The article focuses on the changed dynamics of family life due to the first wave of Covid-19—starting in the spring of 2020—and the consequent longstanding social lockdown in the fall of 2020. It employs the concept of “forced nuclearisation” to describe the process that required a rapid reorganisation of otherwise self-evident and established social patterns and relationships, above all new adjustments of care relations both inside and outside the private sphere. The focus is on new demands in the intertwined spheres of work, school, and family obligations, especially because the private sphere has been assigned several additional functions, otherwise carried out by educational and daycare institutions. Based on an extensive dataset from a quantitative exploratory online survey conducted in two time periods, first in April 2020 and then in October 2020, this article discusses, from a comparative perspective and with a focus on gender inequalities, the main changes in practices and everyday routines such as shopping, housework, childcare, work obligations, and caring for other family members. The research aimed to identify the most obvious distinctions in family scenarios and, in particular, to point to the main social inequalities and potentially vulnerable groups within the population, who faced the forced and unexpected nuclearisation of everyday life.
Father–toddler bonding during the COVID-19 lockdown: qualitative insights from 17 families in Britain

Paula Sheppard; Mikaela Brough

Published: November 2022   Journal: Social Sciences
The UK lockdowns brought about many domestic changes. One was that many families with young children found themselves in the largely unique situation where fathers who normally worked away and saw little of their children during the day were now at home full-time. This was coupled with the fact that grandparents were now unavailable as lockdown rules prohibited visits and travel and many elderly were especially vulnerable. This study aimed to explore how this novel family situation was regarded by parents of young children and how they thought it would affect their children’s social development. Thematic analysis of interviews with 24 mothers and fathers of toddlers revealed that most parents did not think that the lockdown negatively impacted their child’s development, although they worried about it nonetheless. Having fathers at home was overwhelmingly seen as a positive for both the dad’s attachment to the toddler and the toddler’s attachment to their dad. The narrative around grandparents was more divided; there was an almost even split between parents thinking grandparental absence had a negative impact on the grandparent–child relationship and those who thought it made no difference. This study provides qualitative insight into an unusual domestic situation suggesting that parents felt father-child bonds were strengthened by the lockdown, although it remains to be seen if father-child relationships are improved long-term.
Associations between pet care responsibility, companion animal interactions, and family relationships during COVID-19

Linda Charmaraman; Elizabeth Kiel; Amanda M. Richer (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Animals
For families with children during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to explore how both youth and parents view their roles with regard to the shared caretaking of pets. This study presents findings from a U.S. based study of adolescents and parents regarding pet care responsibility. As part of a broader longitudinal study, we analyzed survey data from 567 pet-owning adolescents and a subset of 356 dog owning adolescents aged 10–17. We also conducted 31 in-depth interviews with parents of adolescents from the same study. Adolescents who reported more pet caretaking responsibilities were more likely to spend time with pets to cope with stress and to have improved family relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic. For dog owners only, increased levels of responsibility for the pet was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of identifying as a pet owner.
Association between changes in family life due to COVID-19 and depressive mood and stress perception

Min-Su Kim; Mi Ah Han; So Yeon Ryu (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease that has had a significant impact on daily life. This study investigated the effect of changes in family life due to COVID-19 on depressive mood and stress perception. It used data from the “Survey on changes in family life due to COVID-19” in Korea. The final study population comprised 1500 adults with children aged ≤19 years. Of the total respondents, 59.3% responded that depressive mood and stress had increased due to COVID-19. However, among them, 46.6% did not attempt to resolve or could not find a way to resolve their depressive mood and stress.
Family status and changing demands/resources: the overlooked experience of solo-living employees transitioning to homeworking during the Covid-19 pandemic

Krystal Wilkinson; Alison M. Collins; Marilena Antoniadou

Published: November 2022   Journal: The International Journal of Human Resource Management
Solo-living employees are a growing segment of the workforce, yet their work-life experiences are under-researched. Taking a biographical narrative approach, this study interviewed 35 solo-livers from different countries to explore their transition to homeworking during the Covid-19 lockdowns. Drawing upon the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model and key concepts from the work-life interface literature, it explored both lost/reduced and new/increased job and personal demands and resources at this time.
Within-family influences on compliance with social-distancing measures during COVID-19 lockdowns in the United Kingdom

Ozan Aksoy

Published: October 2022   Journal: Nature Human Behaviour
The compliance of adolescents, who are often unfairly portrayed as spreaders of COVID-19, with public health measures is essential for containing diseases. But does adolescents’ compliance develop independently from their parents? Using nationally representative longitudinal data and cross-lagged structural equation panel models, here I study compliance with social-distancing measures of 6,752 triplets that comprise the adolescent child (age 19), their mother and their father during two national lockdowns in the United Kingdom.
Self-efficacy, emotion regulation and resilience of formal working mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nadia Rahmania; Risda Rizkillah; Musthofa

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Child, Family, and Consumer Studies
Resilience can give an individual the strength to face stressful situations and view life positively. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of self-efficacy and emotion regulation on the resilience of mothers who work in the formal sector during the Covid-19 pandemic. The research design used was cross-sectional, and the research location was determined using a purposive technique based on the high number of Covid-19 cases at the time of the study, so DKI Jakarta and West Java were chosen. Primary data was collected through questionnaires distributed online via a google form. The sampling technique used voluntary sampling with the respondent's criteria: formal working mothers with school-age children and intact families in DKI Jakarta and West Java Provinces. The number of respondents in this study was 101 people. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression tests. Results showed that self-efficacy, emotion regulation, and resilience were positively related and more than half of mothers had moderate self-efficacy, emotion regulation, and resilience.
Family learning and working in lockdown: navigating crippling fear and euphoric joy to support children's literacy

Lorna Arnott; Laura Teichert

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Literacy
This paper offers a nuanced perspective of two families’ lockdown literacy journeys with their young children during the COVID 19 pandemic. It presents informal home learning examples stimulated by play and by school-sanctioned synchronous and asynchronous activities from homes geographically miles apart yet close in terms of shared experience. In response to the catch-up and learning loss narrative which threatens to overshadow some of the positive learning experiences taking place at home, it redirects the ‘catch-up’ narrative towards a nuanced understanding of family learning at home by articulating the complexity of circumstance. Methodologically, drawing on Autoethnography, it presents vignettes of lockdown life from Scotland and Michigan, USA.
Resilience, and positive parenting in parents of children with syndromic autism and intellectual disability. Evidence from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on family's quality of life and parent-child relationships

Corneliu Bolbocean; Kayla B. Rhidenour; Maria McCormack (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Autism Research
Family quality of life (FQoL) outcomes collected during the first year of COVID-19 has been combined with 2018 data to estimate the outbreak's impact on parental outcomes on a sample of 230 families with syndromic autistic children and those with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Despite challenges imposed by the COVID-19 outbreak, this study found that FQoL outcomes reported by participating parents during the first year of COVID-19 appears to be similar to ratings from a prepandemic study of families with the same conditions. Parents of children in our sample generally displayed a stable functioning trajectory as measured by the validated FQoL instrument.
Contributions of work-to-family enrichment to parental food monitoring and satisfaction with food-related life during the COVID-19 pandemic in dual-earner parents and their adolescent children

Berta Schnettler; Ligia Orellana; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Nutrients
Evidence shows that numerous family-related variables influence parents’ use of different food parenting practices (FPP), but less is known about the influence of parents’ work-related variables on their use of FPP, and their own and their children’s outcomes in the food domain. To fill this gap, the present study explored intra-individual and inter-individual effects between work-to-family enrichment (WtoFE), parents’ monitoring practices, the adolescent’s perception of their parents’ monitoring practices, and the three family members’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL), in different-sex dual-earner parents with adolescent children. The mediating role of monitoring between WtoFE and SWFoL was also tested. A sample of 430 different-sex dual-earner parents and one of their adolescent children (average age 13.0 years, 53.7% female) were recruited in Rancagua, Chile, during March and June 2020.
Family still matters: human social motivation across 42 countries during a global pandemic

Cari M. Pick; Ahra Ko; Alexandra S. Wormley (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Evolution and Human Behavior
The COVID-19 pandemic caused drastic social changes for many people, including separation from friends and coworkers, enforced close contact with family, and reductions in mobility. This study assesses the extent to which people's evolutionarily-relevant basic motivations and goals—fundamental social motives such as Affiliation and Kin Care—might have been affected. To address this question, it gathered data on fundamental social motives in 42 countries (N = 15,915) across two waves, including 19 countries (N = 10,907) for which data were gathered both before and during the pandemic (pre-pandemic wave: 32 countries, N = 8998; 3302 male, 5585 female; Mage = 24.43, SD = 7.91; mid-pandemic wave: 29 countries, N = 6917; 2249 male, 4218 female; Mage = 28.59, SD = 11.31). Samples include data collected online (e.g., Prolific, MTurk), at universities, and via community sampling.
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on family well-being: a literature review

Maria Gayatri; Mardiana Dwi Puspitasari

Published: October 2022   Journal: The Family Journal
COVID-19 has changed family life, including employment status, financial security, the mental health of individual family members, children's education, family well-being, and family resilience. The aim of this study is to analyze the previous studies in relation to family well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus for studies using a cross-sectional or quasi-experimental design published from their inception to October 15, 2020, using the keywords “COVID-19,” “pandemic,” “coronavirus,” “family,” “welfare,” “well-being,” and “resilience.” A manual search on Google Scholar was used to find relevant articles based on the eligibility criteria in this study. The presented conceptual framework is based on the family stress model to link the inherent pandemic hardships and the family well-being.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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