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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 32
Youth economic security, skills and empowerment: Learning from positive outliers among youth affected by forced displacement in Jordan

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Jude Sajdi; Elizabeth Presler-Marshall (et al.)

Most of the research on refugee economic participation has focused on adult refugee populations, particularly men. Data on adolescents and youth, particularly girls and young women, is limited. This report aims to fill some of these research gaps and contribute to efforts to support refugee youth to realise their potential in line with the commitments enshrined in both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to ‘leave no one behind’, and in the Global Compact on Refugees, to ‘enhance refugee self-reliance’. Focusing on male and female youth aged 15–24 years from Syrian and Palestinian refugee communities in Jordan, as well as vulnerable Jordanians in host communities, the report captures their aspirations and experiences in building independent and sustainable livelihoods. It incorporates a gender lens to identify and analyse the factors that promote or hinder youth participation in the labour market, paying particular attention to gender norms and roles.

Gender differences in the psychosocial functioning of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Katriona O’Sullivan; Nicole Rock; Lydia Burke (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected family life, increasing parental stress around health, job losses, reduced salaries, and maintaining domestic life in lockdown and social isolation. The transition to home-schooling and remote work with school and workplace closures caused additional stressors as families began living, working, and educating in one place. This research aims to understand the relationship between the pandemic and parental stress, focusing on family well-being and established characteristics of the family unit that may cause some family members to experience the adverse consequences of the pandemic in more or less profound ways, especially mothers. Previous research shows that mothers carry more family responsibilities than fathers and can experience higher stress levels. This study employed a quantitative cross-sectional online survey to extend our understanding of the interaction between home-schooling, work and home life, and stress levels in a group of 364 parents. In total, 232 mothers and 132 fathers completed the survey.
Daily prosocial actions during the COVID-19 pandemic contribute to giving behavior in adolescence.

AUTHOR(S)
Sophie W. Sweijen; Suzanne van de Groep; Kayla H. Green (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
Prosocial actions are a building block for developing mature and caring social relations. However, the global pandemic may hamper adolescents’ prosocial actions. In this preregistered study, we examined the extent to which adolescents provided daily emotional support during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 10–25-year-old high school and university students participated at three timepoints (N = 888 at the first timepoint (May 2020); 494 at the second timepoint (Nov 2020) and 373 at the third timepoint (May 2021)). At the first and second timepoint, participants completed 2 weeks of daily diaries on providing emotional support. At all timepoints, participants performed Dictator Games to measure giving to peers, friends and COVID-19 targets (medical doctors, COVID-19 patients, individuals with a poor immune system). Across the three timepoints, adolescents gave more to COVID-19 targets than peers and friends, but giving to COVID-19 target was highest in the beginning of the pandemic (first timepoint relative to second and third timepoint).
COVID-19 Experiences and Health-Related Implications: Results From a Mixed-Method Longitudinal Study of Urban Poor Adolescents in Shanghai

AUTHOR(S)
Mengmeng Li; Chunyan Yu; Xiayun Zuo (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: The Journal of adolescent health

This analysis aimed to investigate gender differences in adolescents’ concerns and the health implications of COVID-19. It used two rounds of the Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) collected in Shanghai in 2018 and 2020. It analyzed data from 621 adolescents, comparing boys’ and girls’ concerns about COVID-19 and examining trends in general health and mental health by sex between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Changes in health indicators over time were assessed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models.

24-hour movement behaviours and COVID-19 among children in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a repeat cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Yazeed A. Alanazi; Anne-Maree Parrish; Anthony D. Okely (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Sports Medicine and Health Science

This study investigated how children's 24-hour (24-h) movement behaviours were affected by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Previous research examined 24-h movement behaviours in Saudi Arabia seven months after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. This repeat cross-sectional study examined changes in 24-h movement behaviours 12 months after the WHO declaration. The Time 2 survey repeated five months (1 March – 15 May 2021) after Time 1 survey (1 October – 11 November 2020). The survey was distributed to parents of children aged 6–12 years across Saudi Arabia via an online survey. Children were classified as meeting 24-h movement guidelines if they reported uninterrupted sleep for 9–11 h per night,  2 h of recreational sedentary screen time (RST) per day and  60 min of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) per day. A total of 1 045 parents from all regions of Saudi Arabia responded (42.4%). Only 1.8% of children met all components of the guidelines, compared to 3.4% in Time 1. In the present study, girls spent more days per week in MVPA  60 min duration than boys (3.0 vs 2.6; p ¼ 0.025), while boys had spent more days per week engaged in activities that strengthened muscle and bone than  girls (3.0 vs 2.8; p ¼ 0.019). Healthy levels of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep further declined in Saudi children five months after the Time 1 survey. These challenges require urgent intervention to ensure children's movement behaviours improve as Saudi Arabia moves out of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The impacts of COVID-19 on migration and migrants from a gender perspective
Institution: International Organisation for Migration (IOM/OIM)
Published: May 2022
This research report explores and critically examines the short- and longer-term gender implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on migration and the well-being of migrants worldwide. This research report aims to inform ongoing policy and programmatic responses to the pandemic and highlights best practices and challenges. The report analyses the gender impacts of COVID-19 on different “groups” of migrants, including health-care workers, agricultural and domestic migrant workers, internally displaced persons and international students, and assesses migrant vulnerabilities as well as the opportunities for gender-responsive migration governance that have been revealed by the pandemic.
The influence of a school social network intervention on adolescent's health behaviors: a gender-specific agent-based model

AUTHOR(S)
Shu Zhang; Tianyi Xiao; Jie He

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Adolescence is a crucial stage for health behavior development, which is associated with health in adulthood. School closures caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have exposed adolescents to an increased risk of obesity due to a lack of physical activity. Although social network interventions provide an effective approach for promoting health-related behavior, current practices neglect gender differences in adolescent behavioral patterns and emotional preferences. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of centrality-based methods integrated with of gender contexts in a social network intervention to improve adolescent's health behavior.
A cross-sectional study investigating Canadian and Australian adolescents' perceived experiences of COVID-19: gender differences and mental health implications.

AUTHOR(S)
Riana Marie; Audrey-Ann Journault; Rebecca Cernik (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The coronavirus (COVID-19) disease pandemic has been associated with adverse psychological outcomes. This cross-cultural study (N = 1326, 71% female) aimed to investigate Canadian and Australian adolescents’ subjective experiences of COVID-19, gender differences, and psychological implications. Mixed-methods analyses were used to examine differences in COVID-19 experiences and mental health outcomes between country and gender in a Canadian (N = 913, 78% female) and an Australian sample (N = 413, 57% female) of adolescents. Canadian adolescents reported increased COVID-19 discussions and more concerns related to their COVID-19 experiences compared to Australian adolescents.
Portuguese adolescents' cognitive well-being and basic psychological needs during the COVID-19 outbreak: a longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Ana Meireles; Sofia Marques; Maria Manuela Peixoto (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being
Confinements and social distancing measures during COVID-19 pandemic were particularly challenging to adolescents, impacting significantly their life and routines. Following a longitudinal design, this study sought to compare adolescents' cognitive well-being—satisfaction with life, social support, and quality of life—before (T1) and during (T2) the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, it aimed to clarify the predictive value of the three dimensions of the cognitive well-being to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of adolescents at school at T2. One thousand ninety-nine Portuguese adolescents participated, showing generally increased scores in satisfaction with life, social support, and quality of life at T2. Even so, girls revealed lower changes in cognitive well-being components compared with boys, between T1 and T2.
Gender-specific related factors for suicidal ideation during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown among 5,175 Chinese adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Jin Zhu; Baohua Li; Fengcheng Hao (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Suicide was an urgent issue during the pandemic period in adolescents. However, few studies were focused on suicide during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown. An online survey was conducted among 5,175 Chinese adolescents from June 9th to 29th in 2020 to investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. A gender-specific stepwise logistic regression model was used. All analyses were performed with STATA 15.0
Gendered impacts of COVID-19: insights from 7 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia

AUTHOR(S)
Muzna Fatima Alvi; Shweta Gupta; Prapti Barooah (et al.)

Institution: USAID
Published: March 2022
It is widely recognized that periods of crisis affect men and women differently, mediated by their access to resources and information, as well as social and institutional structures that may systematically disadvantage women from being able to access relief, institutional support, and rehabilitation. To capture the gendered impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns, this study conducted phone surveys in seven countries spread across Asia and Africa. The study was designed as a longitudinal panel study with five rounds of data collection in Ghana, Nepal, Nigeria, and Senegal, and three rounds of data collection in Kenya, Niger, and Uganda. Both men and women were administered the same survey, with some modifications made across countries to adapt to local contexts. This report gives an overview of our findings covering several topics including income loss, coping strategies, labor and time use, food and water insecurity and child education outcomes.
Disentangling youth non-compliance with COVID-19 restrictions from gender, socioeconomic vulnerability and poor mental health: lessons from the first wave in Catalonia

AUTHOR(S)
Eva Padrosa; Mireia Bolíbar

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Youth Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic focused public attention on youth non-compliance with restrictions, but the social and health factors underpinning this behaviour were overlooked. Hereby, this study considered the complex relationships between age (16–29 vs. 30+), non-compliance, socioeconomic vulnerabilities and poor mental health using a gender perspective. Data were derived from the ‘Survey on the impact of COVID-19’, fielded on 11–15 April 2020 in Catalonia. In a non-probabilistic sample of 14,123 individuals, this study performed gender-stratified mediation analyses using Structural Equation Models.
COVID-19 and a “crisis of care”: a feminist analysis of public policy responses to paid and unpaid care and domestic work

AUTHOR(S)
Elena Camilletti; Zahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Labour Review
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted gender inequalities, increasing the amount of unpaid care weighing on women and girls, and the vulnerabilities faced by paid care workers, often women working informally. Using a global database on social protection responses to COVID-19 that focuses on social assistance, social insurance and labour market programmes, this article considers whether and how these responses have integrated care considerations.
Parental gender differences in attitudes and willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Rosario Ceballo

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

COVID-19 affects family life world-wide. Determinants of hesitancy around vaccinating children against COVID-19 are critical in guiding public health campaigns. Gender differences among parents may determine willingness to vaccinate children against COVID-19. Secondary analysis of the COVID-19 Parental Attitude Study (COVIPAS) surveying care givers of children presenting for emergency care in 17 sites in 6 countries during peak pandemic (March–June, 2020). This study assessed risk perceptions, vaccination history and plans to vaccinate children against COVID-19 once available. It compared responses given by father or mother and used multivariable logistic regression.

The impact of gender differences, school adjustment, social interactions, and social activities on emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic among Japanese school children

AUTHOR(S)
Yuma Ishimoto; Takahiro Yamane; Yuki Matsumoto

Published: February 2022   Journal: SSM - Mental Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has had negative psychological effects, such as increased depression, anxiety, and suicide, on children worldwide, including in Japan. To effectively mitigate the negative impact of the pandemic among Japanese children, it is necessary to increase understanding of the culturally specific psychological effects on Japanese children, including age and gender differences, as well as related risk and protective factors. However, no previous research has quantitatively evaluated changes in Japanese children's emotional functioning before and after the pandemic began. The present study examined changes in Japanese children's emotional functioning with pre- and mid-pandemic questionnaires, particularly focusing on age and gender differences. The present study also explored the effects of school adjustment, social interactions, and lifestyle activities on children's emotional and behavioral functioning during the pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.