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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Caregiver and clinician experience with virtual services for children and youth with complex needs during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Theall; Kim Arbeau; Ajit Ninan (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
During the COVID-19 pandemic, support services for children and youth quickly shifted to virtual means. To continue delivering essential, trauma-informed, specialized services, the center transitioned to providing most services by phone/video conference. A quality improvement project using survey methods was conducted to determine if virtual delivery was timely and satisfactory for inpatient and outpatient care.
Examining the relationship between discrimination, access to material resources, and black children's behavioral functioning during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nneka Ibekwe-Okafor; Jacqueline Sims; Sihong Liu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how longstanding systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children's behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing).
Effects of COVID-19 on pediatric cancer care: a multicenter study of 11 Middle Eastern Countries

AUTHOR(S)
Mahmoud M. Elzembely; Abdulhakim Al Rawas; Abdulqader Al-Hebshi (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
During the COVID-19 pandemic, major challenges are facing pediatric cancer centers regarding access to cancer centers, continuity of the anti-cancer therapy, hospital admission, and infection protection precautions. Pediatric oncologists actively treating children with cancer from 29 cancer centers at 11 countries were asked to answer a survey from May 2020 to August 2020 either directly or through the internet. COVID-19 pandemic affected the access to pediatric cancer care in the form of difficulty in reaching the center in 22 (75.9%) centers and affection of patients’ flow in 21 (72.4%) centers. Health care professionals (HCP) were infected with COVID-19 in 20 (69%) surveyed centers. Eighteen centers (62%) modified the treatment guidelines. Care of follow-up patients was provided in-hospital in 8(27.6%) centers, through telemedicine in 10 (34.5%) centers, and just delayed in 11 (38%) centers. Pediatric oncologists had different expectations about the future effects of COVID-19 on pediatric cancer care. Seventy-six percent of pediatric oncologists think the COVID-19 pandemic will increase the use of telemedicine.
The impact of COVID-19 on systems of care for children and youth with special health care needs

AUTHOR(S)
Sally S. Cohen; Valerie Boebel Toly; Stacee M. Lerret (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
This manuscript describes the challenges and opportunities that the COVID-19 pandemic presented for providing and coordinating care for children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) who rely on a diverse array of systems to promote their health, education, and well-being. Peer-reviewed published literature and reports from the national government and nonprofit organizations that advocate for CYSHCN were examined, particularly concerning systems that impacted CYSHCN during COVID-19.
Assessment of factors affecting practice towards HIV/AIDS among in-school youth in the West Guji Zone, South Ethiopia, 2021

AUTHOR(S)
Shiferaw Gelchu Adola

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Chemistry: Education, Research and Practice

Human immune deficiency virus was a worldwide pandemic, yet there is no proven medicine and vaccine to cure or prevent it. Prevention is only the mainstay to control the spread of the virus. Thus, continuously assessing factors affecting prevention practice towards HIV among young populations is relevant. This cross sectional study design was conducted from December 01/2020 To January 01/2021. The multistage sampling technique was used and a total of 615 participants were enrolled. Epi-Data version 4.4.3.1 for data entry and SPSS Version 25 for analysis was used in this study. Descriptive statistics; frequency, percent and inferential statistics were needed. Statically significance cut point settled at p < 0.05 with 95% confidence intervals.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 240-260 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, COVID-19 response, health services, HIV and AIDS, lockdown, reproductive health, social distance | Countries: Ethiopia
Postpartum depression, social support and maternal self-efficacy between adolescent and adult mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Nucharee Sangsawang; Bussara Sangsawang

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Advanced Nursing

This study aims to determine the rate and level of postpartum depression (PPD), as well as to examine and compare PPD, social support and maternal self-efficacy between adolescent and adult mothers at 8 weeks postpartum during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy measures to reduce the rapid spread of COVID-19 have disrupted many aspects of life and decreased social connections, which negatively impacts psychological well-being of the general population. However, studies focused on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and maternal self-efficacy in postpartum mothers, particularly adolescent mothers, are limited.

Children's access to dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multi-country survey

AUTHOR(S)
Heba Mohamed Elkhodary; Heba Jafar Sabbagh; Omar Abd El Sadek (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Children's Health Care
This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on children’s access to dental care and determine factors associated with problems in accessing dental care. A multi-country cross-sectional survey collected data from caregivers of children from August 2020 to February 2021. The questionnaire was developed guided by the framework of the Andersen’s model of factors (predisposing, enabling and need). Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between access-to-dental care problem and predisposing, enabling and need factors. A total of 4,843 caregivers from 20-countries reported on their children (52.3% males, mean age = 8.4 years) with 29.2% having access to care problem. A significantly greater percentage of caregivers from lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) than low-income countries (LICs), upper-middle-income countries (UMICs) and high-income countries (HICs) reported an access-to-dental care problem (P < .001). Caregivers living in LICS, university-educated caregivers, caregivers with older children and caregivers whose children had more frequent pain during the pandemic had higher odds of reporting an access to dental care problem.
Prevalence of chronic diseases, depression, and stress among US childcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jad A. Elharake; Mehr Shafiq; Ayse Cobanoglu (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Preventing Chronic Disease

Given their central role in supporting children’s development, childcare professionals’ overall physical and mental health is important. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic diseases, depression, and stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic among US childcare professionals. Data were obtained from US childcare professionals (N = 81,682) through an online survey from May 22, 2020, through June 8, 2020. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models to assess the association of sociodemographic characteristics with 4 physical health conditions (asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity), depression, and stress weighted to national representativeness.

Changes in high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and other STI testing, and PrEP use during the COVID-19 pandemic in a longitudinal cohort of adolescent men who have sex with men 13 to 18 years old in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Chenglin Hong; David Huh; Rebecca Schnall (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: AIDS and Behavior
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted sexual health services among those most vulnerable to HIV acquisition, such as adolescent men who have sex with men (AMSM). This study sought to characterize the changes in sexual-risk behaviors, HIV and other STI testing, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among a longitudinal cohort of AMSM aged 13 to 18 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. It observed a significant decline in HIV testing and a marginal decrease in other STI testing since the pandemic began in March 2020. Outreach efforts and innovative remote delivery of sexual health services are needed to support access to healthcare services among AMSM as the pandemic persists.
Guidance for states on measuring equitable allocation of COVID relief funds and progress toward child care stabilization

AUTHOR(S)
Patti Banghart; Carlise King; Sarah Daily

Published: September 2022   Journal: Child Trends
The COVID-19 pandemic caused major hardships for child care providers and families with young children, leading an already fragile early care and education (ECE) system to the brink of collapse. Approximately two thirds of child care providers were closed in April 2020, and one third remained closed as of April 2021i due to financial instability from temporary closures and/or lower enrollment.ii This meant that the underpaid child care workforce—which disproportionately includes Black and Hispanic women, and other1 women of color and immigrant womeniii—was one of the hardest-hit industries during the pandemic. As of June 2022, child care employment nationwide remains down nearly 10 percent compared with February 2020.
One uncertainty added on top of another: Challenges and resources of mothers of preterm infants during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Palmor Haspel Shoshi; Rivka Tuval-Mashiach; Alona Bin Nun

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

This study aims to qualitatively explore COVID-19-related experiences of mothers of preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), the main challenges they face, and the resources available for them. The birth of a preterm infant is a stressful event under otherwise normal circumstances. The outbreak of COVID-19, the uncertainty about the virus and how it spreads, and the restrictions imposed, may have exacerbated the stress of caring for a preterm infant. In-depth interviews with 12 mothers of preterm infants who were hospitalized in the NICU at the time of study. The interview addressed challenges and resources related to coping with the pandemic. The interviews were transcribed and content analyzed, based on Lieblich et al’s model for narrative analysis. This research was conducted in accordance with the COREQ checklist.

Impacts of the early COVID-19 pandemic among a national sample of adolescent and young adult cancer survivors in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea C. Betts; L. Aubree Shay; Marlyn Allicock (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology

Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors (AYAs) experience early-onset chronic conditions and disrupted psychosocial development. This study reports prevalence of disruptions in care delivery and social support during the early wave of the pandemic in a national sample of AYAs in the United States. It used data from the population-based National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; July–December 2020), which allows for nationally representative estimates, and included questions related to COVID-19. It identified 61 AYAs diagnosed with cancer between ages 15 and 39 years and not currently receiving cancer treatment and 244 age- and sex-matched controls. It compared the proportion of AYAs and controls reporting delayed care due to the pandemic, not getting needed care due to the pandemic, and changes in social and emotional support.

COVID-19 and diabetes in children

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Prosperi; Francesco Chiarelli

Published: September 2022   Journal: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
This review describes the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and adolescents, investigating changes in diabetes presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic, possible links between severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and diabetes, and mechanisms of pancreatic β-cell destruction. Although glycemic control in individuals with already known diabetes mellitus did not worsen during the pandemic, there was a worrying increase in diabetic ketoacidosis in children with new-onset diabetes, probably due to containment measures and delayed access to emergency departments. Moreover, new evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 has the capacity to directly and indirectly induce pancreatic β-cell destruction, and the risk of newly diagnosed diabetes after COVID-19 increased in both children and adults. While long-term studies continue to follow children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, this review discusses available findings on the relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes. It is important to emphasize the need to maintain close links between families of children with chronic conditions and their pediatricians, as well as to promote early access to healthcare services, in order to reduce dangerous delays in diabetes diagnosis and prevent diabetic ketoacidosis.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | No. of pages: 157-168 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, diabetes, health services, lockdown, social distance
Related risk factors of early childhood caries in Zhejiang Province, China during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Chaoqiang Huang; Kangqi Zhu; Yibing Feng (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This work aims to examining the latest early childhood caries situation in children aged 3 and 5 and its related risk factors in Zhejiang Province during the COVID-19 pandemic. There are 3,537 children and their main caregivers participate in this study. Chi square test or U-test were used to analyze whether there were differences in the prevalence of dental caries under different variables. The risk factors on ECC were determined by multivariate logistic analysis.

Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the era of COVID-19: a qualitative study of the experiences of vulnerable urban youth in Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Kate Pincock; Workneh Yadete (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Sexual Health

Youth who have migrated from rural to urban areas in Ethiopia are often precariously employed, lack access to sexual and reproductive health services, and are at heightened risk of sexual violence. However, little is known about the sexual and reproductive health consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and associated lockdowns and service disruptions for urban-dwelling socially disadvantaged youth. This paper draws on qualitative virtual research with 154 urban youths aged 15–24 years who were past and present beneficiaries of United Nations Population Fund-funded programs, and 19 key informants from the city bureaus and non-governmental organisations in June 2020. Semistructured interviews by phone explored the impact of COVID-19 on young people’s sexual and reproductive health and rights.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.