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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 160
Health disparities and their effects on children and their caregivers during the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lynn C. Smitherman; William Christopher Golden; Jennifer R. Walton

Published: October 2021   Journal: Pediatric Clinics of North America

Health disparities are defined as differences among specific populations in the ability to achieve full health potential (as measured by differences in incidence, prevalence, mortality, burden of disease, and other adverse health conditions). Among children, multiple factors contribute to these disparities, including economic stability, and access to health care. According to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, before the current pandemic, 12 million children in the United States were living in poverty in 2019, including one-third of African American and Native American children and 25% of Latinx children.8 During the same period, of the 4.4 million children without health insurance, 14% were Native American, 9% were of Hispanic descent, and 18% were immigrants. At present, owing to the impact of the pandemic on job security, more than 50% of African American, Latinx, and multiethnic adults are now without medical insurance, directly affecting the health security of their children.8 With the onset of the pandemic and the social and political upheaval felt by many disenfranchised communities, these well-documented disparities (and the importance of addressing them) have again been brought to the attention of the medical community. This overview will examine the effects of these health disparities in various populations of children in this country. We will first examine the historical context of health disparities, how they developed, and why they still exist. We will then examine how specifically the COVID-19 pandemic impacted these disparities among children and adolescents, both directly and indirectly. Finally, we hope to provide some recommendations to reduce these disparities.

Providing breastfeeding support during COVID-19: a survey of staff experiences

AUTHOR(S)
Rachel Hoying; Nevert Badreldin; Malika D. Shah (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Human Lactation

The COVID-19 pandemic presents unique challenges to maternity settings. Its effect on providing in-hospital lactation support has not been well described. This study aims to describe the experiences of healthcare workers as they provided in-hospital lactation support during the pandemic.A prospective, cross-sectional, online survey evaluated healthcare providers working with postpartum women and newborns affected by COVID-19 at an academic center during March–June 2020. Providers were queried regarding the influence of COVID-19 and COVID-19-specific policies on providing lactation support. Questions assessed guidance received, perceived stress, difficulty providing care, and solicited qualitative responses. The constant comparative method was used to analyze qualitative data.

Investigating the impacts of COVID-19 among LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness

AUTHOR(S)
Alex Abramovich; Nelson Pang; Amanda Moss (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Plos One

LGBTQ2S youth are overrepresented among youth experiencing homelessness and experience significantly higher rates of mental health issues compared to heterosexual and cisgender youth. COVID-19 related challenges for LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness remain unknown. To address this gap, this study aimed to understand the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on LGBTQ2S youth at risk of, and experiencing, homelessness in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada and surrounding areas.Utilizing a mixed-methods convergent parallel design, LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness were recruited to participate in virtual surveys and in-depth one-on-one interviews. Surveys included standardized measures and were administered to measure mental health outcomes and collect information on demographic characteristics, and health service use. Survey data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and statistical tests for difference of proportions. Interviews were analyzed using an iterative thematic content approach.

Global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health: Results of an international survey

AUTHOR(S)
Melanie Etti; Jackeline Alger; Sofía P. Salas (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Plos One

The World Health Organization’s “Coordinated Global Research Roadmap: 2019 Novel Coronavirus” outlined the need for research that focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and children. More than one year after the first reported case significant knowledge gaps remain, highlighting the need for a coordinated approach. To address this need, the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Working Group (MNCH WG) of the COVID-19 Clinical Research Coalition conducted an international survey to identify global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health. This project was undertaken using a modified Delphi method. An electronic questionnaire was disseminated to clinicians and researchers in three different languages (English, French and Spanish) via MNCH WG affiliated networks. Respondents were asked to select the five most urgent research priorities among a list of 17 identified by the MNCH

Impact of the first phase of COVID-19 pandemic on childhood routine immunisation services in Nepal: a qualitative study on the perspectives of service providers and users

AUTHOR(S)
Asmita Priyadarshini Khatiwada; Smriti Maskey; Nistha Shrestha (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected all essential healthcare services delivery in low-resource settings. This study aimed to explore the challenges and experiences of providers and users of childhood immunisation services in Nepal during the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with childhood immunisation service providers and users (i.e., parents of children) from Kathmandu valley, Nepal. All interviews were conducted through phone or internet-based tools, such as Zoom, WhatsApp, and messenger. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using theme-based content analysis in an Excel spreadsheet.

UNICEF’s HIV programming in the context of COVID-19: building back better for children, adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Judith Sherman

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: September 2021

Recognizing the persistent and harmful impact that COVID-19 and related lockdown measures pose for the HIV response, governments across ESA region continue to implement interventions to sustain and further advance hard won gains toward ending AIDS. One year after the release of UNICEF’s Compendium  of innovative approaches to HIV programming in Eastern and Southern Africa in the context of COVID-19, this new Volume II describes results achieved in the nine countries highlighted in Volume I and shares experiences from an additional eight countries. This collective work demonstrates how countries are building upon the learning and architecture of the HIV response to proactively mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic while scaling up efforts to achieve global HIV goals, resulting in stronger responses and resilient systems for both HIV and COVID-19.

A survey to understand the feelings towards and impact of COVID-19 on the households of juvenile dermato myositis patients from a parent or carer perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Meredyth Grace Llewellyn Wilkinson; Wing Wu; Kathryn O’Brien (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Rheumatology Advances in Practice

The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how parents and carers feel about the effects and impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown and how this impacted upon their child/young person with JDM. It approached 139 participants from the JDM Cohort Biomarker Study (JDCBS), with specific consent to approach electronically for research studies. A secure electronic questionnaire with study introduction was sent to participants for their parents and carers around the UK to complete. It consisted of 20 questions about the impact of the pandemic on their child or young person’s clinical care. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively.

Seeing rainbows through the storms of a health condition: making space for LGBTQ+ young people to have their identity acknowledged

AUTHOR(S)
Jaymie Huckridge; Asher Arnold; James McParland

Published: September 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
LGBTQ+ youth accessing healthcare settings manage the ‘storms’ of health conditions (e.g. pain, fatigue, social isolation, etc.) while navigating emerging identity exploration and understandings in settings which may have historically overlooked or disaffirmed these identities. The launch of National Health Service Rainbow Badges across the paediatric division of an inner-city hospital provided a context for staff to begin thinking about their practice, development needs and dilemmas in working with LGBTQ+ youth. Through a programme of activity that included staff training, surveys, focus groups and youth engagement, caregivers gained insight into current practice in supporting LGBTQ+ youth and families. This paper presents their findings, ideas for responding to challenges, and areas for future development, including implications in light of the coronavirus pandemic.
COVID-19 among children seeking primary paediatric care with signs of an acute infection

AUTHOR(S)
Sebastian Hoehl; Felix Schneider; Martin Eckrich (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

It can be challenging to distinguish COVID-19 in children from other common infections. This study set out to determine the rate at which children consulting a primary care paediatrician with an acute infection are infected with SARS-CoV-2 and to compare distinct findings. In seven out-patient clinics, children aged 0–13 years with any new respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and presumed infection were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Factors that were correlated with testing positive were determined. Samples were collected from 25 January 2021 to 01 April 2021.

COVID-19 impact on adolescent 24 h movement behaviors

AUTHOR(S)
Marie-Maude Dubuc; Félix Berrigan; Marylène Goudreault (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 24 h movement behaviors of adolescents. This was conducted to capture their evolution from February to December 2020, as well as to explore the use of technology for physical activity purposes by adolescents as a strategy to increase their physical activity during the pandemic. Physical activity, recreational screen time, sleep duration, and sleep quality were self-reported by 2661 adolescents using an online questionnaire. Participants also indicated, in comparison with the previous winter (regular in-class learning), how their different movement behaviors changed during the following 2020 periods: (1) spring (school closures), (2) summer (school break), and (3) autumn (hybrid learning). Finally, information about the use of technology during physical activity was collected.
A cross-sectional analysis to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices among pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Tarang P. Kaur; Anubhuti Rana; Vanamail Perumal (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India

This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19 among pregnant women at a tertiary care hospital. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional analysis pertaining to COVID-19 which was conducted at a tertiary care obstetric facility in India among 200 consecutive consenting pregnant women. They were assessed for demographic details and KAP score (knowledge—17 questions, attitude—9 questions and practice—8 questions). Analysis of data was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0.

Widespread closure of HIV prevention and care services places youth at higher risk during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Rob Stephenson; Alison R. Walsh; Tanaka M. D. Chavanduka (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Plos One
Central to measuring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV is understanding the role of loss of access to essential HIV prevention and care services created by clinic and community-based organization closures. This paper uses a comprehensive list of HIV prevention services in four corridors of the US heavily impacted by HIV, developed as part of a large RCT, to illustrate the potential impact of service closure on LGBTQ+ youth.
Social, economic, and health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents retained in or recently disengaged from HIV care in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Leslie A. Enane; Edith Apondi; Josephine Aluoch (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Plos One
Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV, ages 10–19) experience complex challenges to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and remain in care, and may be vulnerable to wide-scale disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed for a range of effects of the pandemic on ALHIV in western Kenya, and whether effects were greater for ALHIV with recent histories of being lost to program (LTP).
Pediatric COVID-19 infection in Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq

AUTHOR(S)
Aso Faeq Salih; Khalid Hamasalih; Heshu Sulaiman Rahman (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: American Journal of Otolaryngology

This research aimed to study the demographic and clinical presentations of COVID-19 with their types including MIS-C and Kawasaki among children who were admitted to Doctor Jamal Ahmad Rashid Pediatric Teaching Hospital (DJARPTH) at Sulaimaniyah city, Iraq. A prospective cohort study was conducted from June to December 2020 in which 50 cases suspected of COVID-19 were enrolled in the study that was admitted at the first visit to the emergency department of DJARPTH and their age ranged between 3 months to 14 years. Then, the collected data were divided into 3 groups: COVID-19, Kawasaki disease (KD), and MIS-C.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 43 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, hospitalization, infectious disease | Countries: Iraq
The role of children and adolescents in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus within family clusters: A large population study from Oman

AUTHOR(S)
Abdullah Alqayoudhi; Abdullah Al Manji; Sulien Al khalili (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health

In Oman, many extended families tend to live in one household. Some families can include 20–30 individuals with the majority of them being children. This study investigates the role of children in spreading SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 within family clusters in Oman. This retrospective study includes data of 1026 SARS-CoV-2 positive children (≤18 years) collected from the national surveillance database for COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 30 May 2020.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.