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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 236
Changes in type 2 diabetes trends in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jessica A. Schmitt; Ambika P. Ashraf; David J. Becker (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

There is concern that the growing incidence of pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) may have been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. To examine whether trends in new-onset pediatric T2D—inclusive of patients requiring hospitalization and patients managed as outpatients—were impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to compare patient characteristics prior to and during COVID-19. A retrospective single-center medical record review was conducted in a hospital which cares for 90% of Alabama’s pediatric T2D patients. Patients with new-onset T2D referred from March 2017 to March 2021 were included. Counts of patients presenting per month (“monthly rates”) were computed. Linear regression models were estimated for the full sample and stratified by Medicaid and non-Medicaid insurance status. Patient characteristics prior to vs during COVID-19 were compared.

COVID-19 infection in children: diagnosis and management

AUTHOR(S)
Frank Zhu; Jocelyn Y. Ang

Published: April 2022   Journal: Current Infectious Disease Reports

Due to the rapidly changing landscape of COVID-19, the purpose of this review is to provide a concise and updated summary of pediatric COVID-19 diagnosis and management. The relative proportion of pediatric cases have significantly increased following the emergence of the Omicron variant (from < 2% in the early pandemic to 25% from 1/27 to 2/3/22). While children present with milder symptoms than adults, severe disease can still occur, particularly in children with comorbidities. There is a relative paucity of pediatric data in the management of COVID-19 and the majority of recommendations remain based on adult data.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intimate partner violence during pregnancy: evidence from a multimethods study of recently pregnant women in Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Shannon N. Wood; Robel Yirgu; Abigiya Wondimagegnehu (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

This multimethods study aimed to: (1) compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy pre-COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 pandemic using quantitative data and (2) contextualise pregnant women’s IPV experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic through supplemental interviews. Quantitative analyses use data from Performance Monitoring for Action-Ethiopia, a cohort of 2868 pregnant women that collects data at pregnancy, 6 weeks, 6 months and 1-year postpartum. Following 6-week postpartum survey, in-depth semistructured interviews contextualised experiences of IPV during pregnancy with a subset of participants (n=24).

Voices of teens and young adults on the subject of teleconsultation in the COVID-19 context

AUTHOR(S)
Melissa Ziani; Emmanuelle Trépanier; Martin Goyette (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Patient Experience
This article describes the perceptions of adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 25 years who live in Québec (Canada) and obtained health services via teleconsultation for the first time, owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. Eleven young people who had received physical health services (medicine, physiotherapy, speech therapy, or nutritionist) participated in virtual semi-structured interviews. These interviews shed light on how these adolescents and young adults experienced the adaptation of the intervention and how effective they perceived the intervention to be. The article concludes with some thoughts for practitioners.
Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes: a scoping review of the literature from low-and-middle income countries from 2016 - 2021

AUTHOR(S)
Thao Da Thi Tran; Linda Murray; Thang Van Vo

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is significantly associated with negative outcomes for both mother and child. Current evidence indicates an association between low levels of social support and IPV, however there is less evidence from low-and-middle income countries (LMIC) than high-income countries. Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has radically altered how women can access social support. Hence since 2020, studies investigating IPV and pregnancy have occurred within the changing social context of the pandemic. This scoping review summarizes the evidence from LMICs about the effects of IPV during pregnancy on maternal and child health. The review includes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social support as mentioned in studies conducted since 2020.

Adapting community-based sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents and young people aged 15-24 years in response to COVID-19 in Lusaka, Zambia: the implications on the uptake of HIV testing services

AUTHOR(S)
Mwelwa Muleba Phiri; Bernadette Hensen; Ab Schaap (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Health Services Research
Across Sub-Saharan Africa, adolescents and young people (AYP) aged 15-24 have limited access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, including HIV testing services (HTS). In response, the Yathu Yathu study was implemented in two high-density communities in Lusaka, Zambia. Yathu Yathu provides comprehensive, community-based, peer-led SRH services, including differentiated HTS (finger-prick and HIV self-testing) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). It describes adaptations to the Yathu Yathu intervention in response to the COVID-19 epidemic, and implications on uptake of HTS among AYP.
Health care in pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic and pregnancy outcomes in six low-and-middle-income countries: evidence from a prospective, observational registry of the global network for women’s and children’s health

AUTHOR(S)
Seemab Naqvi; Farnaz Naqvi; Sarah Saleem (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BJOG : an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

On a population basis, this study assessed medical care for pregnant women in specific geographic regions of six countries before and during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in relationship to pregnancy outcomes. It is a prospective, population-based study. Its setting are communities in Kenya, Zambia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, India, and Guatemala.

Factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in parents of children with cancer

AUTHOR(S)
Micah A. Skeens; Kylie Hill; Anna Olsavsky (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer

Little research exists on coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among caregivers of children with cancer. We aimed to (a) describe vaccine hesitancy in parents of children with cancer for both their child and self, and (b) examine the mediating role of parent-reported COVID impact on the association between COVID exposure and vaccine hesitancy. This study conducted a national survey of parents of children with cancer via Facebook and Momcology, a pediatric cancer community-based organization recruited February–May 2021. Parents completed standardized measures online. A series of mediation models assessed the role of COVID-19 impact (e.g., effects on parenting and well-being) on associations between COVID-19 exposure (e.g., direct/indirect exposure) and vaccine hesitancy. Moderation models examined the role of treatment status, COVID-19 exposure, impact, and vaccine hesitancy.

A home-based exercise program during COVID-19 pandemic: perceptions and acceptability of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Sofia Mendes Sieczkowska; Camilla Astley; Isabela Gouveia Marques (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Lupus

To investigate the perceptions and acceptability of a home-based exercise intervention in systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) adolescent patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the effects of the intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), sleep quality, and mental health conditions parameters.This was a randomized controlled trial of a 12-week, home-based exercise training program conducted between October and December 2020. During this period, social distancing measures were in place in Brazil to contain the spread of COVID-19. Adolescent patients diagnosed with JSLE and JIA participated in the study. Health-related qualitative and quantitative data were collected before and after the follow-up.

Understanding the sexual and reproductive health experiences of refugee and host community adolescents and youth in Rwanda during COVID-19: needs, barriers, and opportunities

AUTHOR(S)
Katherine Meyer; Monique Abimpaye; Jean de Dieu Harerimana (et al.)

Institution: Save the Children
Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Reproductive Health,
COVID-19 has exacerbated the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of those affected by humanitarian emergencies, particularly affecting adolescents and youth, whose needs are often neglected during crises. In Rwanda, the situation for refugees in Mahama Refugee Camp has worsened, as COVID-19 lockdown measures have increased needs while restricting access to basic services. Few assessments have been conducted on the SRH needs of refugees in Mahama camp, including adolescents and youth, since COVID-19. To address this gap, Save the Children (SC) undertook research utilizing SenseMaker to collect data on the SRH needs of adolescents and youth in Mahama camp, as well as in the surrounding host community.
Families’ and professionals’ perspectives of building and maintaining engagement in telepractice early intervention for young children with communication disability

AUTHOR(S)
Felipe Retamal-Walter; Monique Waite; Nerina Scarinci

Published: March 2022   Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation

This paper aimed to explore and describe families’ and professionals’ perspectives about building and maintaining engagement in telepractice early intervention (EI). Individual semi-structured reflexive interviews were conducted with Australian families of young children with communication disability receiving telepractice EI and their treating professionals. These interviews were conducted within one day of a telepractice EI session and analysed using thematic analysis.

When a school is more than just a school: Improving school-based health in the wake of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Simon F. Haeder; Emily Maxfield; Kara Ulmen (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: World Medical & Health Policy
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has posed tremendous challenges for economies and individuals around the world. At the same time, it has also laid bare the blatant and growing inequities that many individuals, particularly children, are confronted with on a daily basis. With communities in lockdowns and schools going virtual in many parts of the United States, the important role that schools and school-based services play in the lives of many children have gained new attention. Nonetheless, only 3% of American schools have school-based health centers on campus, and they remain relegated to the fringes of both health care and education. One key limitation has been the lack of appropriately trained health-care professionals. Over the past 2 years, dozens of individuals have been interviewed about their experiences in school-based health centers. Based on this study, this study explores what it means for a health-care professional to work in school-based health care and how it differs from more traditional health-care settings. This analysis particularly focuses on training and education, work environments, and their unique demands that come from being embedded within the educational setting. It concludes by addressing the important role that governmental policies could play in augmenting this crucial workforce.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on management of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

AUTHOR(S)
Abha Choudhary; Soumya Adhikari; Perrin C. White

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had widespread impacts on the lives of parents and children. This study determined how the pandemic affected Type 1 diabetes patients at a large urban pediatric teaching hospital. It compared patient characteristics, glycemic control, PHQ-9 depression screen, in person and virtual outpatient encounters, hospitalizations and continuous glucose monitor (CGM) utilization in approximately 1600 patients in 1 year periods preceding and following the local imposition of COVID-related restrictions on 3/15/2020 (“2019” and “2020” groups, respectively).

Spectrum of COVID-19 disease in children: a retrospective analysis comparing wave 1 and wave 2 from a tertiary hospital in South India

AUTHOR(S)
T. P. Murugan; Ghosh Urmi; Julia Rajan Roshni (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Indian Journal of Pediatrics

The electronic medical records of children younger than 16 y of age with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection between June 1st 2020 and May 31st 2021 at Christian Medical College, Vellore were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected on a predesigned case record form and analyzed. A total of 988 children were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 during the study period. Of these, there were 585 children diagnosed during the 1st wave (June 2020–Feb 2021) and 403 children during the 2nd wave (March 2021–May 2021).

Risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections in children: a prospective national surveillance study between January, 2020, and July, 2021, in England

AUTHOR(S)
Anna A. Mensah; Helen Campbell; Julia Stowe (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(22)00059-1

Reinfection after primary SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncommon in adults, but little is known about the risks, characteristics, severity, or outcomes of reinfection in children. This study aimed to assess the risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in children and compare this with the risk in adults, by analysis of national testing data for England. National surveillance study to assess reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 in children in England  used national SARS-CoV-2 testing data to estimate the risk of reinfection at least 90 days after primary infection from Jan 27, 2020, to July, 31, 2021, which encompassed the alpha (B.1.1.7) and delta (B.1.617.2) variant waves in England. Data from children up to age 16 years who met the criteria for reinfection were included. Disease severity was assessed by linking reinfection cases to national hospital admission data, intensive care admission, and death registration datasets.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.