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Lynn C. Smitherman; William Christopher Golden; Jennifer R. Walton
Health disparities are defined as differences among specific populations in the ability to achieve full health potential (as measured by differences in incidence, prevalence, mortality, burden of disease, and other adverse health conditions). Among children, multiple factors contribute to these disparities, including economic stability, and access to health care. According to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, before the current pandemic, 12 million children in the United States were living in poverty in 2019, including one-third of African American and Native American children and 25% of Latinx children.8 During the same period, of the 4.4 million children without health insurance, 14% were Native American, 9% were of Hispanic descent, and 18% were immigrants. At present, owing to the impact of the pandemic on job security, more than 50% of African American, Latinx, and multiethnic adults are now without medical insurance, directly affecting the health security of their children.8 With the onset of the pandemic and the social and political upheaval felt by many disenfranchised communities, these well-documented disparities (and the importance of addressing them) have again been brought to the attention of the medical community. This overview will examine the effects of these health disparities in various populations of children in this country. We will first examine the historical context of health disparities, how they developed, and why they still exist. We will then examine how specifically the COVID-19 pandemic impacted these disparities among children and adolescents, both directly and indirectly. Finally, we hope to provide some recommendations to reduce these disparities.
Rachel Hoying; Nevert Badreldin; Malika D. Shah (et al.)
The COVID-19 pandemic presents unique challenges to maternity settings. Its effect on providing in-hospital lactation support has not been well described. This study aims to describe the experiences of healthcare workers as they provided in-hospital lactation support during the pandemic.A prospective, cross-sectional, online survey evaluated healthcare providers working with postpartum women and newborns affected by COVID-19 at an academic center during March–June 2020. Providers were queried regarding the influence of COVID-19 and COVID-19-specific policies on providing lactation support. Questions assessed guidance received, perceived stress, difficulty providing care, and solicited qualitative responses. The constant comparative method was used to analyze qualitative data.
Alex Abramovich; Nelson Pang; Amanda Moss (et al.)
LGBTQ2S youth are overrepresented among youth experiencing homelessness and experience significantly higher rates of mental health issues compared to heterosexual and cisgender youth. COVID-19 related challenges for LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness remain unknown. To address this gap, this study aimed to understand the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on LGBTQ2S youth at risk of, and experiencing, homelessness in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada and surrounding areas.Utilizing a mixed-methods convergent parallel design, LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness were recruited to participate in virtual surveys and in-depth one-on-one interviews. Surveys included standardized measures and were administered to measure mental health outcomes and collect information on demographic characteristics, and health service use. Survey data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and statistical tests for difference of proportions. Interviews were analyzed using an iterative thematic content approach.
Melanie Etti; Jackeline Alger; Sofía P. Salas (et al.)
The World Health Organization’s “Coordinated Global Research Roadmap: 2019 Novel Coronavirus” outlined the need for research that focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and children. More than one year after the first reported case significant knowledge gaps remain, highlighting the need for a coordinated approach. To address this need, the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Working Group (MNCH WG) of the COVID-19 Clinical Research Coalition conducted an international survey to identify global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health. This project was undertaken using a modified Delphi method. An electronic questionnaire was disseminated to clinicians and researchers in three different languages (English, French and Spanish) via MNCH WG affiliated networks. Respondents were asked to select the five most urgent research priorities among a list of 17 identified by the MNCH
Asmita Priyadarshini Khatiwada; Smriti Maskey; Nistha Shrestha (et al.)
The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected all essential healthcare services delivery in low-resource settings. This study aimed to explore the challenges and experiences of providers and users of childhood immunisation services in Nepal during the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with childhood immunisation service providers and users (i.e., parents of children) from Kathmandu valley, Nepal. All interviews were conducted through phone or internet-based tools, such as Zoom, WhatsApp, and messenger. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using theme-based content analysis in an Excel spreadsheet.
Recognizing the persistent and harmful impact that COVID-19 and related lockdown measures pose for the HIV response, governments across ESA region continue to implement interventions to sustain and further advance hard won gains toward ending AIDS. One year after the release of UNICEF’s Compendium of innovative approaches to HIV programming in Eastern and Southern Africa in the context of COVID-19, this new Volume II describes results achieved in the nine countries highlighted in Volume I and shares experiences from an additional eight countries. This collective work demonstrates how countries are building upon the learning and architecture of the HIV response to proactively mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic while scaling up efforts to achieve global HIV goals, resulting in stronger responses and resilient systems for both HIV and COVID-19.
Meredyth Grace Llewellyn Wilkinson; Wing Wu; Kathryn O’Brien (et al.)
The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how parents and carers feel about the effects and impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown and how this impacted upon their child/young person with JDM. It approached 139 participants from the JDM Cohort Biomarker Study (JDCBS), with specific consent to approach electronically for research studies. A secure electronic questionnaire with study introduction was sent to participants for their parents and carers around the UK to complete. It consisted of 20 questions about the impact of the pandemic on their child or young person’s clinical care. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively.
Jaymie Huckridge; Asher Arnold; James McParland
Sebastian Hoehl; Felix Schneider; Martin Eckrich (et al.)
It can be challenging to distinguish COVID-19 in children from other common infections. This study set out to determine the rate at which children consulting a primary care paediatrician with an acute infection are infected with SARS-CoV-2 and to compare distinct findings. In seven out-patient clinics, children aged 0–13 years with any new respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and presumed infection were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Factors that were correlated with testing positive were determined. Samples were collected from 25 January 2021 to 01 April 2021.
Marie-Maude Dubuc; Félix Berrigan; Marylène Goudreault (et al.)
Tarang P. Kaur; Anubhuti Rana; Vanamail Perumal (et al.)
This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19 among pregnant women at a tertiary care hospital. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional analysis pertaining to COVID-19 which was conducted at a tertiary care obstetric facility in India among 200 consecutive consenting pregnant women. They were assessed for demographic details and KAP score (knowledge—17 questions, attitude—9 questions and practice—8 questions). Analysis of data was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0.
Rob Stephenson; Alison R. Walsh; Tanaka M. D. Chavanduka (et al.)
Leslie A. Enane; Edith Apondi; Josephine Aluoch (et al.)
Aso Faeq Salih; Khalid Hamasalih; Heshu Sulaiman Rahman (et al.)
This research aimed to study the demographic and clinical presentations of COVID-19 with their types including MIS-C and Kawasaki among children who were admitted to Doctor Jamal Ahmad Rashid Pediatric Teaching Hospital (DJARPTH) at Sulaimaniyah city, Iraq. A prospective cohort study was conducted from June to December 2020 in which 50 cases suspected of COVID-19 were enrolled in the study that was admitted at the first visit to the emergency department of DJARPTH and their age ranged between 3 months to 14 years. Then, the collected data were divided into 3 groups: COVID-19, Kawasaki disease (KD), and MIS-C.
Abdullah Alqayoudhi; Abdullah Al Manji; Sulien Al khalili (et al.)
In Oman, many extended families tend to live in one household. Some families can include 20–30 individuals with the majority of them being children. This study investigates the role of children in spreading SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 within family clusters in Oman. This retrospective study includes data of 1026 SARS-CoV-2 positive children (≤18 years) collected from the national surveillance database for COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 30 May 2020.
UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.
Read the latest quarterly digest on violence against children and women during COVID-19.
The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.
Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children
COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response