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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 48
Preparedness of current and future Saudi pediatricians to face vaccine hesitancy: cross-sectional study within the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh

AUTHOR(S)
Yossef Alnasser; Mahdi A. Alnamnakani; Jawahir M. Abuhaimed (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Annals of Medicine and Surgery

Vaccines have helped in eradicating many communicable diseases. They are considered major players in preserving children's health. However, concerns about vaccines' ingredients and safety became hot topics globally. With doubt, some parents became hesitant to vaccinate their children. A recent study documented high prevalence of vaccine hesitancy among Saudi parents. This study aims to explore preparedness of current and future pediatricians to face vaccine hesitancy, a growing public health issue in Saudi Arabia. This study adopted non-interventional cross-sectional online questionnaire specifically designed to encompass general vaccine hesitancy related questions including Covid-19's vaccines.

Cite this research | Vol.: 69 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
Vaccine hesitancy towards childhood immunizations as a predictor of mothers’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Haifa Aldakhil; Norah Albedah; Nouf Alturaiki (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health

Despite the success of childhood immunization in reducing vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccine hesitancy is now a global health threat to this achievement. The current COVID-19 pandemic may change the picture of vaccine hesitancy toward childhood immunizations, which could influence the mothers’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. This study aims to measure the prevalence and related factors of vaccine hesitancy towards childhood immunization during the era of COVID-19 along with the prevalence of mothers’ intention to vaccinate their children the future COVID-19 and its association with childhood vaccine hesitancy.

Willingness and influential factors of parents of 3-6-year-old children to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine in China

AUTHOR(S)
Xiao Wan; Haitao Huang; Jia Shang (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on children aged 3–6 can be severe. Vaccination for COVID-19 is one of the most important primary preventative measures to reduce disease transmission. Parents are hesitant to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 because it was reported in the news that some adults have had adverse reactions to the vaccine. This study aims to investigate the willingness of Chinese parents of 3–6 year old children to vaccinate them with the COVID-19 vaccine and identify what factors influence their decisions. A survey was conducted using a two-stage stratified random sampling method from December 2020 to February 2021. We used univariate analysis and multivariate binary logistic analysis to explore potential factors that may determine the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine.
Repurposing of the childhood vaccines: could we train the immune system against the SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Divakar Sharma

Published: August 2021   Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines

The COVID-19 pandemic is a globalized health concern caused by a beta-coronavirus named Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since December 2019, when this outbreak flared in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 cases have been continuously rising all over the world. Due to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, subsequent waves are flowing in a faster manner as compared to the primary wave, which is more contagious and causing higher mortality. Recently, India has emerged as the new epicenter of the second wave by mutants of SARS-CoV-2. After almost eighteen months of this outbreak, some COVID-19 dedicated therapeutics and vaccines are available, and a few are under trial, but the situation is still uncontrolled. This perspective article covers the repurposing of childhood vaccines like Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG), Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR), and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), which are live attenuated vaccines and have been shown the protective effect through ‘trained immunity and ‘crossreactivity.'

Pediatric and parents' attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines and intention to vaccinate for children

AUTHOR(S)
Soo-Han Choi; Yoon Hee Jo; Kyo Jin Jo (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Korean Medical Science

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is necessary to reach herd immunity and essential for mitigating the spread of the pandemic. In May 2021, the US FDA and the EU have expanded the emergency use authorization for a COVID-19 vaccine to children aged 12 to 15. The aim of this study was to investigate parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination for their children, factors affecting their acceptability, and children's perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines in Republic of Korea. A questionnaire survey at two tertiary hospitals was conducted from May 25, 2021 to June 3, 2021. Subjects were parents having children under 18 years and children aged 10–18 years.

SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during delivery of childhood vaccination campaigns: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Simon R. Procter; Kaja Abbas; Stefan Flasche (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Medicine

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. This study modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. It used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. It explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening.

COVID-19 in children and young adults with moderate/severe inborn errors of immunity in a high burden area in pre-vaccine era

AUTHOR(S)
A. Deyà-Martínez; A. García-García; E. A. Gonzalez-Navarro (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Clinical Immunology

Information regarding inborn error of immunity (IEI) as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 is scarce. This study aimed to determine if paediatric patients with moderate/severe IEI got COVID-19 at the same level as the general population, and to describe COVID-19 expression. It included patients with moderate/severe IEI aged 0–21 years old: cross-sectional study (June2020) to determine the prevalence of COVID-19; prospective study (January2020-January2021) including IEI patients with COVID-19. Assays used: nasopharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins.

COVID-19 in Ghana: challenges and countermeasures for maternal health service delivery in public health facilities

AUTHOR(S)
Faith Agbozo; Albrecht Jahn

Published: July 2021   Journal: Reproductive Health
This study provides a situational update on COVID-19 in Ghana, the seventh African country reporting the most cases. Some modifications occurring within the health system to curtail the outbreak and its potential impact on the delivery of antenatal care services are also highlighted. With the discovery of the Delta variant in Ghana, the current attention is to prevent a third wave of infection, and also control and manage existing cases. Efforts to procure vaccines, vaccinate special populations and sensitize the public on the implications of vaccine hesitancy are ongoing.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood immunisation in Colombia

AUTHOR(S)
José Moreno-Montoya; Silvia Marcela Ballesteros; Jaid Constanza Rojas Sotelo (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

This article aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood vaccination coverage in Colombia by age group, rural/urban residence, state and vaccine type. It is an ecological study of official monthly vaccination records.

Parental perspectives on immunizations: impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on childhood vaccine hesitancy

AUTHOR(S)
Kaidi He; Wendy J. Mack; Michael Neely (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Community Health
Childhood vaccine hesitancy has been studied extensively before the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic presented new barriers to pediatric vaccinations. Furthermore, the development of COVID-19 vaccines has complicated factors underlying vaccine hesitancy. This study performed a cross-sectional mobile phone-based survey at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles querying parents regarding perspectives on vaccines before and during the pandemic. Its primary aim was to understand the impact of the pandemic on routine childhood vaccine hesitancy. Secondarily, it examined intent to vaccinate, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and key contributing demographic factors.
Humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses in children and adults in north-eastern France

AUTHOR(S)
Tom Woudenberg; Stephane Pelleau; Francois Anna (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: EBioMedicine Home
Children are underrepresented in the COVID-19 pandemic and often experience milder disease than adolescents and adults. Reduced severity is possibly due to recent and more frequent seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoV) infections. This study assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV specific antibodies in a large cohort in north-eastern France. In this cross-sectional seroprevalence study, serum samples were collected from children and adults requiring hospital admission for non-COVID-19 between February and August 2020. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43) were assessed using a bead-based multiplex assay, Luciferase-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, and a pseudotype neutralisation assay.
COVID-19 vaccines for children in LMICs: another equity issue

AUTHOR(S)
Beate Kampmann; Uduak Okomo

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet Journal

Given the success of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing death and severe disease in adults and their impact on community transmission,  use in children and young people (CYP) inevitably requires consideration. Although severe COVID-19 is rare in CYP, they are affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including education, mental health, and general wellbeing. As of late July, 2021, no COVID-19 vaccine is recommended for children younger than 12 years and safety and efficacy data from phase 3 clinical trials are so far limited: 1131 CYP aged 12–15 years received the Pfizer–BioNTech mRNA vaccine and safety data are available from phase 1 and 2 trials of Sinovac's inactivated CoronaVac vaccine in 438 children aged 3–17 years. Safety data have been reassuring, with published data confirming excellent immunogenicity. There is no reason to believe the vaccines should not be equally protective against COVID-19 in CYP as they are in adults. More than 30 international trials are now recruiting CYP as young as 6 months to assess safety, immunogenicity, dosing, and scheduling questions.
Estimating global and regional disruptions to routine childhood vaccine coverage during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Causey; Nancy Fullman; Reed J. D. Sorensen (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet1
The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission substantially affected health services worldwide. To better understand the impact of the pandemic on childhood routine immunisation, this study estimated disruptions in vaccine coverage associated with the pandemic in 2020, globally and by Global Burden of Disease (GBD) super-region. For this analysis it used a two-step hierarchical random spline modelling approach to estimate global and regional disruptions to routine immunisation using administrative data and reports from electronic immunisation systems, with mobility data as a model input. Paired with estimates of vaccine coverage expected in the absence of COVID-19, which were derived from vaccine coverage models from GBD 2020, Release 1 (GBD 2020 R1), it estimated the number of children who missed routinely delivered doses of the third-dose diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine and first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in 2020.
Children and COVID-19 vaccines

AUTHOR(S)
Lindsay A. Thompson; Sonja A. Rasmussen

Published: June 2021   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Nearly 4 million children in the US have been infected with COVID-19 as of May 2021. While most children have had mild or no symptoms, thousands have been hospitalized and several hundred have died. Children with underlying conditions are more likely to experience severe effects of COVID-19, but even healthy children can be severely affected. Children can spread COVID-19 to others and also can have long-term effects that last months. For these reasons, children need to be protected from COVID-19. Currently, 3 vaccines are authorized for adults in the United States. In studies of tens of thousands of people, these vaccines were safe and effective. The vaccine made by Pfizer was recently authorized for children 12 years and older. Two doses of this vaccine are recommended to be given 3 weeks apart. The other 2 vaccines were authorized for persons 18 years and older but are expected to be available for teenagers soon. Studies in younger children as young as age 6 months are ongoing and if these studies show that they are safe and effective, vaccines could be available for children 6 months and older by late 2021 or early 2022.

 

A qualitative study exploring the relationship between mothers’ vaccine hesitancy and health beliefs with COVID-19 vaccination intention and prevention during the early pandemic months

AUTHOR(S)
Kimberly K. Walker; Katharine J. Head; Heather Owens (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vaccine hesitancy is a top ten global health threat that can negatively impact COVID-19 vaccine uptake. It is assumed that vaccine refusers hold deep, negative beliefs, while acceptors hold strong, positive beliefs. However, vaccine hesitancy exists along a continuum and is multidimensional, varying by time, place, vaccine, subgroup, and person. Guided by the Health Belief Model and vaccine hesitancy frameworks, the study purpose was to qualitatively explore maternal COVID-19 threat perceptions and willingness to accept a COVID-19 vaccine in light of their expressed vaccine hesitancy toward past school required and routinely recommended vaccines and the HPV vaccine for their children. Researchers conducted twenty-five interviews with US Midwestern mothers during the early COVID-19 pandemic months. Mothers were grouped by vaccine hesitancy categories and thematic analysis was used to analyze the data within and across categories.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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