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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Examining the impact of COVID-19 in ethnically diverse families with young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
C. Neece; L. L. McIntyre; R. Fenning

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
The present study sought to examine the impact of COVID-19 in 77 ethnically, linguistically and socioeconomically diverse families with young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) in California and Oregon, who were participating in larger intervention studies.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 64 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 739-749 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disadvantaged groups, ethnic minority children, social inequality, COVID-19, impact | Countries: United States
Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics

AUTHOR(S)
Nicholas Davies; Petra Klepac; Yang Liu

Published: July 2020   Journal: Nature Medicine
The COVID-19 pandemic has shown a markedly low proportion of cases among children. Age disparities in observed cases could be explained by children having lower susceptibility to infection, lower propensity to show clinical symptoms or both. We evaluate these possibilities by fitting an age-structured mathematical model to epidemic data from China, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Canada and South Korea. We estimate that susceptibility to infection in individuals under 20 years of age is approximately half that of adults aged over 20 years, and that clinical symptoms manifest in 21% (95% credible interval: 12–31%) of infections in 10- to 19-year-olds, rising to 69% (57–82%) of infections in people aged over 70 years. Accordingly, we find that interventions aimed at children might have a relatively small impact on reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, particularly if the transmissibility of subclinical infections is low. Our age-specific clinical fraction and susceptibility estimates have implications for the expected global burden of COVID-19, as a result of demographic differences across settings. In countries with younger population structures—such as many low-income countries—the expected per capita incidence of clinical cases would be lower than in countries with older population structures, although it is likely that comorbidities in low-income countries will also influence disease severity. Without effective control measures, regions with relatively older populations could see disproportionally more cases of COVID-19, particularly in the later stages of an unmitigated epidemic.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children: a systematic review of imaging findings

AUTHOR(S)
Susan C. Shelmerdine; Jovan Lovrenski; Pablo Caro-Domínguez (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: Pediatric radiology
COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus infection that can cause a severe respiratory illness and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Because children appear to be less severely affected than adults, their imaging appearances have not been extensively reported.
Impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth: a national survey

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah A. Moore; Guy Faulkner; Ryan E. Rhodes

Published: June 2020   Journal: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (IJBNPA)
Healthy childhood development is fostered through sufficient physical activity (PA; including time outdoors), limiting sedentary behaviours (SB), and adequate sleep; collectively known as movement behaviours. Though the COVID-19 virus outbreak has changed the daily lives of children and youth, it is unknown to what extent related restrictions may compromise the ability to play and meet movement behaviour recommendations. This secondary data analysis examined the immediate impacts of COVID-19 restrictions on movement and play behaviours in children and youth.
Impact of COVID-19 on children: special focus on the psychosocial aspect

AUTHOR(S)
Ritwik GHOSH Ghosh; Mahua J. Dubey; Subhankar Chatterje (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: Minerva Pediatrica
Although medical literature shows that children are minimally susceptible to 2019-Corona virus disease (COVID-19), they are hit the hardest by psychosocial impact of this pandemic. Being quarantined in homes and institutions may impose greater psychological burden than the physical sufferings caused by the virus. School closure, lack of outdoor activity, aberrant dietary and sleeping habits are likely to disrupt children’s usual lifestyle and can potentially promote monoto- ny, distress, impatience, annoyance and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations. Incidences of domestic violence, child abuse, adulterated online contents are on the rise. Children of single parent and frontline workers suffer unique problems. The children from marginalized communities are particularly susceptible to the infection and may suffer from extended ill-consequences of this pandemic, such as child labor, child trafficking, child marriage, sexual exploitation and death etc. Parents, pediatricians, psychologists, social workers, hospital authorities, government and non-governmental organizations have important roles to play to mitigate the psychosocial ill-effects of COVID-19 on children and adolescents. To provide the basic amenities, social security, medical care, and to minimize the educational inequities among the children of the different strata of the society are foremost priorities.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 72 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Mental Health, Health | Tags: child psychology, psychology, pandemic, COVID-19 response, COVID-19, impact
Rapid Systematic Review: The Impact of Social Isolation and Loneliness on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in the Context of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Elizabeth Loades DClinPsy; Eleanor Chatburn; Nina Higson-Sweeney

Published: June 2020   Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in governments implementing disease containment measures such as school closures, social distancing and home quarantine. Children and adolescents are experiencing a prolonged state of physical isolation from their peers, teachers, extended family and community networks. Quarantine in adults generally has negative psychological effects including confusion, anger, and post-traumatic distress. Duration of quarantine, infection fears, boredom, frustration, lack of necessary supplies, lack of information, financial loss, and stigma appear to increase the risk of negative psychological outcomes. Social distancing and school closures may, therefore, increase mental health problems in children and adolescents, already at higher risk of developing mental health problems compared to adults  at a time when they are also experiencing anxiety over a health threat and threats to family employment/income.
Efficacy and safety of antibiotic agents in children with COVID-19: a rapid review

AUTHOR(S)
Jianjian Wang; Yuyi Tang; Yanfang Ma (et al.)

Published: May 2020   Journal: ANNALS of TRANSNATIONAL MEDICINE
In December 2019, an unexplained pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China, and has since then spread rapidly throughout the country and the world. On February 11, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) named the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On the same day, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the disease caused by the virus as COVID-19. According to the latest data, by March 31, 2020, a total of 1,174,866 cases had been confirmed worldwide, with 36,405 deaths. The number of confirmed cases in children continues to increase, with the youngest infected person being diagnosed only several minutes after birth. The outbreak of COVID-19 is the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century, after the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antibiotic agents in children with COVID-19, as well as to introduce the present situation of antibiotics use and bacterial coinfections in COVID-19 patients
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 8 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: children, pandemic, COVID-19 response, COVID-19, impact
Age profile of susceptibility, mixing, and social distancing shape the dynamics of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China

AUTHOR(S)
Juanjuan zhang; Maria Litvinova; Yuxia Liang (et al.)

Published: March 2020   Journal: MedRXiv
Strict interventions were successful to control the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in China. As transmission intensifies in other countries, the interplay between age, contact patterns, social distancing, susceptibility to infection and disease, and COVID-19 dynamics remains unclear. To answer these questions, we analyze contact surveys data for Wuhan and Shanghai before and during the outbreak and contact tracing information from Hunan Province. Daily contacts were reduced 7-9 fold during the COVID-19 social distancing period, with most interactions restricted to the household. Children 0-14 years were 59% (95% CI 7-82%) less susceptible than individuals 65 years and over. A transmission model calibrated against these data indicates that social distancing alone, as implemented in China during the outbreak, is sufficient to control COVID-19. While proactive school closures cannot interrupt transmission on their own, they reduce peak incidence by half and delay the epidemic. These findings can help guide global intervention policies.
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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.