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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 129
Understanding COVID-19: are children the key?

Suz Warner; Alex Richter; Zania Stamataki (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open
The devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global health and economic stability is immeasurable. The situation is dynamic and fast-evolving, with the world facing new variants of concern which may have immune escape potential. With threatened treatment and preventative strategies at stake, and the prospect of reinfection prolonging the pandemic, it is more crucial than ever to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which intriguingly disproportionately affects adults and the elderly. Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 remain largely asymptomatic or undergo a transient mild illness. Understanding why children have a milder phenotype and a significant survival advantage may help identify modifiable risk factors in adults.
Changes in infection-related hospitalizations in children following pandemic restrictions: an interrupted time-series analysis of total population data

Isobel M. F. Todd; Jessica E. Miller; Stacey L. Rowe

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Epidemiology
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of hospitalization during childhood. The various mitigation strategies implemented to control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic could have additional, unintended benefits for limiting the spread of other infectious diseases and their associated burden on the health care system.
Bibliography of published COVID-19 in children literature

Philippa Anna Stilwell; Alasdair P. S. Munro; Emre Basatemur (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest worldwide health challenge in this century. Research concerning the role of children in the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and investigating the clinical effects of infection in children, has been vital. This paper describes the publication trend for pertinent scientific literature relating to COVID-19 in children during the first 6 months of the pandemic. A comprehensive search of preprint and published literature was conducted daily across four databases (PubMed, Scopus, Ovid-Embase and MedRXiv) between 1 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. Titles and abstracts were screened against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Staff–pupil SARS-CoV-2 infection pathways in schools in Wales: a population-level linked data approach

Daniel A Thompson; Hoda Abbasizanjani; Richard Fry (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open

Better understanding of the role that children and school staff play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is essential to guide policy development on controlling infection while minimising disruption to children’s education and well-being. This national e-cohort (n=464531) study used anonymised linked data for pupils, staff and associated households linked via educational settings in Wales. It estimated the odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection for staff and pupils over the period August– December 2020, dependent on measures of recent exposure to known cases linked to their educational settings.

Cite this research | Vol.: 5 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, COVID-19 response, disease transmission, infectious disease, lockdown, school attendance | Countries: United Kingdom
Comparative study of hospitalized children with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus

Xinghua Liu; Wei Li; Bo Zhang (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases
Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019, more than 8 million cases have occurred worldwide as of June 16, 2020. However, it is important to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases, such as influenza. Here, we comparatively described the clinical characteristics of children with COVID-19 and paediatric patients with influenza.
Pediatric infectious disease group (GPIP) position paper on the immune debt of the COVID-19 pandemic in childhood, how can we fill the immunity gap?

Robert Cohen; Marion Ashman; Muhamed-Kheir Taha (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Infectious Diseases Now
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced incidence of many viral and bacterial infections has been reported in children: bronchiolitis, varicella, measles, pertussis, pneumococcal and meningococcal invasive diseases. The purpose of this opinion paper is to discuss various situations that could lead to larger epidemics when the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) imposed by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic will no longer be necessary.
The incremental burden of invasive pneumococcal disease associated with a decline in childhood vaccination using a dynamic transmission model in Japan: a secondary impact of COVID-19

Taito Kitano; Hirosato Aoki

Published: May 2021   Journal: Computers in Biology and Medicine
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted childhood vaccinations, including pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Evaluating the possible impact on the invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence associated with a decline in childhood pneumococcal vaccination is important to advocate the PCV programs. Using a deterministic, dynamic transmission model, the differential incidence and burden of IPD in children younger than 5 years in Japan were estimated between the rapid vaccination recovery (January 2021) and the delayed vaccination recovery (April 2022) scenarios for the next 10 years.
Does re-opening schools contribute to the spread of SARS-CoV-2? Evidence from staggered summer breaks in Germany

Ingo E. Isphording; Marc Lipfert; Nico Pestel

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Economics
This paper studies the effect of the end of school summer breaks on SARS-CoV-2 cases in Germany. The staggered timing of summer breaks across federal states allows us to implement an event study design. We base our analysis on official daily counts of confirmed coronavirus infections by age groups across all 401 German counties. We consider an event window of two weeks before and four weeks after the end of summer breaks. We do not find evidence of a positive effect of school re-openings on case numbers. For individuals aged between 5 and 59 years, comprising school-aged children and their parents, our preferred specification indicates that the end of summer breaks had a negative but insignificant effect on the number of new confirmed cases.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 198 | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, disease transmission, infectious disease, lockdown, school attendance | Countries: Germany
COVID-19 and pregnancy: vertical transmission and inflammation impact on newborns

Mohamed Joma; Claire-Maelle Fovet; Nabila Seddiki (et al.)

Published: April 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing and we are still compiling new findings to decipher and understand SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. No reports encompass any conclusive confirmation of vertical transmission. Nevertheless, cases of fetal distress and multiple organ failure have been reported, as well as rare cases of fetal demise. While clinicians and scientists continue to seek proof of vertical transmission, they miss the greater point, namely the cause of preterm delivery. This review suggests that the cause might not be due to the viral infection but the fetal exposure to maternal inflammation or cytokine storm that translates into a complication of COVID-19. This statement is extrapolated from previous experience with infections and inflammation which were reported to be fatal by increasing the risk of preterm delivery and causing abnormal neonatal brain development and resulting in neurological disorders like atypical behavioral phenotype or autistic syndrome.
Impact of COVID-19 on early childhood educator’s perspectives and practices in nutrition and physical activity: a qualitative study

Lynne Lafave; Alexis D. Webster; Ceilidh McConnell

Published: April 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
Government guidelines for relaunching early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs during the COVID-19 pandemic have required the implementation of various practices to minimize the risk of infection transmission. These directives include recommendations regarding serving and handling food, shared spaces, and physical distancing which have a direct impact on the health and development of children in care. The purpose of this study was to explore early childhood educators’ perspectives on how COVID-19 guidelines have impacted the nutrition and physical activity practices within their ECEC environment. A qualitative description approach was used to explore a purposive sample of 17 educators working full time in ECEC centres during the pandemic between July and August 2020.
Comparison of clinical features on admission between coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza a among children: a retrospective study in China

Feng Liang; Xianfeng Wang; Jianbo Shao (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share similar symptoms with influenza A (IA), but it is more worthwhile to understand the disparities of the two infections regarding their clinical characteristics on admission. A total of 71 age-matched pediatric IA and COVID-19 patient pairs were formed and their clinical data on admission were compared.

SARS-COV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns in a Spanish cohort (GESNEO-COVID) during the first wave

Itzíar Carrasco; Mar Muñoz-Chapuli; Sara Vigil-Vázquez (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and newborns is scarce. The objective of this study is to analyse clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and their newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 during gestation. Multicentric observational study of Spanish hospitals from the GESNEO-COVD cohort, participants in RECLIP (Spanish Network of Paediatric Clinical Assays). Women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR and/or serology during pregnancy, diagnosed and delivering during the period 15/03/2020–31/07/2020 were included. Epidemiological, clinical, and analytical data was collected.

SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and pregnancy-related conditions: concerns, challenges, management and mitigation strategies: a narrative review

Rakesh Kumar; Cut Meurah Yeni; Niken Asri Utami (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health problem. The SARS-CoV-2 triggers hyper-activation of inflammatory and immune responses resulting in cytokine storm and increased inflammatory responses on several organs like lungs, kidneys, intestine, and placenta. Although SARS-CoV-2 affects individuals of all age groups and physiological statuses, immune-compromised individuals such as pregnant women are considered as a highly vulnerable group. This review aims to raise the concerns of high risk of infection, morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in pregnant women and provides critical reviews of pathophysiology and pathobiology of how SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially increases the severity and fatality during pregnancy. This article also provides a discussion of current evidence on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Lastly, guidelines on management, treatment, preventive, and mitigation strategies of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and pregnancy-related conditions such as delivery and breastfeeding are discussed.
Maternal nutrients and effects of gestational COVID-19 infection on fetal brain development

M. Camille Hoffman; Robert Freedman; Amanda J. Law (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Maternal gestational infection is a well-characterized risk factor for offsprings’ development of mental disorders including schizophrenia, autism, and attention deficit disorder. The inflammatory response elicited by the infection is partly directed against the placenta and fetus and is the putative pathogenic mechanism for fetal brain developmental abnormalities. Fetal brain abnormalities are generally irreversible after birth and increase risk for later mental disorders. Maternal immune activation in animals models this pathophysiology. SARS-CoV-2 produces maternal inflammatory responses during pregnancy similar to previously studied common respiratory viruses.
Clinical outcomes of maternal and neonate with COVID-19 infection: multicentre study in Saudi Arabia

Abdulrahman Al-Matary; Faeza Almatari; Mariam Al-Matary (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health
To this end, the influence of COVID-19 on pregnant women and their neonates is not completely clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Besides, it investigates the likelihood of vertical transmission of COVID-19 infection from pregnant women to their neonates.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.