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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 66
Innate cell profiles during the acute and convalescent phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children

AUTHOR(S)
Melanie R. Neeland; Samantha Bannister; Vanessa Clifford (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Nature Communications volume
Children have mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) confirmed disease (COVID-19) compared to adults and the immunological mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. Here, it is reported acute and convalescent innate immune responses in 48 children and 70 adults infected with, or exposed to, SARS-CoV-2. It has been found clinically that mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is characterised by reduced circulating subsets of monocytes (classical, intermediate, non-classical), dendritic cells and natural killer cells during the acute phase. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-infected adults show reduced proportions of non-classical monocytes only. It has also been observed increased proportions of CD63+ activated neutrophils during the acute phase to SARS-CoV-2 in infected children. Children and adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but negative on PCR testing display increased proportions of low-density neutrophils that have been observed up to 7 weeks post exposure. This study characterises the innate immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection and household exposure in children.
Comparison of acute pneumonia caused by SARS-COV-2 and other respiratory viruses in children: a retrospective multi-center cohort study during COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Guang-Li Ren; Xian-Feng Wang; Jun Xu (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Military Medical Research
Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in an adolescent Nigerian girl with COVID-19: a call for vigilance in Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Chizaram Onyeghala; Datonye Alasia; Orezioghene Eyaru (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID
Most reports of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) have come from Europe and North America. The paucity of reports in Africa is in contrast with the demographics of the series in New York, Paris and UK with children of African ancestry accounting for over 40%, of all cases of MIS-C. With the global trend of higher prevalence of MIS-C in children of African ancestry, enhanced surveillance and awareness for this syndrome in children with COVID-19 in Africa are therefore important. A case report of a 12-year old Nigerian girl with MIS-C is presented in line with the WHO global surveillance especially in areas were MIS-C is considered a rarity. This case report stimulates a call for vigilance and expanded effort at surveillance to promote early recognition and diagnosis of MIS-C in Nigeria and Africa. The favourable outcome and experience from this case will create awareness, expand knowledge, and support clinicians in Nigeria and the African continent in their approach to other potential cases.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 16 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: Nigeria
A public health approach for deciding policy on infant feeding and mother–infant contact in the context of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nigel Rollins; Nicole Minckas; Fyezah Jehan (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: The Lancet Global Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concern about the possibility and effects of mother–infant transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through breastfeeding and close contact. The insufficient available evidence has resulted in differing recommendations by health professional associations and national health authorities. This paper presents an approach for deciding public health policy on infant feeding and mother–infant contact in the context of COVID-19, or for future emerging viruses, that balances the risks that are associated with viral infection against child survival, lifelong health, and development, and also maternal health.
The role of children in the spread of COVID-19: using household data from Bnei Brak, Israel, to estimate the relative susceptibility and infectivity of children

AUTHOR(S)
Itai Dattner; Yair Goldberg; Guy KatrielI (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Plos One
One of the significant unanswered questions about COVID-19 epidemiology relates to the role of children in transmission. This study uses data on infections within households in order to estimate the susceptibility and infectivity of children compared to those of adults. The data were collected from households in the city of Bnei Brak, Israel, in which all household members were tested for COVID-19 using PCR (637 households, average household size of 5.3). In addition, serological tests were performed on a subset of the individuals in the study.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 19 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: Israel
The role of mask mandates, stay at home orders and school closure in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic prior to vaccination

AUTHOR(S)
Bhuma Krishnamachari; Alexander Morris; Diane Zastrow (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: American Journal of Infection Control
COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has quickly spread throughout the world, necessitating assessment of effective containment methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of government mandated school closures, stay at home orders and mask requirements. Cumulative incidence rates were calculated at 14 day intervals until the day of the first vaccine administration in the country. Rate ratios were calculated using negative binomial regression while investigating the effects of adjusting for several socio-demographic and medical factors.
Definition and categorization of the timing of mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: February 2021
This scientific brief was prepared based on results of evidence synthesis and a WHO expert consultation. The WHO COVID-19 LENS (Living Evidence Synthesis) working group consolidated available evidence, based on rapid reviews of the literature and results of a living systematic review on pregnancy and COVID-19 (up to October 7, 2020), on potential mechanisms of vertical transmission of infectious pathogens, feasibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, data related to interpretation of positive SARS-CoV-2 virologic and serologic neonatal tests, lessons from diagnosis of other congenital infections, and existing proposed definitions to classify timing of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. WHO convened a multidisciplinary, international panel of experts between October and November 2020 to review the evidence and propose a consensus initial classification system for the timing of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The panel included experts in obstetrics, neonatology, paediatrics, epidemiology, virology, infectious disease, congenital infections, and placental pathology. The selection of the panel ensured geographic representation, gender balance, and no important conflicts of interest, in accordance with WHO standard procedures.
Egyptian school children awareness and precautions in Covid19 pandemic: a cross sectional survey study

AUTHOR(S)
Manal A. Shehata; Ahmed Adel; Ayman F. Armaneous (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Bulletin of the National Research Centre
COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) is showing a wide global spread, and urgent joint international eforts is required to the control of this pandemic, the awareness of people towards infectious viruses still the main factor to limit the widespread of disease. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness and attitude towards COVID-19 among a sample of Egyptian school children, using a web-based questionnaire.
Serious infectious events and ibuprofen administration in pediatrics: a narrative review in the era of COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lucia Quaglietta; Massimo Martinelli; Annamaria Staiano

Published: January 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Despite its recognized efficacy and tolerability profile, during the last decade a rise of adverse events following ibuprofen administration in children has been reported, including a possible role in worsening the clinical course of infections. Our aim was to critically evaluate the safety of ibuprofen during the course of pediatric infectious disease in order to promote its appropriate use in children.
Exploring health-seeking behavior among adolescent mothers during the Ebola epidemic in Western rural district of Freetown, Sierra Leone

AUTHOR(S)
Hamida Massaquoi; Catherine Atuhaire; Gorgeous Sarah Chinkonono

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
From 2014 to 2016, the largest Ebola outbreak in history threatened Sierra Leone and its neighbouring countries, Guinea and Liberia. The Ebola outbreak impacted pregnant adolescent girl’s access to prenatal care during the pandemic. The aim of this study is to understand health-seeking behaviour among adolescent mothers who were pregnant during the Ebola epidemic in Waterloo, Sierra Leone
Simulating preventative testing of SARS-CoV-2 in schools: policy implications

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Asgary; Monica Gabriela Cojocaru; Mahdi M. Najafabadi (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
School testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection has become an important policy and planning issue as schools were reopened after the summer season and as the COVID-19 pandemic continues. Decisions to test or not to test and, if testing, how many tests, how often and for how long, are complex decisions that need to be taken under uncertainty and conflicting pressures from various stakeholders. This study aims to develop an agent-based model and simulation tool that can be used to analyze the outcomes and effectiveness of different testing strategies and scenarios in schools with various number of classrooms and class sizes.
Korean mothers’ morality in the wake of COVID-19 contact-tracing surveillance

AUTHOR(S)
Eun-Sung Kim; Ji-Bum Chung

Published: January 2021   Journal: Social Science & Medicine
The Korean government collects and releases sociodemographic information about people infected with COVID-19, their travel histories, and whether or not the patients wore masks. Korean mothers then upload this information on the boards of online groups called “mom cafes.” Based upon a digital ethnography of 15 “mom cafes,” this article examines how Korean mothers understand the travel histories of virus patients and explore the relationships between morality and materiality in the context of infectious disease surveillance.
Longitudinal symptom dynamics of COVID-19 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Barak Mizrahi; Smadar Shilo; Hagai Rossman (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, obtaining information on symptoms dynamics is of essence. Here, we extracted data from primary-care electronic health records and nationwide distributed surveys to assess the longitudinal dynamics of symptoms prior to and throughout SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information was available for 206,377 individuals, including 2471 positive cases. The two datasources were discordant, with survey data capturing most of the symptoms more sensitively. The most prevalent symptoms included fever, cough and fatigue. Loss of taste and smell 3 weeks prior to testing, either self-reported or recorded by physicians, were the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19. Additional discriminative symptoms included self-reported headache and fatigue and a documentation of syncope, rhinorrhea and fever. Children had a significantly shorter disease duration. Several symptoms were reported weeks after recovery. By a unique integration of two datasources, our study shed light on the longitudinal course of symptoms experienced by cases in primary care.
Comparison of the characteristics, morbidity, and mortality of COVID-19 and seasonal influenza: a nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Lionel Piroth; Jonathan Cottenet; Anne-Sophie Mariet (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
To date, influenza epidemics have been considered suitable for use as a model for the COVID-19 epidemic, given that they are respiratory diseases with similar modes of transmission. However, data directly comparing the two diseases are scarce. This study did a nationwide retrospective cohort study using the French national administrative database (PMSI), which includes discharge summaries for all hospital admissions in France. All patients hospitalised for COVID-19 from March 1 to April 30, 2020, and all patients hospitalised for influenza between Dec 1, 2018, and Feb 28, 2019, were included.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, COVID-19, epidemiology, hospitalization | Countries: France
Risk communication & community engagement (RCCE) Somalia COVID-19 rapid assessment survey report
Institution: Save the Children
Published: December 2020

Save the Children Somalia conducted a rapid assessment covering the entirety of Somalia between the 13th to 16th of April, 2020. The findings of the assessment will inform the defining and prioritizing of the RCCE strategy and key communication and community engagement plan; including contextualized key messages tailored to circumstances of vulnerable communities, defining key actions/activities, and tailor and test materials. Ultimately, the exercise will increase the effectiveness of our communication activities and therefore the impact of the overall response. Furthermore, meaningful participatory engagement and adapting messages to the local context and audience is also proven to lead to stronger ownership, buy-in, and commitment, as well as maintaining/increasing access, and strengthening the organization’s integrity and reputation. 

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.