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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 238
Breastfeeding during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
J. P. Dadhich; Nupur Bidla

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Neonatology
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious challenge to the lactating women to practice optimal infant and young child feeding. Although international and national agencies developed appropriate evidence-based guidelines early in the pandemic, availability of this information to the mothers and their caregivers needs to be enhanced. This becomes important in view of apprehension about the risk of a decline in breastfeeding practices during the pandemic due to various factors. Any decrease in the breastfeeding rates may lead to increased childhood morbidity, mortality, and malnutrition. This article provides a glimpse of available evidence-based guidelines on breastfeeding by Covid-19 positive mothers and attempts by the baby food industry to exploit the situation by promoting their products. The article also deals with infection prevention and control measures to be observed by the mother while caring and breastfeeding her baby and other action required to protect breastfeeding from commercial influence.
Implementation of SARS-CoV2 screening in K–12 schools using in-school pooled molecular testing and deconvolution by rapid antigen test

AUTHOR(S)
Nira R. Pollock; David Berlin; Sandra C. Smole (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology logo
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) testing is one component of a multilayered mitigation strategy to enable safe in-person school attendance for the K–12 school population. However, costs, logistics, and uncertainty about effectiveness are potential barriers to implementation. We assessed early data from the Massachusetts K–12 public school pooled SARS-CoV2 testing program, which incorporates two novel design elements: in-school “pod pooling” for assembling pools of dry anterior nasal swabs from 5 to 10 individuals and positive pool deconvolution using the BinaxNOW antigen rapid diagnostic test (Ag RDT), to assess the operational and analytical feasibility of this approach. Over 3 months, 187,597 individual swabs were tested across 39,297 pools from 738 schools.
Relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcomes: Retrospective analytical cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Zahra Alipoura; Parisa Samadib; Narges Eskandari (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Midwifery

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused many deaths and complications worldwide. However, limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19, and the adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. This retrospective analytical cohort study was conducted on all pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 at Nekouei-Hedayati-Forghani Hospital in Qom, Iran from 15 March 2020 to 15 November 2020. For the same period, 165 pregnant women who did not have COVID-19 were selected at random and included in this study. All epidemiological and clinical features were collected from the medical records of the participants. A logistic regression model was used to determine associations between COVID-19 in pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcomes.

Preparedness of current and future Saudi pediatricians to face vaccine hesitancy: cross-sectional study within the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh

AUTHOR(S)
Yossef Alnasser; Mahdi A. Alnamnakani; Jawahir M. Abuhaimed (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Annals of Medicine and Surgery

Vaccines have helped in eradicating many communicable diseases. They are considered major players in preserving children's health. However, concerns about vaccines' ingredients and safety became hot topics globally. With doubt, some parents became hesitant to vaccinate their children. A recent study documented high prevalence of vaccine hesitancy among Saudi parents. This study aims to explore preparedness of current and future pediatricians to face vaccine hesitancy, a growing public health issue in Saudi Arabia. This study adopted non-interventional cross-sectional online questionnaire specifically designed to encompass general vaccine hesitancy related questions including Covid-19's vaccines.

Cite this research | Vol.: 69 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
Pooled RT-qPCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in schools - a cluster randomised trial

AUTHOR(S)
Alexander Joachim; Felix Dewald; Isabelle Suárez (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine

The extent to which children and adolescents contribute to SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains not fully understood. Novel high-capacity testing methods may provide real-time epidemiological data in educational settings helping to establish a rational approach to prevent and minimize SARS-CoV-2 transmission. This study investigated whether pooling of samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-qPCR is a sensitive and feasible high-capacity diagnostic strategy for surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in schools. In this study, students and school staff of 14 educational facilities in Germany were tested sequentially between November 9 and December 23, 2020, two or three times per week for at least three consecutive weeks. Participants were randomized for evaluation of two different age adjusted swab sampling methods (oropharyngeal swabs or buccal swabs compared to saliva swabs using a ‘lolli method’).

COVID-19: relationship and impact on breastfeeding : a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Marcelino Pérez-Bermejo; Belén Peris-Ochando; María Teresa Murillo-Llorente

Published: August 2021   Journal: Nutrients
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). One major problem faced is whether breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus is safe. The objective of this work is to study the impact that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can have on breastfeeding, and whether the virus or antibodies can be transmitted from mother to child through milk. We carried out a systematic review of studies focusing on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus. The bibliographic search was done through Medline (Pubmed), MedlinePlus and Google Scholar. From 292 records, the title and summary of each were examined according to the criteria, and whether they meet the selection criteria was also analysed. A total of 30 articles are included, of which 26 deal with the study of RNA virus in breastmilk and its involvement in breastfeeding and four on the study of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in milk. Most studies have been conducted in China.
Predictors of pregnant women’s intention to vaccinate against coronavirus disease 2019: a facility-based cross-sectional study in southwest Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Shewangizaw Hailemariam; Besufekad Mekonnen; Nigusie Shifera (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: SAGE Open Medicine
Ethiopia is planning to vaccinate 20% of its population against the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic by the end of 2021—however, there is no single piece of evidence regarding pregnant women’s intention to be vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019; hence, the objective of this study was to investigate predicting factors of intention to be vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019 among pregnant women in Bench-Sheko Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study was undertaken from 1 February to 1 March 2021 in southwest Ethiopia. The study was carried out among pregnant women who came for antenatal care service in the selected public health facilities. Interviewer-administered structured tool was used to collect the data. Data were entered into EpiData (version 3.1) and then analyzed using SPSS (version 20).
Pregnancy and birth outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Regan N. Theiler; Myra Wick; Ramila Mehta (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
 SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with significant maternal morbidity and increased rates of preterm birth. For this reason, COVID-19 vaccine administration in pregnancy has been endorsed by multiple professional societies including ACOG and SMFM despite exclusion of pregnant women from initial clinical trials of vaccine safety and efficacy. However, to date little data exists regarding outcomes after COVID-19 vaccination of pregnant patients. A comprehensive vaccine registry was combined with a delivery database for an integrated healthcare system to create a delivery cohort including vaccinated patients. Maternal sociodemographic data were examined to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Pregnancy and birth outcomes were analyzed, including a composite measure of maternal and neonatal pregnancy complications, the Adverse Outcome Index.
Examining the role of psychosocial influences on black maternal health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Keri Carvalho; Anna Kheyfets; Blessing Lawrence (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Maternal and Child Health Journal

Due to the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on communities of color, racial disparities in maternal mortality and morbidity are likely to increase. However, neighborhood and social support factors have yet to be discussed as potential mechanisms by which COVID-19 can exacerbate racial disparities. This study examined literature on the role of neighborhood factors and social support on maternal health outcomes and provided analytical perspective on the potential impacts of COVID-19 on Black birthing people.

Religiosity, meaning-making and the fear of COVID-19 affecting well-being among late adolescents in Poland: a moderated mediation model

AUTHOR(S)
Dariusz Krok; Beata Zarzycka; Ewa Telka

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Religion and Health
Adolescents have come to be greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing containment measures in recent months. The aim of the present study was to examine the relations among religiosity, meaning-making, fear of COVID-19, and subjective well-being within a moderated mediation model. Three hundred and sixteen late adolescents (173 women and 143 men) in Poland volunteered to take part in the study. The results show that meaning-making mediated relationships between religiosity and life satisfaction, religiosity and positive affect, and religiosity and negative affect. In addition, these mediation effects were moderated by the fear of COVID-19. Specifically, the indirect effects were stronger for adolescents with high fear than for those with low fear, which indicates that fear of COVID-19 serves as a ‘warning’ factor.
Changes in pregnancy outcomes during the COVID-19 lockdown in Iran

AUTHOR(S)
Fahimeh Ranjbar; Leila Allahqoli; Soheila Ahmadi (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

The Covid-19 pandemic response is influencing maternal and neonatal health care services especially in developing countries. However, the indirect effects of Covid-19 on pregnancy outcomes remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare pregnancy outcomes before and after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Iran. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,503 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, admitted to the maternity department of a women’s hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the pre-Covid-19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2019) and the intra-Covid- 19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2020) period.

Caregivers’ sources of information about immunization as predictors of delayed childhood vaccinations in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

AUTHOR(S)
Leena R. Baghdadi; Marwah M. Hassounah; Afnan Younis (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Of 628 women, 11.8% (n = 74) were pregnant at the time of survey. Most of the pregnant women (89.2%, n = 66) had some degree of concerns about their unborn babies getting infected during delivery in the hospital. Among mothers of children under 10 years of age (n = 564), half (n = 282) reported change in their children’s behavior during the lockdown. Most mothers and pregnant women (94.9%, n = 569) had some degree of psychological distress. Mothers and pregnant women with a college degree had significantly lower psychological distress (β = -1.346; p = 0.014) than women with a high school education or less. Similarly, mothers and pregnant women with monthly family income ≥ US$ 1,333 had lower psychological distress than those with < US$ 1,333. Women with pre-existing chronic physical (β = 2.424; p < 0.001) or mental (β = 4.733; p < 0.001) conditions had higher psychological distress than those without these conditions. Having children in the house was a contributory factor for higher psychological distress. For example, mothers with one child (β = 2.602; p = 0.007) had significantly higher psychological distress compared to expectant mothers without children in the house.
Disinfectant use by K-12 school staff to combat SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Timothy J. Hilbert; Candace Brancato; Kelsey Carter (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Infection Control
K-12 school staff from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio were asked about their use of disinfectants to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in schools. Survey participants (n=1,555) reported frequent use of disinfectants, often using unknown products, and were provided little to no training on safe and effective use. Participant concerns included student involvement in disinfection, inadequate ventilation, surface contact time, and potential health effects.
Age-dependent seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in school-aged children from areas with low and high community transmission

AUTHOR(S)
Lise Boey; Mathieu Roelants; Joanna Merckx (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
It is not yet clear to what extent SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in children reflect community transmission, nor whether infection rates differ between primary schoolchildren and young teenagers. A cross-sectional serosurvey compared the SARS-CoV2 attack-rate in a sample of 362 children recruited from September 21 to October 6, 2020, in primary (ages 6–12) or lower secondary school (ages 12–15) in a municipality with low community transmission (Pelt) to a municipality with high community transmission (Alken) in Belgium. Children were equally distributed over grades and regions. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Predictors of breastfeeding self-efficacy during the covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Maryam Ahmad Zadeh Beheshti; Zainab Alimoradib; Nasim Bahrami (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Neonatal Nursing

Breastfeeding self-efficacy (BSE) is a strong predictor of the duration of breastfeeding. The aim of this study is to determine the predictors of BSE in breastfeeding mothers during the Covid-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 breastfeeding mothers who breastfed during the Covid-19 pandemic. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants. A battery of online questionnaires measured sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics, breastfeeding self-efficacy, spouse postpartum social support, perceived social support, anxiety and depression, and fear of Covid-19. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients, one-way ANOVA, and multivariable linear regression via stepwise method. The significance level in this study was α = 0.05.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.