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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 605
Difficult questions about long COVID in children

AUTHOR(S)
Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to leave long-lasting marks on a generation of children and young people, mainly from indirect effects, including those of school closures, social isolation and a so-called immunity debt resulting from 2 years with reduced exposure to common pathogens. A small proportion of children have had serious sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection itself, with the most dramatic being multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).  Furthermore, a less well-defined entity, termed long COVID or post-COVID-19 condition, has been suggested, referring to children with long-lasting symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection that are not explained by another disease.
Safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vVaccines in children and adolescents: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

AUTHOR(S)
Fangyuan Tian; Ruonan Yang; Zhaoyan Chen

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
This paper aims to systematically review and synthesize the safety and efficacy of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in children and adolescents. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library databases, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR), and ClinicalTrials.gov website were searched to collect accessible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the safety and efficacy of human COVID-19 vaccines in children and adolescents until May 1, 2022. Three steps, including duplicate removal, title and abstract screening, and full-text review, were used to screen the studies. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for RCTs was used to assess the bias risk of the included studies.
A systematic review and meta-analysis on the preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Feifei Li; Wei Liang; Ryan E. Rhodes (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health
The purpose of this review was to synthesize the empirical evidence of relevant studies related to preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents. Further to this, we aimed to identify the demographic, psychological, and social and environmental correlates of such behaviors. Following PRISMA guidelines, eligible literature was identifed by searching seven databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO registry platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov website) and reference list of included studies and relevant review papers from 1st Jan 2020 to 28th Feb 2021. The standardized mean diference and correlation coefcients r were extracted to estimate the efect sizes. Analyses were conducted using R software.
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign: risk perception, emotional states, and vaccine hesitancy in a sample of adolescents' vaccinated parents in Southern Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Giulia Savarese; Luna Carpinelli; Anna De Chiara (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The international strategic plan for COVID-19 vaccines remains the practical option for the protection of health. However, vaccine hesitancy remains an obstacle to full population vaccination, with rapid developments in COVID-19 vaccines and concerns about efficacy acting as influencing factors. The present study investigated the perception of vaccine hesitancy among parents of adolescents in order to explore the reasons and related emotional states. In January–March 2022, an online questionnaire was administered to a sample of parents who brought their children to the vaccine center of a local health unit, ASL Salerno (Campania, Italy).
Measuring parents' acceptance of non-national immunization program vaccines for children and its influencing factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai, China

AUTHOR(S)
Linlin Wu; Zhuoying Huang; Xiang Guo (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
This study aimed to understand the willingness of and affecting factors of non-national immunization program (non-NIP) vaccines among children’s parents during the COVID-19 era in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with parents who attended vaccination clinics in four out of 16 districts in Shanghai, China. Data was obtained using a self-administered structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze factors associated with vaccination acceptability. In total, 1691 valid questionnaires were obtained.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 18 | Issue: 5 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: China
Assessing the prevalence of young children living in households prepared for COVID-19 in 56 low- and middle-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Chunling Lu; Yiqun Luan; Sara N. Naicker (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Global Health Research and Policy

The COVID-19 pandemic and governments’ attempts to contain it are negatively affecting young children’s health and development in ways we are only beginning to understand and measure. Responses to the pandemic are driven largely by confining children and families to their homes. This study aims to assess the levels of and associated socioeconomic disparities in household preparedness for protecting young children under the age of five from being exposed to communicable diseases, such as COVID-19, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Using data from nationally representative household surveys in 56 LMICs since 2016, we estimated the percentages of young children under the age of five living in households prepared for communicable diseases (e.g., COVID-19) and associated residential and wealth disparities at the country- and aggregate-level. Preparedness was defined on the basis of space for quarantine, adequacy of toilet facilities and hand hygiene, mass media exposure at least once a week, and phone ownership. Disparities within countries were measured as the absolute gap in two domains—household wealth and residential area - and compared across regions and country income groups.

Long-COVID in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analyses

AUTHOR(S)
Sandra Lopez-Leon; Talia Wegman-Ostrosky; Norma Cipatli Ayuzo del Valle (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
The objective of this systematic review and meta-analyses is to estimate the prevalence of long-COVID in children and adolescents and to present the full spectrum of symptoms present after acute COVID-19. It used PubMed and Embase to identify observational studies published before February 10th, 2022 that included a minimum of 30 patients with ages ranging from 0 to 18 years that met the National Institute for Healthcare Excellence (NICE) definition of long-COVID, which consists of both ongoing (4 to 12 weeks) and post-COVID-19 (≥ 12 weeks) symptoms. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics.
In whose best interest? Parental hesitancy toward the COVID-19 vaccine for children in Japan: a literature survey study

AUTHOR(S)
Shizuko Takahashi; Eisuke Nakazawa; Akira Akabayashi

Published: June 2022   Journal: COVID
In early February 2022, the Japanese government sent COVID-19 vaccine vouchers to children ages 5–11. Using keywords obtained from the voucher, the frequently asked questions section, and experts, this study descriptively analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination for children and their parents through a web-based literature survey of media articles and government homepage statements in Japan. For children, vaccination helps prevent severe symptoms and may be particularly beneficial for children in low-income families by lowering the rate of suicide and at-home child abuse. For parents, not vaccinating their child allows them to fulfill a more traditional role as a parent (mothers in particular), reduces the gender gap for mothers, and provides greater peace of mind about their child’s future fertility. This study also examined the governmental vaccination campaigns targeting children from public health perspectives.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 2 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Japan
Pediatric and adolescent COVID‐19 vaccination side effects: a retrospective cohort study of Iranian teenage group in 2021

AUTHOR(S)
Nader Tavakoli; Nahid Nafissi; Sima Shokri (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy profile of teenager COVID-19 vaccination. In this retrospective cohort study, contact numbers of parents of teenagers under 18 years of age referred to a teenager vaccination centers in Tehran-Iran to receive the corona vaccine were collected, and the following information was obtained via the phones: demographic information, type of vaccine, and the number of doses received, as well as additional information like complications and required treatments. Eleven thousand forty-two subjects aged 10−18 years, mean age 14.55 ± 1.83 year  including 5374 boys and 5768 girls were investigated.
COVID-19 vaccine counseling and safety assessment in children and teenagers with underlying medical conditions in China: a single center study

AUTHOR(S)
Mei Zeng; Xiaowen Zhai; Hailing Chang (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Safety concerns about novel vaccines and necessity of COVID-19 vaccination for children, especially with underlying medical conditions, are the obstacle of COVID-19 vaccination program among pediatric population. The study was conducted to investigate the vaccine hesitancy reasons among the parents, and to monitor the adverse events of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in children and teenagers with underlying medical conditions in China. Children with underlying medical conditions encountered to the Immunization Advisory Clinic for COVID-19 vaccine counseling were enrolled. They were given immunization recommendation and followed up at 72 h and 28 d after immunization to monitor the immunization compliance after consultation and adverse events. A total of 324 children aged 3–17 y were included. The top three primary medical conditions for counseling were allergy (33.6%), neurological diseases (31.2%) and rheumatic diseases (8.3%). COVID-19 vaccination was promptly recommended for 242 (74.7%) children. Seventy-one (65.7%) children who had allergy issues were recommend to take vaccination, which was significantly lower than that of other medical conditions (p < .05).
Factors influencing parents' willingness to vaccinate their preschool children against COVID-19: results from the mixed-method study in China

AUTHOR(S)
Mengmou Zheng; Wanzhen Zhong; Xiyue Chen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
During the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known about parental hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine for preschool children who are the potential vaccinated population in the future. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to explore the factors influencing Chinese parents’ decision to vaccinate their children aged 3–6 years old against COVID-19. In July 2021,  semi-structured interviews (n = 19) and a cross-sectional survey (n = 2605) were conducted with parents of kindergarten children in an urban-rural combination pilot area in China. According to the qualitative study, most parents were hesitant to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine.
Awareness, barriers and concerns of adolescents toward the COVID-19 vaccine: a cross-sectional study in Singapore

AUTHOR(S)
Prawira Oka; Benecia Wan Qing Thia; Shyna Zhuoying Gunalan (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

COVID-19 vaccination is a key public health measure to mitigate the crippling effects of the pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination began in adults and targeted adolescents at a later stage. However, medical decision-making on its uptake among the latter was unknown, which could be affected by their literacy and concerns about the vaccine. The study aimed to elucidate the awareness, concerns and barriers of adolescents toward the COVID-19 vaccine. A cross-sectional online survey using a self-developed questionnaire was conducted between June to November 2021. The adolescent participants were students from institutes of post-secondary education who were recruited via convenience sampling. The data were collated from an officially approved electronic platform, audited and analyzed. Continuous and categorical variables were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and percentages, respectively.

The willingness of parents to vaccinate their children younger than 12 years against COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

AUTHOR(S)
Diana-Leh-Ching Ng; Gin-Gin Gan; Chee-Shee Chai (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

The initiation of a new drug, for instance, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine in children could be a source of major concern for parents. This study aims to determine the willingness of parents in Malaysia to vaccinate their children younger than 12 years against COVID-19. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted nationwide in Malaysia from August 29, 2021, to October 17, 2021. Parents with children younger than 12 years were enrolled via the snowball sampling method.

Short-term side effects and SARS-CoV-2 infection after COVID-19 Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine in children aged 5–11 years: an Italian real-world study

AUTHOR(S)
Martina Capponi; Federica Pulvirenti; Bianca Laura Cinicola (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Vaccination against COVID-19 is the most effective tool to protect both the individual and the community from this potentially life-threatening infectious disease. Data from phase-3 trials showed that two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were safe, immunogenic, and effective against COVID-19 in children aged 5–11 years. However, no surveys in real-life settings have been carried out in this age range. This is a cross-sectional study which aims to evaluate the short-term adverse reactions (ARs) and the rate of protection against infection of the BNT162b2 vaccine in children aged 5–11 years by the compilation of two surveillance questionnaires conceived using Google Forms.
Safety monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old in the Republic of Korea

AUTHOR(S)
Seontae Kim; Insob Hwang; Mijeong Ko (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives

This study aimed to disseminate information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine safety among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in the Republic of Korea. Two databases were used to assess COVID-19 vaccine safety in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who completed the primary Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination series. Adverse events reported to the web-based COVID-19 vaccination management system (CVMS) and collected in the text message-based system were analyzed.

16 - 30 of 605

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.