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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 209
Breastfeeding during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
J. P. Dadhich; Nupur Bidla

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Neonatology
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious challenge to the lactating women to practice optimal infant and young child feeding. Although international and national agencies developed appropriate evidence-based guidelines early in the pandemic, availability of this information to the mothers and their caregivers needs to be enhanced. This becomes important in view of apprehension about the risk of a decline in breastfeeding practices during the pandemic due to various factors. Any decrease in the breastfeeding rates may lead to increased childhood morbidity, mortality, and malnutrition. This article provides a glimpse of available evidence-based guidelines on breastfeeding by Covid-19 positive mothers and attempts by the baby food industry to exploit the situation by promoting their products. The article also deals with infection prevention and control measures to be observed by the mother while caring and breastfeeding her baby and other action required to protect breastfeeding from commercial influence.
Becoming a mother during the COVID-19 national lockdown in Italy: Issues linked to the wellbeing of pregnant women

AUTHOR(S)
Martina Smorti; Lucia Ponti; Chiara Ionio (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic and consequent lockdown represent risk factors for the mental health of pregnant women. This study explored the impact of COVID-19 restriction policies on psychological health, analysing the predictive role of social support on maternal wellbeing. A total of 212 pregnant women recruited from two public hospitals in Italy were divided into two groups: (a) a pre-COVID-19 group composed of 141 expectant women (mean age = 34.6; SD = 4.3) at their third trimester before the national lockdown period; (b) a COVID-19 group composed of 71 pregnant women (mean age = 33.3; SD = 4.5) at their third trimester during the COVID-19 national lockdown.
Relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcomes: Retrospective analytical cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Zahra Alipoura; Parisa Samadib; Narges Eskandari (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Midwifery

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused many deaths and complications worldwide. However, limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19, and the adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. This retrospective analytical cohort study was conducted on all pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 at Nekouei-Hedayati-Forghani Hospital in Qom, Iran from 15 March 2020 to 15 November 2020. For the same period, 165 pregnant women who did not have COVID-19 were selected at random and included in this study. All epidemiological and clinical features were collected from the medical records of the participants. A logistic regression model was used to determine associations between COVID-19 in pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcomes.

The role of mothers’ self-compassion on mother–infant bonding during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study exploring the mediating role of mindful parenting and parenting stress in the postpartum period

AUTHOR(S)
Daniela V. Fernandes; Maria C. Canavarro; Helena Moreira

Published: August 2021   Journal: Infant Mental Health Journal
The current COVID-19 pandemic is a challenging time for postpartum mothers, and associated challenges may have a negative impact on their parenting and, consequently, on mother–infant bonding. This study aimed to longitudinally explore whether mothers’ self-compassion was associated with mother–infant bonding and whether this relationship was mediated by mindful parenting and parenting stress. A total of 125 Portuguese mothers of infants aged between 0 and 12 months completed an online survey at two assessment points during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (T1: April–May 2020; T2: June–July 2020). The survey included several questionnaires assessing sociodemographic, clinical, and COVID-19 information; self-compassion; mindful parenting; parenting stress; and mother–infant bonding.
COVID-19: relationship and impact on breastfeeding : a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Marcelino Pérez-Bermejo; Belén Peris-Ochando; María Teresa Murillo-Llorente

Published: August 2021   Journal: Nutrients
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). One major problem faced is whether breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus is safe. The objective of this work is to study the impact that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can have on breastfeeding, and whether the virus or antibodies can be transmitted from mother to child through milk. We carried out a systematic review of studies focusing on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus. The bibliographic search was done through Medline (Pubmed), MedlinePlus and Google Scholar. From 292 records, the title and summary of each were examined according to the criteria, and whether they meet the selection criteria was also analysed. A total of 30 articles are included, of which 26 deal with the study of RNA virus in breastmilk and its involvement in breastfeeding and four on the study of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in milk. Most studies have been conducted in China.
Adolescent and maternal anxiety symptoms decreased but depressive symptoms increased before to during COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Tom Hollenstein; Tyler Colasante; Jessica P. Lougheed

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
Mothers (n = 155) and their adolescent children (n = 146; aged 12–13 at pre-COVID wave [Time 1, September 2019 to March 2020]) repeated measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and details about the impacts of the pandemic and social distancing at Time 2 (May-June 2020). Average slopes of mother and adolescent depression increased but anxiety symptoms decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. Adolescent decreases in anxiety symptoms were driven by males, whereas depression increase was driven by females. Adolescents’ depression slopes were steeper for those who reported more negative changes. Implications are discussed relative to findings from other regions and later phases of the pandemic.
Parental and staff experiences of restricted parental presence on a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Harriet Garfield; Briony Westgate; Rajiv Chaudhary (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on parental presence in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during the first wave. The NICU team at the Rosie Hospital, Cambridge, endeavoured to explore the impact on parent and staff experiences of supporting parents throughout the period when visiting was restricted, between 13th August and 11th September 2020. Bespoke surveys were designed following the first lockdown to gather information on the impact on staff and parents. The questions were developed in the context of initial observations and conversations with staff and parents.

Depressed and socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers’ progression into a randomized controlled mobile mental health and parenting intervention: a descriptive examination prior to and during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Kathleen M. Baggett; Betsy Davis; Elizabeth A. Mosley (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Infants of low-income and depressed mothers are at high risk for poor developmental outcomes. Early parenting mediates infant experiences from birth, and early intervention can support sensitive and responsive parent practices that optimize infant outcomes via promoting developmental competencies. However, low-income and depressed mothers experience substantial challenges to participating in early intervention. They also have extremely limited access to interventions targeting depression. Interventions targeting maternal depression and parent practices can improve maternal and infant outcomes. Mobile internet-based interventions overcome numerous barriers that low-resource mothers face in accessing home-based interventions. Pandemic-related stressors likely reduce family resources and exacerbate distress of already heavily-burdened mother-infant dyads. During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence-based remote coaching interventions are paramount. This article reports on a mobile intervention for improving maternal mood and increasing parent practices that promote infant development. An ongoing randomized controlled trial study provided a unique opportunity to monitor progression from referral to intervention initiation between two groups of depressed mothers: those prior to the pandemic and during the pandemic. The study also examines mother and infant characteristics at baseline. The sample consisted primarily of Black mothers experiencing extreme poverty who self-referred to the study in a large southern city, which is one of the most income disparate in the United States.
Maternal factors associated with family social distancing practices during the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Christine A. Limbers; Emma Summers

Published: August 2021   Journal: Maternal and Child Health Journal

Despite social distancing being an effective method for mitigating community transmission of viruses, little is known about factors associated with social distancing practices among children and their families. The current study assessed maternal socio-demographic characteristics and political party identifications associated with family social distancing practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in this study were 1266 mothers (mean age = 39.92 years; 84.9% white) of children ages 17 years and younger from across the United States. They were recruited online through social media platforms and completed questionnaires on Qualtrics about their family’s social distancing practices and socio-demographic characteristics.

Factors affecting breastfeeding practices under lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand: a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Chanodom Piankusol; Wachiranun Sirikul; Krongporn Ongprasert (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A COVID-19 lockdown and restrictive order has had a large impact on the lives of people. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify factors affecting breastfeeding among mothers living in Thailand during the lockdown. Data were collected from 903 mothers with infants ages 0–12 months from 17 July 2020 to 17 October 2020 after the first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown period by an online platform and interview questionnaire survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the effect of lockdown and breastfeeding practices with potential confounder adjustment including maternal age, ethnicity, newborn age <6 months, family income below $16,130 per annum, education below undergraduate level, and working status.
Predictors of pregnant women’s intention to vaccinate against coronavirus disease 2019: a facility-based cross-sectional study in southwest Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Shewangizaw Hailemariam; Besufekad Mekonnen; Nigusie Shifera (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: SAGE Open Medicine
Ethiopia is planning to vaccinate 20% of its population against the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic by the end of 2021—however, there is no single piece of evidence regarding pregnant women’s intention to be vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019; hence, the objective of this study was to investigate predicting factors of intention to be vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019 among pregnant women in Bench-Sheko Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study was undertaken from 1 February to 1 March 2021 in southwest Ethiopia. The study was carried out among pregnant women who came for antenatal care service in the selected public health facilities. Interviewer-administered structured tool was used to collect the data. Data were entered into EpiData (version 3.1) and then analyzed using SPSS (version 20).
Relationship of depression, anxiety and stress levels with religious coping strategies among Turkish pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Nazife Bakır; Pınar Irmak Vural; Cuma Demir

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Religion and Health
The aim of this study was to investigate the depression, anxiety, stress levels, and religious coping strategies of Turkish pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the pregnant women involved in this study (N = 327), 74.6% were concerned about their health, whereas 85.9% had concerns about the health of the fetus during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was found that 19.9% had extremely severe depression, 97.9% had extremely severe anxiety, and 52.3% had severe stress symptoms. Religious coping scores of the pregnant women included in the study were found to be high. There was a weak positive correlation between positive religious coping and depression and a very weak negative correlation between negative religious coping and depression.
Pregnancy and birth outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Regan N. Theiler; Myra Wick; Ramila Mehta (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
 SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with significant maternal morbidity and increased rates of preterm birth. For this reason, COVID-19 vaccine administration in pregnancy has been endorsed by multiple professional societies including ACOG and SMFM despite exclusion of pregnant women from initial clinical trials of vaccine safety and efficacy. However, to date little data exists regarding outcomes after COVID-19 vaccination of pregnant patients. A comprehensive vaccine registry was combined with a delivery database for an integrated healthcare system to create a delivery cohort including vaccinated patients. Maternal sociodemographic data were examined to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Pregnancy and birth outcomes were analyzed, including a composite measure of maternal and neonatal pregnancy complications, the Adverse Outcome Index.
Examining the role of psychosocial influences on black maternal health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Keri Carvalho; Anna Kheyfets; Blessing Lawrence (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Maternal and Child Health Journal

Due to the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on communities of color, racial disparities in maternal mortality and morbidity are likely to increase. However, neighborhood and social support factors have yet to be discussed as potential mechanisms by which COVID-19 can exacerbate racial disparities. This study examined literature on the role of neighborhood factors and social support on maternal health outcomes and provided analytical perspective on the potential impacts of COVID-19 on Black birthing people.

Mothers’ and children’s mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: the mediating role of parenting stress

AUTHOR(S)
Alessandra Babore; Carmen Trumello; Lucia Lombardi (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The present study, carried out during the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy, aimed at investigating the mental health of mothers and children during the nationwide lockdown. More specifically, the study investigated children’s depression and mothers’ individual distress and parenting stress, in comparison with normative samples. The mediating effect of mothers’ parenting stress on the relationship between mothers’ individual distress and children’s depression was also explored. Finally, the study analyzed whether children’s biological sex and age moderated the structural paths of the proposed model. A sample of 206 Italian mothers and their children completed an online survey.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.