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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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UNICEF Innocenti Publication
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1 - 15 of 1057
"Will my young adult years be spent socially distancing?": a qualitative exploration of adolescents' experiences during the COVID-19 UK lockdown

Ola Demkowicz; Emma Ashworth; Alisha O’Neill (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Research
For older adolescents, the COVID-19 pandemic and UK restrictions arrived during a critical period in the transition to adulthood. Early research exploring impact of the pandemic paints a picture of worsened adolescent wellbeing and mental health. This study explores the subjective experiences of 16- to 19-year-olds during the first UK lockdown, with an emphasis on wellbeing and coping, to complement quantitative evidence and inform strategies and provision for support. In May 2020, UK-based 16- to 19-year-olds were invited to share written accounts of their experiences of the initial UK lockdown for The TELL Study. A total of 109 participants engaged, submitting anonymous written accounts via an online survey portal. We used inductive reflexive thematic analysis to develop rich experiential themes.
Identifying concern and stress of parents, students and teachers with the social distance planning process and reopening of schools during Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative study

Saeed Bashirian; Majid Barati; Maryam Afshari (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Social Behavior and Community Health(
With the closure of schools as a result of the social distancing plan, the negative emotions that individuals experience became complicated. Therefore, the present study provided a deep understanding of the concerns and stresses of parents, students, and teachers about the process of social distance planning and reopening of schools during COVID-19 pandemic. This directed qualitative content analysis was conducted in 2020. The data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews with teachers (n=28), students (n=20), and their parents (n=32) in Tuiserkan County. Sampling was performed by purposeful sampling method with the maximum variation. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data, collected by content analysis method.
Impacts of the psychological stress response on aggression in adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic in China

Zhen Wei; Yan Hu; Jiayi Xiao

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology
The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 has exerted a tremendous impact on the psyche of people around the world, especially adolescents. In order to provide a valuable theoretical basis for effective measures to prevent psychological problems in adolescents during public health emergencies in the future, this study examined the mediating effect of coping style (CS, including positive coping style (PCS) and negative coping style (NCS)) and the moderating effect of emotional management ability (EMA) on the relationship between the psychological stress response (PSR) and aggression (AGG) in adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. The Buss–Warren Aggression Questionnaire, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Emotion Management Questionnaire were employed to investigate the mental health of Chinese adolescents from April 10–20 (Time point 1, T1) and May 20–30 (Time point 2, T2), 2020. A total of 1,931 adolescents (aged 10–25 years, M = 19.18 years, 51.4% male) were examined at T1 and 334 adolescents (aged 11–25 years, M = 19.97 years, 48.7% male) were reinvestigated at T2.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and family situation of clinically referred children and adolescents in Switzerland: results of a survey among mental health care professionals after 1 year of COVID-19.

Anna Maria Werling; Susanne Walitza; Stephan Eliez (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Neural Transmission
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental well-being of clinically referred children and adolescents and on their families from the perspective of mental health care professionals in Switzerland during the first year of the pandemic. Psychiatrists and psychologists for children and adolescents participated in an anonymous survey conducted online in April/May 2021. The survey was completed by 454 mental health care professionals, most of them working in outpatient clinics for child and adolescent psychiatry or in independent practices.
Mental health conditions among children and adolescents with a COVID-19 diagnosis.

Mir M. Ali; Alayna Schreier; Kristina D. West

Published: June 2022   Journal: Psychiatric Services
The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a surge in mental health needs among children. However, few analyses of these needs have included children and youths of all ages, and although studies have found a heightened risk for new onset of mental health conditions after a COVID-19 diagnosis among adults, none has investigated the potential risk among youths. Utilizing a large nationwide claims database, this study estimated the rate of new onset of mental health conditions among children and adolescents who had received a COVID-19 diagnosis but had no recent history of mental health problems.
Children's mental health during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic: burden, risk factors and posttraumatic growth: a mixed-methods parents' perspective

Anna Wenter; Maximilian Schickl; Kathrin Sevecke (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic and the accompanying containment measures such as physical distancing and school closures led to major changes in children’s everyday lives. By means of a mixed-methods study, the “Tyrolean COVID-19 Children’s Study” investigated the effects of the pandemic and factors influencing mental health and health-related quality of life of North Tyrolean (Austria) and South Tyrolean (Italy) children aged 3–13 years. Parents filled out N = 2,691 online questionnaires (951 preschool children: 3–6 years; 1,740 schoolchildren: 7–13 years) at four measurement time points (March 2020, December 2020, June 2021, December 2021). For both age groups, children’s mental health outcomes (internalising problems, posttraumatic stress symptoms) were worse in December 2021 (t4) than children’s mental health outcomes in March 2020 (t1). With regard to aggressive behaviour, this difference was only found among schoolchildren. Thematic analysis of an open ended, written question revealed the following positive changes in children during the Corona crisis: (1) the importance of intra- and extra-familial relationships, (2) new competences and experiences, (3) values and virtues, (4) use of time, and (5) family strength. Using multilevel modelling, threat experience, economic disruption, and perceived posttraumatic growth were shown to be the strongest predictors of all outcomes. Additionally, male gender was shown to be a predictor of aggressive behaviour. In terms of age, schoolchildren showed more internalising problems, aggressive behaviour, and threat experience than preschool children.
Examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on service providers working with children and youth with neuro-developmental disabilities and their families: results of a focus group study.

David B. Nicholas; Wendy Mitchell; Jill Ciesielski (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities
The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed unprecedented service interruptions in many sectors including services for children and youth with neuro-developmental disabilities (NDD). This study examined the experiences of service providers as they supported this population during the pandemic. Five focus groups were convened with 24 service providers offering support to children/youth with NDD and their families.
Effect of COVID-19 infection on psychological aspects of pre-schooler children: a cross-sectional study

Gellan K. Ahmed; Sayed Mostafa; Khaled Elbeh (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Middle East Current Psychiatry
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had a tremendous effect on individual’s lives worldwide. The pandemic’s significant socioecological impact is one of the many burdens children confront in the current crises. As a result, this study was designed to determine the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on preschoolers, particularly the consequences of COVID-19 infection. This study involved 138 children aged 2–5.11 years old who were classified into two groups based on their COVID-19 infection history, which was documented via a PCR test. All participants were assessed by the Socioeconomic Scale and The Children’s Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
Returning to normal in an abnormal environment: mothers' COVID-19 uncertainties and uncertainty management strategies

Kimberly K. Walker; Gregory D. Zimet

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Communication
This study used uncertainty management theory to assess mothers’ COVID-19-related uncertainty sources and management strategies during the Delta variant outbreak as the fall 2021 school year approached. Twenty-five mothers living in Indiana were interviewed between July-August 2021. Data indicated four uncertainty sources: COVID-19 illness risk, children’s psychological health, reintegration, and COVID-19 vaccine/prevention rights. COVID-19 illness risk was the most prominent uncertainty theme, and mothers attempted to adapt to it when they could via strategies of strategic decision making, engaging in protective behaviors, and seeking information to guide decisions about their children’s safety. The start of school presented uncertainties about young children’s COVID-19 risk they deemed out of their control, and thus mothers reframed illness uncertainty as the responsibility of others to protect their children.
A longitudinal study of the mental health of autistic children and adolescents and their parents during COVID-19: Part 2, qualitative findings.

Kathryn Asbury; Umar Toseeb

Published: June 2022   Journal: Autism
Part 1 of this UK-based study, across four timepoints between March and October 2020, autistic children and young people showed higher levels of parent-reported depression and anxiety symptoms than those with other special educational needs and disabilities. This study draws on qualitative data from 478 parents/carers of autistic pupils and those with other special educational needs and disabilities to conduct a longitudinal qualitative content analysis examining stability and change in the mental health of these young people, and their parents/carers, during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worry and psychological distress were dominant categories at all timepoints and it was noted that, in line with quantitative findings, worry in autistic pupils stayed stable over time but decreased for those with other special educational needs and disabilities. The third dominant category was wellbeing and there was evidence that removing demands, especially the demand to attend school, was a driver of wellbeing for a significant minority of pupils, particularly autistic pupils, and their parents/carers.
Validity and reliability test of child anxiety instrument (SCARED) on students of Sekolah Dasar Kedungsari 5 Magelang

Stri Nareswari; Budi Pratiti; Sumarni

Published: June 2022   Journal: Community Medicine and Education Journal
Anxiety disorders rank the 9th cause of DALYs, which can have long-term effects. The COVID-19 pandemic can trigger anxiety disorders in children related to changes in learning, habituation of new behaviors, COVID-19 disease itself, and other factors. Detection of anxiety disorders in children needs to be done early so that it can avoid its long-term effects. Screen for Children Anxiety Related Emotion Disorder (SCARED) is a multi-informant instrument that is considered good for screening anxiety disorders in children, so it is necessary to assess its validity and reliability so that it can be used in Indonesia. This study aimed to test the validity and reliability SCARED instrument in Indonesian to measure the tendency of children's Anxiety Disorders. This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Subjects were students of Sekolah Dasar Negeri Kedungsari 5 Magelang (n=220).
Emotional competence, family social support and parental stress in mothers of children with autism during the pandemic

Dinie Ratri Desiningrum

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology

This study was aimed to determine the relationship between emotional competence, family social support and parental stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This research was a quantitative research with correlational method. Purposive sampling technique by distributing questionnaires using Google form resulted in a total of 165 participants who are mothers of children with ASD, as members of therapy centers and schools for children with special needs in Semarang, Solo and Yogyakarta. The data were analyzed using structural equation model (SEM) technique on Lisrel program. This research resulted in two models showing that there are fit model with empirical data. The first model shows that each of emotional competence and family social support had a significant effect on parental stress in mothers of children with ASD. The second model shows the influence of emotional competence on the stress of parenting of children with ASD, with family social support as a moderating variable. The implications of this study are empirical evidence on the importance of family social support and emotional competence for mothers in raising children with ASD to prevent excessive parental stress.

Symptoms of stress amongst children and adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak in Shiraz, Iran: a cross-sectional study

Negar Yazdani; Shahnaz Pourarian; Hossein Moravej (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Because of the high daily mortality and quarantine procedures, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause several psychological problems, especially in younger people. Since most studies have mainly focused on physical problems of COVID-19 and they have neglected children in their analysis, this study aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of stress symptoms and associated factors amongst children and adolescents aged 4 - 18 years during the COVID-19 outbreak.
COVID-19 induced environments, health-related quality of life outcomes and problematic behaviors: evidence from children with syndromic autism spectrum disorders.

Corneliu Bolbocean; Kayla B. Rhidenour; Maria McCormack (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Between July 2020 and January 2021, 230 principal caregivers completed a questionnaire to measure proxy-assessed health-related quality of life outcomes (HRQoL), behavioral outcomes in children with syndromic autism spectrum disorders and COVID-19 induced changes to lifestyle and environments. HRQoL and behavioral outcomes reported earlier during the pandemic were generally worse compared to those reported later. COVID-19 induced reduction to a caregiver’s mental health appointments, and hours spent watching TV were associated with decreases in HRQoL and increased the likelihood of problematic behaviors. Increasing time outdoors and time away from digital devices were positively associated with HRQoL and behaviors and might protect children from COVID-19 induced restrictions.
Parents' satisfaction of tele-rehabilitation for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Pamela Frigerio; Liliana Del Monte; Aurora Sotgiu

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Primary Care volume

The use of tele-rehabilitation in children was limited before the COVID-19 pandemic, due to culture, technology access, regulatory and reimbursement barriers. The study was conducted according to the CHERRIES (Checklist for reporting results of internet E-surveys) guidelines in order to provide quantitative and qualitative data about experience of patients with disabilities and their caregivers during Phase 1 of the COVID-19 pandemic, and their level of satisfaction. An online survey was developed using Google Forms and sent via email. The outcome measures were rated using a 5-point Likert Scale. Two additional open-ended questions were used to collect qualitative data.

1 - 15 of 1057

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.

The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.