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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 506
Caregiver perspectives on schooling from home during the Spring 2020 COVID-19 closures

Amy M. Briesch; Robin S. Codding; Jessica A. Hoffman (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: School Psychology Review
The abrupt onset of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated an unprecedented shift to remote schooling for students across the United States and required many caregivers to take a primary or secondary role as schoolteacher. The goal of this study was to better understand caregivers’ experiences of schooling from home during the spring 2020 COVID-19 closures. Roughly 1,000 caregivers, the majority of whom were White, highly educated mothers, responded to the survey, documenting their children’s daily remote learning experiences and providing insight into the frequency and perceived quality of specialized services and individualized support plans.
Assessment of have problems and care burdens of mothers with handicapped children in COVID-19 pandemic

Melike Yavaş Celik

Published: July 2021   Journal: Social Work in Public Health
In the study, it was aimed to evaluate the problems and care burden of mothers who have a handicapped child in the pandemic process. The population of the descriptive study consisted of the mothers of the children who came to the rehabilitation center (n = 230), and the sampling consisted of the mothers who wanted to participate in the study (n = 216). The research data were collected through social media and the data were analyzed using the mean, standard deviation, percentage and frequency measurements, independent sample t test, Oneway anova, Kruskal wallis tests in the SPSS program. In the study, Burden Interview Scale (BIS) scores of the mothers who stated that the educational status of their child was adversely affected in the pandemic, stated that they were worried that there would be someone to take care of my child if I died, stated that the child’s health checks were interrupted, stated that they did not send their child to school due to the fear of COVID-19, and reported that they had a problem in reaching the health institution was determined were significantly higher than. Mothers with handicapped children stated that their children experienced difficulties in important situations such as health checks and educations during the pandemic period. In addition, it was found that the care burden of these mothers was higher. During the pandemic period, it is necessary to make and support new regulations in accordance with the disability of these special children with state policies as well as healthcare professionals.
Collective wellbeing and posttraumatic growth during COVID-19: how positive psychology can help families, schools, workplaces and marginalized communities

Lea Waters; Kim Cameron; S. Katherine Nelson-Coffey (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Positive Psychology
Positive psychology approaches have been shown to play a vital role in protecting mental health in times of challenge and are, therefore, important to include when studying the psychological outcomes of COVID-19. While existing research has focused on individual psychological health, this paper focuses on collective wellbeing and collective posttraumatic growth, with the aim of more clearly identifying the positive experiences and potential for positive growth for key institutions in our society during the pandemic. A range of positive psychology interventions for families, schools, workplaces, and clinical psychology are presented. The paper then considers how three broad-reaching phenomena existing in our wider society (i.e., arts and culture, eco-connection, and wellbeing literacy) can be used to boost collective wellbeing. A positive systems approach to understand civilian responses to the pandemic together with an examination of the role that positive psychology can play in supporting marginalized groups are also discussed.
Parental stress and home activities for young children during the stay-at-home quarantine time in China

Chenyi Zhang; Wei Qiu; Hongli Li (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Early Education and Development
Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations among the family pandemic experience, home activities during the stay-at-home quarantine, and level of parental stress. The results showed that, Chinese parents perceived only significantly higher stress related to children’s behavioral and emotional difficulties during the pandemic. Parents’ educational level and teacher remote support were significantly associated with the frequency of different home activities for young children. Although family direct exposure of COVID-19 was a critical risk factor predicting parent-perceived stress, parents’ education, family income, and teachers’ support were important protective factors for parents’ stress. Some learning-focused home activities showed an inverse association with parental stress.
I’m not managing it; it’s managing me: a qualitative investigation of Australian parents’ and carers’ alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic

Megan Cook; Robyn Dwyer; Sandra Kuntsche (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy
The coronavirus pandemic has brought significant changes to people’s lives. Research indicates parents and carers faced particular challenges and were one of the few groups reported in survey data to increase their alcohol consumption during the pandemic. Drawing on interviews with 30 Australian parents and carers of young children, and using a family practices approach, we explore how participants considered their alcohol practices as entangled with, or affected by, their family dynamics and their role as carers during the pandemic. Drinking practices during COVID-19 vary across the sample, with some participants increasing their consumption and others reducing it. Participants' accounts show how drinking was constructed as rewarding, pleasurable, and relaxing, while for others it was associated with guilt and heightened stress.
The impact of COVID-19 on adolescent psychiatric inpatient admissions

Leah Reece; Deanna P. Sams

Published: July 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
COVID-19 has disrupted the lives of individuals and families across the globe. For many, the impacts of this global pandemic have been insurmountable and have resulted in significant stressors. Although medical advances have allowed individuals to slowly begin to restore their sense of normalcy, COVID-19 has resulted in unprecedented mental health impacts for many, especially children and adolescents. The present study examines whether stressors related to COVID-19 and whether subsequent quarantine/isolation were possible contributors to psychiatric crises that led to adolescent psychiatric inpatient admissions.
Resilience and parental burnout among Finnish parents during the COVID-19 pandemic: variable and person-oriented approaches

Matilda Sorkkila; Kaisa Aunola

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Family Journal
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, different personality characteristics may have influenced parental well-being in different ways. The present study combined variable and person-oriented approaches and examined relationships between resilience, parental burnout, and perfectionism during the lockdown. It first used structural equation modeling to assess the paths between variables. It also used latent profile analysis to examine different profiles of parents based on resilience, perfectionism, and symptoms of parental burnout. Finally, this study examined how these profiles differ in terms of relevant background variables.
Psychiatric problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in children with autism spectrum disorder

Roma A. Vasa; Vini Singh; Calliope Holingue (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Autism Research
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at elevated risk for psychiatric problems in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This risk is due to their high rates of pre-pandemic psychiatric comorbidities and the pandemic's disruption to routines and access to necessary supports. Prior research has indicated that children with ASD may experience a worsening of specific psychiatric symptoms in response to COVID-19, though this body of work is limited in scope. The present study expands this literature by examining specific types of psychiatric problems that emerged about 2 months after the onset of the pandemic, and risk factors predicting changes in these psychiatric symptoms. Parents of children with a confirmed ASD diagnosis (N = 257), who enrolled in a clinic registry at an outpatient specialty autism center, were included in this study. All data were gathered online via customized and standardized questionnaires.
School bullying before and during COVID-19: results from a population-based randomized design

Tracy Vaillancourt; Heather Brittain; Amanda Krygsman (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Aggressive Behavior
This reesearch examined the impact of COVID-19 on bullying prevalence rates in a sample of 6578 Canadian students in Grades 4 to 12. To account for school changes associated with the pandemic, students were randomized at the school level into two conditions: (1) the pre-COVID-19 condition, assessing bullying prevalence rates retrospectively before the pandemic, and (2) the current condition, assessing rates during the pandemic.
Students attending school remotely suffer socially, emotionally, and academically

Angela L. Duckworth; Tim Kautz; Amy Defnet

Published: July 2021   Journal: Educational Researcher
What is the social, emotional, and academic impact of attending school remotely rather than in person? We address this issue using survey data collected from N = 6,576 high school students in a large, diverse school district that allowed families to choose either format in fall 2020. Controlling for baseline measures of well-being collected 1 month before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as demographics, high school students who attended school remotely reported lower levels of social, emotional, and academic well-being (effect size [ES] = 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07 standard deviations, respectively) than classmates who attended school in person—differences that were consistent across gender, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status subgroups but significantly wider among 10th–12th graders than ninth graders.
The relationship between postpartum depression and social support during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Shuhei Terada; Kentaro Kinjo; Yoshiharu Fukuda

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics

This study aims to examine the prevalence of postpartum depression and its relationship with social support adjusted for self-perceived impact of COVID-19 in parturient women admitted to a perinatal medical center in Japan. This cross-sectional study included 513 women who underwent a 1-month postpartum checkup between August 3 and November 27, 2020. Postpartum depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Social support was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the score was dichotomized using the Youden index. Nineteen demographic and obstetric characteristics were also assessed.

Does time change the anxiety and depression scores for pregnant women on Covid-19 pandemic?

Ayşe Geren; Özer Birge; Mehmet Sait Bakır (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research
Post-traumatic stress disorder, the tip form of stress disorder, is considered as delayed onset if the symptoms occur at least 6 months after the main effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of anxiety and depression in pregnant women during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, in addition to investigating the demographic and economic aspects affecting maternal anxiety and depression scores, 6 months after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Transitioning to adulthood from residential childcare during COVID-19: Experiences of young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorder in South Africa

Wendy M. Mupaku; Adrian D. van Breda; Berni Kelly

Published: July 2021   Journal: British Journal of Learning Disabilities
This study focuses on young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism who, due to child welfare concerns, have grown up in children's residential care and are now transitioning out of care at the age of 18 years towards young adulthood. This transition is termed “care leaving” and the young people in transition “care leavers”. The care leaving transition can be particularly difficult for young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism. These challenges can be magnified in a time of a global crisis like COVID-19, which has resulted in countries being on lockdown and care leavers’ transitions being curtailed. Many mental health problems have emerged due to the COVID-19 outbreak and resultant lockdown that may negatively impact on the care leaving transition of young people with intellectual disabilities.
The effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on adolescents with an eating disorder and identifying factors predicting disordered eating behaviour

Sinem Akgül; Devrim Akdemir; Kevser Nalbant (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Early Intervention in Psychiatry

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on adolescents with eating disorders (ED) and identify factors predicting ED behaviour.This study took place during an age-stratified lockdown for those under 20 years in Turkey. Participants completed a survey developed to evaluate the effects of the lockdown on ED behaviour, well-being and quality of life (QoL) and additionally the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), and scales for depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive behaviour. The relationship between the EDE-Q-global score and other variables related to ED was examined. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the predictive power of these variables on ED behaviour.

Neural responses to social reward predict depressive symptoms in adolescent girls during the COVID-19 pandemic

Stefanie L. Sequeira; Jennifer S. Silk; Emily Hutchinson (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

Adolescent depression is increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly related to dramatic social changes. Individual-level factors that contribute to social functioning, such as temperament and neural reactivity to social feedback, may confer risk for or resilience against depressive symptoms during the pandemic. Ninety-three girls (12–17 years) oversampled for high shy/fearful temperament were recruited from a longitudinal study for a follow-up COVID-19 study. During the parent study (2016–2018), participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task eliciting neural activity to performance-related social feedback. Depressive symptoms were assessed during the parent study and COVID-19 follow-up (April–May 2020).

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.