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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 955
The role of family support and conflict in cyberbullying and subjective well-being among Chilean Adolescents during the Covid-19 period

Matías E. Rodriguez-Rivas; Jorge J. Varela; Constanza González (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Heliyon

Life satisfaction plays a crucial role in integral development and mental health during childhood and adolescence. Recently, it has been shown that cyberbullying has severe consequences for the mental health and wellbeing of victims such as increased anxiety, depressive symptoms and even suicide risk. Although the role of the family in life satisfaction and cyberbullying behaviors has been studied, there is limited information on its impacts during the current pandemic period. The aim of this study is to determine the role of family variables regarding students' levels of life satisfaction and cyberbullying victimization during the pandemic period.

A pediatrician’s guide to working with children on the autism spectrum in COVID-19 and beyond: retrospect and prospect

Thusa Sabapathy; Megan Goss; Jessie Borelli (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Advances in Pediatrics
The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented event with observable consequences and devastating effects on children and families. This global occurrence highlighted and broadened gaps and disparities in the care of children with developmental disabilities, while simultaneously catalyzing innovation. Initially not seen as direct victims of the disease, children are inherently vulnerable to the impacts of COVID-19, resulting in increased stress, anxiety, isolation, and health challenges. The impact is further amplified in autistic children and children with other neurodevelopmental considerations. These children are uniquely vulnerable due to communication impairments, comorbid medical disorders, poor adaptability and reliance on therapeutic interventions. Abrupt reduction in services and access to care during the pandemic led to compromised physical and mental health and missed opportunities for intervention at critical times which may have profound consequences further down the road. There are, however, bright spots in this story, as many autistic children demonstrated resilience in their abilities to adapt to these challenges. It is important to examine the effects that the pandemic triggered, address deficiencies and recognize new opportunities to improve systems of care to prepare for unforeseen futures. This review article outlines the impacts of the first year and a half of the pandemic on autistic children and provides tools for professionals, recognizing the ever- evolving nature of the situation.
Have girls been left behind during the COVID-19 pandemic? Gender differences in pandemic effects on children’s mental wellbeing

Silvia Mendolia; Agne Suziedelyte; Anna Zhu

Published: April 2022   Journal: Economics Letters
Using data from the UK, we show that girls have been affected more than boys by the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of their mental wellbeing. These gender differences are more pronounced in lower-income families. Our results are consistent with previous findings of larger pandemic effects on mental health of women.
Mental health of children and adolescents with pre-existing psychiatric and developmental disorders during the first pandemic-related lockdown: a cross-sectional study in Greece

K. Magklara; I. Giannopoulou; K. Kotsis (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Research Communications
Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised about the effects of the pandemic on youth with pre-existing mental health disorders. The present study aimed to explore change in emotional and behavioral symptoms (mood states) and daily behaviors during the lockdown in a clinical sample of children and adolescents in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, using the CoRonavIrus Health Impact Survey (CRISIS) Questionnaire, was completed by 738 parents of children and adolescents aged 2–18 years attending 12 outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) across four geographical regions in Greece.
Pandemic-related experiences, mental health symptoms, substance use, and relationship conflict among older adolescents and young adults from Manitoba, Canada

Samantha Salmon; Tamara L. Taillieu; Janique Fortier (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Research
There is growing awareness of the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young people. The purpose of this study was to examine older adolescents’ and young adults’ pandemic-related experiences, including financial difficulties, emotional support, social connections, mental health symptoms, substance use, and relationship conflict. Data from the Well-being and Experiences Study (The WE Study) were gathered from November to December 2020 in Manitoba, Canada, among a community sample (n = 664; ages 16–21 years). Over half of the sample self-reported increased stress/anxiety (57.6%) and depression (54.2%) attributed to the pandemic.
How does parent–child communication affects posttraumatic stress disorder and growth in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic? The mediating roles of self-compassion and disclosure

Baohua Zhen; Benxian Yao; Xiao Zhouc (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Research suggests that family factors play an important role in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Parent–child communication has attracted particular attention. However, it remains unclear whether parent–child communication affects PTSD and PTG via unique or shared underlying mechanisms. The study aim was to examine the effect of parent–child communication on PTSD and PTG via self-compassion and self-disclosure. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 683 adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Mental health of adolescents amidst preparation for university entrance exams during the second pandemic-related lockdown in Greece

Ioanna Giannopoulou; Vasiliki Efstathiou; Panagiota Korkoliakou (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports
High school students are particularly susceptible to psychological distress as a result of accelerated developmental changes and increased academic demands that affect their psychosocial well-being (Pascoe et al., 2020). A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies highlighted the high pooled prevalence of depression (29%; 95%CI: 17%, 40%), anxiety (26%; 95%CI: 16%, 35%), sleep disorders (44%; 95%CI: 21%, 68%), and posttraumatic stress symptoms (48%; 95%CI: −0.25, 1.21) among children and adolescents during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in females and adolescents (Ma et al., 2021).
Mental health problems among Dutch adolescents of the general population before and 9 months after the COVID-19 outbreak: a longitudinal cohort study

Peter G. van der Velden; Hedwig J. A. van Bakel; Marcel Das

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Research
The aim of the present study is to examine whether the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the risk of mental health problems (MHP) in adolescents nine months post-outbreak. For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort study was conducted based on a probability sample of the Dutch population. It compared the prevalence and incidence of MHP in 16–20 year-old adolescents in November-December 2020 (N = 251) with the prevalence and incidence in adolescents in November-December 2012 (N = 346) and November-December 2016 (N = 253).
Relationship between adolescents’ perceptions of social support and their psychological well-being during COVID-19 pandemic: a case study from Turkey

Fatma Kurudirek; Duygu Arıkan; Sümeyye Ekici

Published: March 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The aim of this research was to establish the relationship between the perceptions of social support and the psychological well-being among adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This research, which includes descriptive and relative features, was conducted from December 15, 2020 to January 31, 2021. There were 378 participants, all of whom were adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years who were living in Turkey. Either the adolescents themselves or their parents used social media tools or sites such as Facebook, Whatsapp, Instagram, etc., and they had all agreed to participate voluntarily.
COVID-19 distress impacts adolescents’ depressive symptoms, NSSI, and suicide risk in the rural, Northeast US

Rebecca A. Schwartz-Mette; Natasha Duell; Hannah R. Lawrence (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology
Widespread concern exists about the impacts of COVID-19 and related public health safety measures (e.g., school closures) on adolescent mental health. Emerging research documents correlates and trajectories of adolescent distress, but further work is needed to identify additional vulnerability factors that explain increased psychopathology during the pandemic. The current study examined whether COVID-19-related loneliness and health anxiety (assessed in March 2020) predicted increased depressive symptoms, frequency of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and suicide risk from pre-pandemic (late January/early February 2020) to June 2020.
Structural correlates of mental health support access among sexual minority youth of color during COVID-19

Chantelle Roulston; Sarah McKetta; Maggi Price (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology
Many youth with mental health needs cannot access treatment, with multiply-marginalized youth, such as sexual minority youth of Color (SMYoC), experiencing both structural and identity-related barriers to care. The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to exacerbate multi-level treatment access barriers facing SMYoC youth nationwide. However, little large-scale research has examined access to mental health care among SMYoC across the United States, either during or prior to the pandemic. Such work is critical to understanding and ameliorating barriers in this domain. Using data from adolescents who self-identified as SMYoC and who endorsed a desire for mental health support during the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 470, ages 13–16, from 43 U.S. states), this study examined associations between state-level, structural factors (income inequality; mental health-care provider shortage; anti-Black racism; homophobia; and the interaction between anti-Black racism and homophobia) and SMYoC mental health treatment access.
Depression among schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9–17 years during the outbreak of COVID‑19 in Beijing: a cross-sectional online survey

Fuyuan Wen; Yi Meng; Kuo Liu (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
The COVID-19 outbreak and related confinement have highly impacted psychological health among children and adolescents. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for depression among primary and middle school students and provide advices for psychological interventions during the outbreaks. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 18 primary and middle school students via quota sampling in Beijing during March 2020. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression. Differences between characteristics and depression were examined by chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to reveal the potential risk factors for depression. A total of 7377 participants were included.
Companionship and worries in uncertain times: Australian parents’ experiences of children and pets during COVID-19

Shannon K. Bennets; Sharinne B. Crawford; Tiffani Howell (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Anthrozoös
Companion animals (pets), especially cats and dogs, have featured regularly in the media and public discourse during the global COVID-19 pandemic, including increased demand for pet adoption and more time spent with existing pets. This qualitative study aimed to describe the experiences of Australian parents with a child under 18 years and a cat or dog. Within a broader survey, parents were asked open-ended questions about the benefits and challenges for their family of living with a cat or dog during COVID-19, and where relevant, about reasons for adopting a new pet. Data were collected between July and October 2020, during Australia’s “second wave” of COVID-19, when some Australians were subject to strict physical distancing or “stay at home” orders. A total of 611 parents provided at least one free-text response.
Effects of COVID-19 mental health interventions among children, adolescents, and adults not quarantined or undergoing treatment due to COVID-19 infection: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

Olivia Bonardi; Yutong Wang; Kexin Li (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

This study aimed to assess the effects of mental health interventions for children, adolescents, and adults not quarantined or undergoing treatment due to COVID-19 infection. It searched 9 databases (2 Chinese-language) from December 31, 2019, to March 22, 2021. It included randomised controlled trials of interventions to address COVID-19 mental health challenges among people not hospitalised or quarantined due to COVID-19 infection. It synthesized results descriptively due to substantial heterogeneity of populations and interventions and risk of bias concerns.

Parental perceived stress and its consequences on early social-emotional child development during COVID-19 pandemic

Julia Dillmann; Özlem Sensoy; Gudrun Schwarzer (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
In 2020, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, and the resulting highly infectious disease COVID-19 led to restrictions based on the principal of social distancing to curb the spread of the virus among the population and to prevent an overload of health system capacities. These restrictions changed the daily lives of young children and parents dramatically. This German questionnaire study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the magnitude of stress in parent-child systems and on social-emotional child development. The sample consisted of 90 (39 male, 51 female) children (M = 17.2 months, SD = 9.7 months) aged 7–12 months (n = 38), 13–24 months (n = 31) and 25–38 months (n = 21). Parental stress was measured using the German version of the Parenting Stress Index, namely Eltern-Belastungs-Inventar. Additionally, social-emotional child development was measured using the Social-Emotional Questionnaire of the Bayley-III.
31 - 45 of 955

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.