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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Video-based screening for children with suspected autism spectrum disorders - experience during the COVID-19 pandemic in India

Archana Kadam; Isha Godiwal Soni; Sandeep Kadam (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Assessments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) must adapt to the current COVID-19 pandemic through innovation in screening and assessment strategies using technology. To our knowledge there are no such studies reported from India. This study aimed to study the predictive ability of video-based screening tool with definitive diagnosis in children with ASD. Thirty-nine children were screened independently by two examiners with a video-based screening tool to start intervention followed by an in-person evaluation by clinical DSM-5 diagnosis three months later.

Challenges of parents with children with intellectual and neurodevelopmental disorders during COVID-19: experiences and their impact on mental health

Elisa Kaltenbach; Ting Xiong; Donna Thomson (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability

Parents of children with intellectual and neurodevelopmental disorders are a highly burdened group that faces additional challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, parents of children with intellectual and neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 600) living in Canada participated in a cross-sectional online survey.

COVID-19 vaccine compliance in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Vered Shkalim Zemer; Moshe Hoshen; Maya Gerstein (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
To compare the rate of the administration of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccinations between adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD subjects. A retrospective chart review was performed on all adolescents aged 12–17 years registered at a central district in Israel from January 1st 2021 to October 31st 2021.
Silver linings of the Covid-19 pandemic… for some! Comparing Experiences and Social demographic characteristics of autistic and non-autistic children with SEND in England

Susana Castro-Kemp; Arif Mahmud

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Several studies on the impact of Covid-19 on children’s wellbeing have been published, including for those with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities. However, limited evidence is available on who these children may be, their socioeconomic background, age, gender or type of school attended. This study examines the role of socio-demographic characteristics on the experiences of Autistic Children, compared to non-Autistic children, to assess the detrimental impact of the pandemic, but also potential silver linings. Primary-school aged Autistic children were more likely to mention a silver lining (for mental health), as well as younger non-Autistic children from more affluent backgrounds. Similar effects were observed for older non-Autistic boys with special needs attending mainstream settings (regarding physical health).
The experiences of new mothers accessing feeding support for infants with down syndrome during the COVID-19 pandemic

L. Hielscher; E. Mengoni; A. Ludlow (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
Infants with Down syndrome are more likely to experience feeding problems and mothers are likely to require more feeding support than mothers of typically developing infants. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many feeding support services changed from face-to-face to online, which impacted some maternal feeding experiences negatively, but no studies to date have explored the impact for mothers of infants with Down syndrome. Thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured interviews from thirteen new mothers of infants (aged 8–17 months) with Down syndrome in the UK. Three superordinate themes were generated: (1) Every baby with Down syndrome has a unique journey, (2) There’s no point asking, they won’t know, (3) Lack of in-person support.
Telehealth training in principles of applied behavior analysis for caregivers of young children with autism spectrum disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

Brittany Batton; Rachel Kaplan; Kaci Ellis (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Education and Treatment of Children
Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. government declared a state of emergency and many applied behavior analysis clinics temporarily closed. The current study described a pilot of an existing manualized caregiver behavior skills training, the Online and Applied System of Intervention Skills (OASIS), to promote telehealth caregiver training during the pandemic and facilitate the start of early intervention for families on waitlists. The OASIS telehealth curriculum trains caregivers to use applied behavior analysis with their children with autism spectrum disorder. Pre/post measures suggest that OASIS modestly improved parent knowledge, improved perceived quality of life, decreased stress, improved caregiver self-efficacy, and was viewed positively by participating families.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on families living with autism: an online survey

Corinna Isensee; Benjamin Schmid; Peter B. Marschik (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

The current SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic presents a great challenge for governments, health care professionals and the general population. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might be especially vulnerable to restrictions imposed by the crisis. The objective of the study was to examine the impact of the SARSCoV- 2 pandemic on children with ASD and their families. It conducted an online survey two months after the beginning of lock-down (18th of May to 5th of July 2020) in Germany and Austria. It investigated behavioral and emotional changes of children related to the lock-down alongside parental stress and intrafamilial burden

Intervention for treating depression in parents of children with intellectual disability of Down's syndrome: a sample of Nigerian parents

Moses Onyemaechi Ede; Chinedu Ifedi Okeke; Patience E. Obiweluozo

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior
A good number of parents of children with Down syndrome are prone to depressive disorders. The depressive feelings are attributed to negative perceptions of the situation, self, and the future. This study explored the impact of the family health model of rational-emotive behavior therapy on depressive symptoms in parents of children with intellectual disability of Down syndrome in the COVID-19 pandemic era. This is a randomized pretest–posttest control group design that recruited 88 parents of children with intellectual disability of Down syndrome. The depressive symptoms in parents at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 using the Beck depressive inventory and Hamilton depression rating scale was measured. A family health model rational emotive behaviour therapy intervention in treating the depressive symptoms affecting the parents was adopted.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of children with psychiatric diagnoses - multidimensional CCPCA Model

Anna Maria Kalenik; Mariusz Topolski; Justyna Górnik (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Psychiatry

The study aimed to assess the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with previously diagnosed psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Online questionnaires were used to investigate three groups of subjects: patients with a psychiatric diagnosis, primary school pupils, and children from children’s homes. A total of 167 children with their parents or guardians participated in the study. In addition to basic statistics, a multidimensional Centroid Class Principal Component Analysis (CCPCA) model was used.

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being of children with autism spectrum disorder: parents' perspectives

Aida Amirova; Anna Cohen Miller; Anara Sandygulova

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
The COVID-19-related lockdown interrupted children’s learning progress and discontinued social learning and regular activities that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely on socially and physically. Negative consequences for children with ASD were reported far and wide. To investigate this problem in Kazakhstan, a mixed-methods study was conducted that drew on data from an online survey with 97 parents and semi-structured interviews with 14 parents. While parent-report quantitative results suggest that children were likely to experience negative impacts of the pandemic due to disrupted educational and therapeutic services, qualitative findings confirm that they have experienced an elevated mental health and behavioral challenges during the lockdown. Remote educational and therapeutic services were not helpful as families coped with pandemic-caused problems on their own. This study highlight that continued support and care during and after a crisis is vital not only for children with ASD but also for the families under-resourced mentally and socially.
Occupational disruption: the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the behavioral inflexibility and anxiety of autistic children

Aaron Dallman; Catherine M. Perry; Jessica E. Goldblum (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

The COVID-19 pandemic caused unprecedented changes to the lives of many. The aim of this paper was to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted behavioral inflexibility (BI) and anxiety among autistic children and how autistic children and their families have adapted to COVID-19-related routine changes. This sequential mixed-method study included two phases. During the first phase, parents of autistic children (N = 48) completed an online survey consisting of the Behavioral Inflexibility Scale (BIS) and the Parent-Rated Anxiety Scale – Autism Spectrum Disorder (PRAS-ASD). During the second phase, a subset of parents (parents of adolescents, N = 11) was invited to participate in a virtual focus-group.

Overload of caregivers of children with mental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

Valdir Severino Junior; Thaysa Molina; Carla Belei-Martins (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Human Sciences Research

The coronavirus pandemic brought significant changes in people’s lives and, for caregivers of those with mental disorders, there was an increase in the burden. This study aimed to analyze the burden on caregivers of children with mental disorders. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with caregivers of children aged four to 12 years in psychiatric outpatient follow-up, who answered questions and the Zarit Burden Interview.

Caregiver perspective on the impact of COVID-19 on the psychosocial and behavioral health of children with ASD in the United States: a questionnaire-based survey

Dominique Schwartz; Prageet K. Sachdev; Laura Hewitson (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: COVID
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were particularly vulnerable to disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study we conducted an anonymous caregiver survey to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychosocial and behavioral health of children with ASD. Data from 700 responses identified several significant factors predicting greater difficulties for the child including pre-existing behavioral challenges (OR = 5.179; 95% CI: 2.696, 9.951), disrupted sleep (OR = 2.618; 95% CI 1.341, 5.112), and a diagnosis of depression (OR = 3.425; 95% CI: 1.1621, 4.116). Greater difficulties for caregivers in managing their child’s behaviors were associated with sleep disturbances (OR = 1.926; 95% CI: 1.170, 3.170), self-injurious behavior (OR = 3.587; 95% CI: 1.767, 7.281), and managing the child’s school activities (OR = 3.107; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.257) and free time (OR = 3.758; 95% CI: 2.217, 6.369). However, being under the care of a neuropsychiatrist was associated with less difficulty in managing the child’s behaviors (OR = 2.516; 95% CI: −1.046, −5.382). Finally, the presence of comorbidities (OR = 2.599; 95% CI: 1.053, 4.067) and a greater difficulty in managing the child’s school activities (OR = 2.531; 95% CI: 1.655, 3.868) and free time (OR = 1.651; 95% CI: 1.101, 2.478) were associated with an increased likelihood of caregiver desire for their child to return to in-person school in the fall. The COVID-19 pandemic had a wide-ranging impact on the behaviors of children with ASD and challenges for their caregivers.
Care burden, coping styles and involvement in care in mothers of autistic children in pandemic of COVID-19

Fateme Mohammad; Niloofar Sani; Khodayar Oshvandi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Nursing Open

The aim of the present study was to investigate the burden of care, coping styles and involvement in the care of mothers of autistic children in the pandemic of COVID-19 in Iranian society. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 134 mothers completed questionnaires online. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and independent t-test, ANOVA and multiple linear regressions. The significance level was considered p < .05.

Externalizing and internalizing behaviors in children with ADHD during lockdown for COVID-19: the role of parental emotions, parenting strategies, and breaking lockdown rules

Maria Grazia Melegari; Pietro Muratori; Oliviero Bruni

Published: June 2022   Journal: Children
Lockdown experience for COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exacerbating or promoting the onset of externalizing and internalizing symptoms. However, few studies have considered how externalizing and internalizing behaviors changed in relation to parental emotions and parenting strategies. In the present study, 992 caregivers of children and adolescents with ADHD from 5 to 18 years were presented with an online survey evaluating youths’ externalizing and internalizing behaviors, their non-compliance with lockdown rules, and parental factors related to parental emotions and parenting strategies. Two hierarchical linear regression models were performed to examine the contribution of children’s non-compliance with lockdown rules, parental emotions, and parenting strategies on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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