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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Levels & Trends in Child Mortality. United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) Report 2020
Institution: *UNICEF, World Health Organisation, The World Bank
Published: September 2020 UNICEF Publication

There have been dramatic reductions in child and youth mortality over the last 29 years. Globally, under-five mortality has dropped by 59% since 1990—from 93 deaths per 1,000 live births then to 38 deaths in 2019. Initial evidence suggests that the impact of COVID-19 on direct mortality for children and youth may be small, but indirect effects can be severe. Many life-saving services have already been disrupted by COVID-19. 

What will the long-lasting effect of the COVID-19 pandemic be on children's health and wellbeing?

AUTHOR(S)
Tobias Alfvén

Published: September 2020   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
This editorial is about the long lasting effects of the COVID-19 pandemic  on children's health and well-being.
COVID-19 suicide among adolescents and youths during the lockdown: an exploratory study based on media reports

AUTHOR(S)
Dilshad Manzar; Abdulrahman Albougami; Norina Usman (et al.)

Published: September 2020
The incidences of COVID-19 related suicide among adolescents and youths have been reported across the world. This cumulative study focuses on nature, patterns, and causative factors that lead to the present situation.
COVID-19 and violence against women and children: a second research round up

AUTHOR(S)
Amber Peterman; Megan O'Donnel

Institution: Center for Global Development
Published: September 2020

COVID-19 has raised the profile of violence against women and children (VAW/C) within the global discourse. Nine months after the emergence of COVID-19, global stakeholders continue to advocate for increased funding and action to mitigate against the risk of violence on vulnerable populations and support survivors. How much have we learned from research since the beginning of the crisis?

The COVID-19 pandemic threatens the Expanded Program on Immunization: recommendations for sustaining vaccination goals

AUTHOR(S)
Husnain Hamid; Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi; Muhammad Saad Naseer (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Drugs & Therapy Perspectives
The immunization of children is stalling, and maintaining coverage is becoming challenging, with almost 20 million children being unvaccinated or under-vaccinated in 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted immunization coverage, yielding a stagnant coverage rate. Currently, there is a dire need for a collaborative approach between global and national organizations to revive disrupted vaccination rates.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 1 | No. of pages: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child diseases, vaccination policies, multi-country
COVID-19 deaths in children: comparison with all- and other causes and trends in incidence of mortality

AUTHOR(S)
Sunil S. Bhopal; Jayshree Bagaria; Bayanne Olabi (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Public Health
Our analysis of COVID-19 in children until the end of May 2020 indicated mortality was rare and lower than from influenza, for which children already have a vaccine. We feared and wrote that over time the severity of the virus in children might increase. We published this in May 20201 and now examine childhood mortality from COVID-19 over time and compared with other causes in seven countries: USA, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Spain, France and Republic of Korea.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child mortality, COVID-19, multi-country
Women's and men's work, housework and childcare, before and during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Daniela Del Boca; Noemi Oggero; Paola Profeta (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
The current COVID-19 crisis further increased the workload of women, resulting from both their occupation and the housework. In contrast with men, there is no difference in the increase of housework between women who telecommute and those who do not work because of the emergency. This study shed light on a specific and crucial component of childcare: home schooling. The closure of schools has imposed a massive burden on parents, and especially on working parents. Results show that working women with young children, especially those aged 0–5, are those particularly affected, by bearing the excess burden to a higher extent. For women, the work–life balance is especially difficult to achieve when their partners keep working outside of the home during the emergency. These results may have long-term implications, and implications that are potentially negative for women, especially if both the labour market crisis and school closures persist. However, there are also some positive implications, if it means that couples are taking the opportunity of the crisis to share the burden of childcare more equally.
Tackling the COVID-19 employment crisis in Asia and the Pacific
Institution: International Labour Organisation, Asian Development Bank
Published: August 2020
Young people’s employment prospects in Asia and the Pacific are severely challenged as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Youth will be hit harder than adults in the immediate crisis and also will bear higher longer-term economic and social costs. Before the pandemic, young people were already facing challenges in the labour market. These are worsened by the COVID-19 crisis, and its multiple effects threaten to create a “lockdown generation” that will feel the weight of this crisis for a long time.
Seasonal influenza activity in young children before the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China

AUTHOR(S)
Z. Xia; L. Yang; N. Li (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
The activity of influenza A at the end of 2019 was higher than previous two years in children younger than 6 years old in Wuhan, China. The 2019–2020 winter peak of seasonal influenza preceded the COVID-19 outbreak, with a higher and earlier peak than those of the 2017–2018 and 2018–2019 seasons. This study compares these results with those of two previous studies to further discuss the possible interference between influenza and COVID-19 in young children.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, multi-country
Adolescents' health in times of COVID-19: a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira; Jorge Luiz da Silva ; André Luiz Monezi Andrade (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
This is a scoping literature review based on the following databases: Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SciELO, and PUBCOVID19. This scoping review addressed an emerging theme in relation to a population that has received little attention in studies on COVID-19. The results suggest that the pandemic can be considered a determinant that affects different dimensions of adolescents’ lives.
COVID‐19 pandemic and adolescent health and well‐being in sub‐Saharan Africa: who cares?

AUTHOR(S)
Evelyn Aboagye Addae

Published: August 2020   Journal: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
The COVID‐19 virus can affect children and adolescents,but it appears to be associated with fewer symptoms and less severe disease compared with adults including older people, with correspondingly lower case‐fatality rates. Nevertheless, adolescents would greatly suffer through emergency policies and public health measures put in place to combat the pandemic. Yet, the implications of COVID‐19 mitigation strategies on adolescents and the intervention programmes to avert the shock have not received much policy consideration, particularly in sub‐Saharan Africa.
UNHCR and WFP warn refugees in Africa face hunger and malnutrition as COVID-19 worsens food shortages
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and the World Food Programme (WFP) are warning that severe underfunding, conflict and disasters – as well as supply chain challenges, rising food prices and loss of income due to COVID19 - threaten to leave millions of refugees across Africa without food.
Children, HIV and AIDS, how will progress be impacted by COVID-19?
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: July 2020 UNICEF Publication

Coronavirus-related service disruptions threaten to reverse the decade-long progress made for children and pregnant women in the fight against HIV.

Gender Inequality and the COVID-19 Crisis: A Human Development Perspective
Institution: UNDP
Published: July 2020   Journal: UNDP Report
Across several social, economic, and political dimensions, women and girls are disproportionately affected by the crisis simply because of their sex. The immediate effects of COVID-19 on gender inequality are already showing themselves in health and education, on the burden of unpaid care work and gender-based violence.
While the COVID-19 crisis affects everyone, women and girls face specific and often disproportionate economic, health, and social risks due to deeply entrenched inequalities, social norms, and unequal power relations. Understanding the gender-differentiated impacts of the COVID-19 crisis through sex-disaggregated data is fundamental to designing policy responses that reduce vulnerable conditions and strengthen women's agency, placing gender equality at their centre. This is not just about rectifying long-standing inequalities but also about building a more just and resilient world.
COVID-19 and maternal and child food and nutrition insecurity: a complex syndemic

AUTHOR(S)
Rafael Perez-Escamilla; Kenda Cunningham; Victoria Hall Moran

Published: July 2020   Journal: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has already led to major increases in unemployment and is expected to lead to unprecedented increases in poverty and food and nutrition insecurity, as well as poor health outcomes. Families where young children, youth, pregnant and lactating women live need to be protected against the ongoing protracted pandemic and the aftershocks that are very likely to follow for years to come. The future wellbeing of the vast majority of the world now depends on reconfiguring the current ineffective food, nutrition, health, and social protection systems to ensure food and nutrition security for all. Because food, nutrition, health, and socio-economic outcomes are intimately inter-linked, it is essential that we find out how to effectively address the need to reconfigure and to provide better intersecoral coordination among global and local food, health care, and social protection systems taking equity and sutainability principles into account. Implementation science research informed by complex adaptive sytems frameworks will be needed to fill in the major knowledge gaps. Not doing so will not only put the development of individuals at further risk, but also negatively impact on the development potential of entire nations and ultimately our planet.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.