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This is the first position paper to be published by WHO on the behavioural and social drivers (BeSD) of vaccine uptake. It summarizes the development of new tools and indicators to assess the BeSD of vaccine uptake for childhood and COVID-19 vaccination, enabling decision-makers on immunization policy, programme managers, and partners to address under-vaccination through an enhanced understanding of the underlying causes. This paper also reports the main findings of a scoping review that examined existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses on interventions to improve vaccine uptake – a first step towards understanding which interventions work to increase vaccine uptake, for whom, and in what settings. Finally, this paper makes recommendations for using the new tools and the resulting data to prioritize local interventions, and concludes with future research directions.
Don E. Willis; Mario Schootman; Sumit K. Shah (et al.)
Valentina Calcaterra; Camilla Landi
Grace Onimoe; Dhanalakshmi Angappan; Marie Christianne Ravie Chandar (et al.)
The COVID-19 virus is highly contagious primarily via aerosol transmission and has a high mortality rate. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to enumerate the effect of the pandemic on vaccination rates during the COVID-19 lockdown and the aftermath in pediatric patients aged 6weeks-6 years. A retrospective review of medical records was performed of missed well childcare visits at MetroHealth from March 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020. The sample size of 400 children aged 6 weeks to 6 years were randomly selected. Demographic data, number of calls made to attempt, scheduled WCC, no show rates for clinic appointments, number of missed WCC, location of MH facility, insurance type, vaccination status prior to the pandemic were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software (IBM Corp. Released 2020. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 27.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).
Nahia Idoiaga Mondragon; Amaia Eiguren Munitis; Naiara Berasategi Sancho (et al.)
The general objective of this research was to explore how children understand and represent COVID-19 health crisis in their everyday thinking.This research is based on a qualitative interpretive research methodology that uses 6-12 years children’s drawings from San Sebastian (Basque Country, northern of Spain) to collect data. This technique allows children to visualize how they face this situation through a tool that promotes expression of their feelings and representations.
Eva Yi Hung Lau; Jian-Bin Li; Derwin King Chung Chan
Erly C. Moura; Juan Cortez-Escalante; Rodrigo T. S. Lima (et al.)
This paper aims to analyse the mortality trends in children under five years old in Brazil from 2017 to 2020 and the influence of COVID-19 in 2020.A retrospective study employing secondary data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. Deaths according to cause were extracted and disaggregated into early, late, postneonatal, and 1 to 4-year-old periods. Corrected mortality rates per 1,000 live births and relative risk ratio for the cause of death were calculated.
Vicki Myers; Mor Saban; Rachel Wilf-Miron
Children under 12 are now the largest unvaccinated group. Following FDA approval, vaccination of 5–11 year olds is now being encouraged in some countries. We present data on child COVID-related morbidity in Israel and discuss the complexities surrounding vaccinating children aged 5–11. Data were obtained from Israel’s open COVID database regarding new confirmed daily COVID-19 cases, severe hospitalized cases and deaths by age group in Israel from February 2020-November 2021, as well as vaccination rate and adverse events following vaccination
Nitu Malik; Abhishek Dutta; Satyabrata Roy Chowdhary (et al.)
Yuxuan Du; Long Chen; Yuan Shi
As the epidemic progresses, universal vaccination against COVID-19 has been the trend, but there are still some doubts about the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents, children, and even infants. This study aims to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in the population aged 0–17 years. A comprehensive search for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception to November 9, 2021. All data were pooled by RevMan 5.3 statistical software, with risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval as the effect measure. This study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021290205).
Rabab Hamoudy Hanon; Rabea Mohsen Ali
In women affected by other coronavirus infections such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV), the mortality rate appeared higher in women affected in pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women. COVID-19 prompted implementation of public health protocols to control the transmission of the virus, many of them required social distancing, hand washing, and lockdown procedures, but has also resulted in creating public anguish and massive fear, especially among the unaffected persons. Objectives: To assess pregnant women's knowledge about who can protect the baby during Brest feeding when mother infected by corona virus before and after implementation of instruction program and to determine the effectiveness of instruction program on pregnant women knowledge about protection methods of neonate during pandemic.
Qi Zhou; Qinyuan Li; Janne Estill (et al.)
Danilo Buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Marina Macchi (et al.)
Limited data are available on the attitudes of caregivers toward COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or Long Covid symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccine hesitancy among caregivers of children and adolescents with a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to explore the possible associations between COVID-19 manifestations and the acceptance of the vaccine. Caregivers of children or adolescents with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated in two University Hospitals were interviewed.
Özge Atay; Suna Asilsoy; Seda Şirin Köse (et al.)
Danilo Buonsenso; Ferran Espun Pujol; Daniel Munblit (et al.)
UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.
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